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being so perfect, as to be destroyed only possible, is to rouze a spirit of agricultuby a second calcination.
ral enquiry and exertion in the country; This discussion, coinmenced by your and the next, a dissemination of agricul. intelligent correspondent; T. in your tural knowledge. Now I am convinced
Third Number, had for its object, to ex- that the first of these objects has already plain to the practical farmer, the manner been effected, and that the other is in a in which different manures operate upon train of being so : for having occasion to vegetation, in order that in his applica- visit nearly every county in the kingdom, tion of them, he might be governed by within the last twenty months, I paid clear and decisive principles : the attain- fome attention to these objects, and find ment of this object would constitute a that the establishment of a Board of brilliant æra in the annals of philosophy Agriculture, formed of the first men and agriculture ; and though the con- of the nation, in office, eftate, and je ctures of your ingenious correspondents abilities, and the investigations made at T. and Z do not, in iny opinion, eluci- their instance, through every part of date the mode by which lime, as a ma- the kingdom, have rendered agriculture a nure, acts upon vegetation, yet, agree- fashionable study among moft classes of ably to the maxim of a late respectable people, and excited a general emulation character, no effort can be loft. and the among the farmers, who are now anxious numerous Queries on the Nature and
to be acquainted with the best modes of Principles of Vegetation, dispersed by management practised in other counties. the Board of Agriculture, and addressed The ultimate consequence is evident, and to Farmers, Nurferyinen, and Gardeners, must be very pleasing to every philanwill, I hope, be the means of accumu- thropic mind. “At a time when millions lating such a fund of practical informa- are lavished away in promoting the detion, as thall enable the philosopher to struction of our fellow-creatures, it is prosecu'e his researches with an increased somewhat futile to mention the trifling probability of success. I am, fir,
fums expended in these laudable and fucYour obedient servant, cessful endeavours to increase the means Baib, Nov. 5, 1796.
T. P. of huinan subsistence and happiness.
I admit the county surveys are deTo the Editor of the Monibly Magazine. ficient, if, to render rhein perfect, it be SIR,
necessary that they contain particular acAMONG the various and well-chosen counts of the agricultural management
, in my opinion, 'is so universally bene- But what would be the expence of col. ficial, and, ultimately, productive of more lecting such voluminous reports ? Or, real advantages, than that of agriculture. indeed, what would be their superior What study, what employ more pleasing, advantages A general view of the honourable, or useful, and in the fuccefs agriculture, foil, surface, climate, &c, &c. of which, all parties are more interested ?: of every county, with detailed particuI was, however, forry to fce in your lars of the most approved modes of culMagazine, Number 1X, fome reflections, ture, and hints for farther improvement, of racher an illiberal cast. thrown out is, I conceive, all that could hitherto be again it that excellent institution, the expected, or even defired as a foundation Board of Agriculture, by J. J:
on which to form general systems. And, After enumerating several matters I doubt not, when all the reports will which the Board ought to have done, and have been reprinted, with corrections, have not done, he complains of the de- and additional observations, that these ficiency, and expence of the county reports; ends will be answered, and a great fund and asks, “what benefit has resulted from of agricultural information afforded. From them?"
these materials it will not be difficult to In answer to that question, I do not extract a collection of the best rules for hesitate to assert, that the benefits arising improving every species of soil, and turn. from the philanthropic exertions of the ing it to the utinoft advantage, either in Board of Agriculture, taken colle&tively, breeding and feeding the most profitable are already very great and important; animals, or the production of grain and and will. ir all probability, be, in a short time, incalculably beneficial. What ap- It is true, that neither a general bill for pcars to me the principal step towards the inclosure of commons has been pro. the great point aimed at, viz. making the cured, nor tythes, that great abitacle to carth produce -as much huinan food as improvements, abolished. I heartily join
1796.] Writings of Bernardin St. Pierre.
853 with J: J. in the propriety and necessi:y during the height of the conflict between of these measures; but he thould consi- the parties in France) while any room đer, that changes of such magnitude, in was yet left for reason, in which his au-' which such a number of jarring interests, thority and persuasive energetic eloquence different tenures, properties, ulages, &c. were not vouched on the lides of virtue," are to be adjusted, cannot be easily nor benevolence, peace, and order, of respect fuddenly settled. Hou ever, that the ge- to religious sentiments, and to individual neral utility of these bills is felt both by liberty and life ; and in opposition to the the board and legislature, cannot be doubt- infringement of general principles, rights, ed; nor that their wisdom will long fuffer and duties, under the plea of revolutionthem to be called for in vain by the ge. ary neceffity. But St. Pierre could far neral voice of the nation. Your's, &c. better prove and illustrate this; and if Corby, near Carlisle,
J. H. he does not give a Parallel of the two Nov. 18, 1796.
Lives, he may possibly yet give a Life
of ROUSSEAU ; for which, by intimacy, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. culiarly qualified.
sentiment, and talents, he is perhaps peSIR,
Another subject St. Pierre has so deI THINK every friend to humanity, lightfully treated, that it were to be with
every admirer of the beautiful and ed he might farther prosecute it: the sublime views which Nature presents in Beauties of Virgil, resulting from his its vast system, and in its minutest parts, sense and expression of the Harmonies of will rejoice, while reading the “ Sketches Nature. The Comment on the 8th book of Nature" (ETUDES DE LA NATURE) of the ÆNEID, which he has written as of BERNARDIN ST. PIERRE, and that an Introduction to his fragment, entitled most pitiable and affecting sequel, Paul ARCADIA, has so much taste and feel& Virginie, to reflect, that the author ing, so much just and refined observayet lives, and has survived the trials of tion, that it is highly valuable, and, I various climes and events, strokes of think, exquisitely pleasing. In general, hardship, fickness, and years, and the throughout his work, by leading us to the desolating horrors which have accompa- . observation of the infinitely various and nied the Revolution of France, still to delicate, but most striking evidences of benefit human society.
FINAL CAUSES throughout Nature, he There is a subject, which he intimates has inexpressibly heightened the charms, he had planned, and collected materials and added fupreme importance to this for the execution of it, which perhaps no study. Others, indeed, had done this ; man could more advantageously execute : but none with better, choice ; none with A Parallel between the Lives, Genius, and more variety, extent, and acuteness of Writings of VOLTAIRE and ROUSSEAU. observation; none with more of that tenThe mild benevolence of his heart, and der and benign enthusiasm, so well suited the corresponding sweetness of his style, to revive and fx attention to this brightest would render such a work highly agree- part of philofophy, which perhaps has able ; and the contemplations and lenti- been beginning to be diregarded even ments it would suggest, would make it in ENGLAND. no less instructive and useful.
I wish fome of your correspondents, At present, there seems to me a great who are qualified for such an undertakerror in the apprehensions entertained of ing, would examinc clofely and im arthe political tendency of the writings of tially ST. PIERRE's Theory of the Cause Rousseau. He is charged as having of the Tides. I am by no means equal been a principai cause of the crimes and to it :--but though I think the 'inor atmiseries which once seemed nearly to traction on tic sea in general cannot be have overwhelmed France. More atten. rejected, I should suppose the effects of tion, and more just observation, I believe, the melting of the circu. poiar ice must well would prove, that all which has been merit to be considered. productive of those horrible calamities With refpcét to the figure of the earth, has been most contrary to his plans and this question, one way or the other, seems principles of government, his means of to be accettible to strict geometric prcof. political melioration, nis sentiments, his It will be a service to philosophy and precepts, his example, the tont, fpirit, truth, to state the ar'unents on both and natural influence of his writings. Í fides, in the most intelligible manner the recollect no instance in which Rousseau nature of the subject admits, and at the pyas quoted (and he was often quoted fame time the most strict. In this I can
be of no use, either in the investigation public school. Let it be remembered or the decision ; but it may be of some, that, in using this word, I do not include to have hinted it to those who can. such as combine the evils of both, with.
I remain, your's fincerely, out pofleffing the advantages of either. Noy. 17, 1796.
C. L. The child, at eight, ten, or twelve
years of age, if his education till that To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine.
period has been any-wise tolerable, may
be imagined at least free from vice; but SIR,
if he has been fostered in his mother's TRAIN up a child in the way he bosom, and accustomed to receive the
should go, and when he is old he lessons of paternal affection, it is reason. will not depart from it.” A sentiment able to suppose, that the only ideas yet of more importance or of more truth ne- impressed upon his mind are those of ver fell from the pen of Solomon; but piety, duty, and love. He has been Solomon, who here so excellently ad. taught to blush at falsehood, to feel for vises, knew not himself how to profit by, the worm he may unwittingly have trod. the admonition. Who spares the rod," den on; and is perhaps unwilling to lic said the king, “ spoils the child;" it is down at night without thanking that reasonable to imagine, that the wisdun power who has protected him through of Solomon practised what he preached the day. we can only judge of the tree by its With a mind thus trained, behold him fruits; and the lon of Solomon, thus placed at a public school. Scarcely, has educated and thus corrected, was that he taken poffeffion of his new habitaRehoboam, from whose tyranny sprang tion, than the summons of fome despot the memorable outcry,
" To your tents, of sixteen calls him from his rational and O Israel !”
innocent employments, to make a fire or An ancient Greek author, whose name clean shoes ; an aukward discharge of of has perished, after expatiating on the ad- fices to which he is so totally unaccustomvantages of knowledge, concludes with a ed, is recompensed by blows and curses. fentiment not unlike that of the royal. A lye may perhaps lave him from this ; wise one. “ Learning,” says he, " is a and thus the child has to encounter the pofleffion of which no force can bereave strongest possible temptation to falsehood.
It renders us placid ; it is the staff Accustumed to the purity of domestic of life.” He enumerates more of its life, his.ear is assailed" by grofs and horadvantages, but he adds, “ he who has rible ribaldry. If he can blush, the connot been flogged is not learned.”
versation is renewed with added obsce, Our seminaries for the promulgation nity ; if he cannot, he has already proof sound and orthodox learning, as they fited by public education. open to us the stores of ancient litera
The persecution of decency is followture, seem to have adopted the preju. ed by that of humanity. The imjaled dices of ancient scholasticity.
cuck-chafer, and the mangled cat, are At a time when the young mind be- daily presented to his eyes; and these comes capable of receiving what form barbarities, which at first agonize the the mould of instruction shall apply, it human heart, lose that effect by frequent is deemed improper to suffer it to re- repetition. main in ignorance, or gather ideas which Learning is made altogether a task to might pollibly differ from the maxims of him. Steep as is the path of science, polished fociety. A well judged precau- ought the difficulties of the ascent to be
for ill will he be fitted to to make increased ? ought the path to be perplexhis way in the world,” who is permitted ed by needless intricacies ? if, however, to imbibe those principles of benevolence,' he is diligent, he is assailed by ridicule. humanity, and independence, infeparable They who are deftitute of emulation, from goodness of disposition and quick- the m st paltry of viriues, are yet porness of perception. Usually, therefore, fefsed of envy, its closely-connected vice. at this age, and on this account, the Youth mult naturally be averse to harsh child is taken from his parents.
and unpleasant duties. · To counteract I will not inspect the various femina- his own playful propensities, and his ries and academies, whose sign-posts stare comrades' malicious railleries, what in us in the face on every road from Lon- ducements are held out by the fatherly den, and whose bills of fare adorn the attention of the preceptor - Is the cup chininey-pieces of every inn in the coun- fugared ? one argument is used, be he try: I shall examine the education of a idle, be he stupid ; proceed the fault from
855 disgust, negligence, or inability, the rod is drunken party? may not the libertine
find associates in vice? Nay, more than Suppose we him, however, poffeffed of this, the votary of voluptuousness gloinduiry and genius, his genius is tettere sies to initiate the inexperienced. ed in dactyls and 1pondees, and his eln. Thus it is, that the majority of our quence exercited in lang sages which none senators, our peers, and our priests, are but the learned can understand, and which, educated. Hence it is, that we recruit when produced by a modern, the learned our army with officers, who escape from themselves care not to examine. Shall [ the rod of their schoolmafter, to tyranlead on the pupil through many a scene nize over their foldiers ; who show their of riot and brutality ? Shall I paint the loyalty, by calling for “ God save the leisure hours of a boarding school, where King," at the theatres ; and their couevery one is taught to become the tyrant, rage, by drawing their swords upon those by being treated as the Nave? our time who will not " bow the knee to Baal.” will be better employed in enquiring As for private academies and semina. how far tuch an education is consonant ries, for “ Pleasant Halls, Health Houses, with the prudence supposed to recom- and Paradise Lodges,” they differ only, in mend it.
these relpects, from the royal foundations The child, as soon as he can use his of immorality, because the berd is smalllimbs, pants for exercise : it is the in- er, the quantum of evil and of good must ftinct that seeks future welfare in present be less; and because the power of the gratification ; he flies with eagernels from master is greater, he is likely to make a the nursery to the garden, so Nature worse use of it. wisely stimulates to firm the limbs, and That female education is better than brace the wbule fyrtem of the future the methods I have been exposing, I
But Man, forsooth, knows better! may wish, but I do not believe. Wohe can improve upon Nature, or, rather, man, however, has not yet thrown off Nature is out of falhion ! The poor vic- the restraints of decency; and much as tim of custom is dragged to school; his our sex labour to verify the illiberal far. temper probably to be foured ; his health calm of Pope, at present it is only difprobably to be injured ; his morals ine- graceful to its author. If, however, they vitabiy to be sullied. He, indeed, will be equally ill instructed at school, they be reading the Metamorphoses of Ovid, 'arc fortunate enough to escape an English or the Eclogues of Virgil, whilst the pu- Univerlity. pil of Nature would be roaming the field, On this subject, Mr. Editor, I will or climbing the precip ce ; he, indeed, transmit you my strictures for your next will feel himself perfe&tly at ease among Number. strangers, when the pupil of Nature hall Sept. 12, 1796.
DIOGENES. be embarrassed and aukward; he, in.. deed, can converse upon fathionable to
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. pics, upon the theatres, the opera dancers, horse-racing, and the other rational
SIR, amufements of the age, when the pupil IT is generally admitted, that though of Nature
the ancient or learned languages must again ; furvey the nerveless limb, the ever remain in ftatu quo, the modern or emaciated frame, the lewd lack-luftre vulgar tongues ought not to be bound eye, the debilitated phyfiognomy of vo- down by determinate tules, or regulated luptuoufness ; compare there with the fi- by Persian laws; they are deemed liable to newy arm, and the clear cheek that mo. such innovations as the critics of the day desty has crimsoned ; and see if even may prescribe, or the philologist, from the Ovid can exhibit a more detestable meta- depth of his researches and elaborate morphosis.
etymologies, may think proper. Of this But, at a public school, he will form position, an ingenious contributor to the connections that will be of service to Jaft Number of your interesting Miscelhim in life. As if he may not likewise lany seems conscious ; and since he has form connections that will be ruinous ! advanced some plausible arguments to as if, amid such a crowd, friendships im- which I cannot give an unlimited affent, properly formed are not more rationally I would beg leave to state my objections to be dreaded, than those upon the ground to the reform he meditates. of mutual goodness are to be hoped. May Among all the controversies in which not the indolent meer with his fellow-loi- mankind engage, none can be more fu. terer : may not the intemperate join thc tile than a dispute about words. Just
denominations and significant terms are to those objects with which they are most feldom wanted to express those ideas of intimately acquainted. No perfon would, which we have ourselves a clear percep- therefore, deem it proper entirely to extion, and to convey, with all their energy, clude comparatives from our adjectives, those thoughts which we have judicioully and reduce grammar to a pleasing simple arranged. A language is intended for city, by retaining only the positive deuniversal use ; and it doubtless originates gree; yet what can be the fair conclu. from a tacit consent, or general habit, fion adduced from this passage : “ There that particular articulate Counds should are many adjectives from which, I think, fignify foine particular and determinate comparatives ought to be excluded ; and objects. It is a common benefit ; the thole, I think, are the words expreffire exclusive prerogative of none : and the of fome determinate and precise quality?" true signification of every term, is that is it not a neceffary consequence, that which it receives in its general, not par- degrees of comparison must be totally anticular, acceptation. Corretness of lan- nihilated ? That we must be deprived of guage, if language springs from such a the most common mode of communicatfource, if its end is universal advantage, ing instruction and acquiring knowledge? must consist in the adoption of words and for ibure is no adje Etive which does not exterms, according to the meaning which press fome determinate and precise quality, common sense has suggested, and cuf- and afiix an attribute to whatever object tom fanctioned, and nut in violating it is applied. Good, great, and induf“ the forms of common speech," to sup- trious; bed, finall, and lazy (terms which port fome particular hypothesis, or some chance proients) may, if firiet.y confideringenious criticism. The increase of ed, be thought to exclude the ufe of comknowledge, and the improvement of arts paratives as well as ignorant, perfect, and and sciences, muft deinand fome new happy, and to convey the highest degree articulate sounds to convey the ideas of of their respective attributes; yet fuch inventions which are not become fa- are not their popular meanings ; and the miliar : about these let verbal critics person who might call Sinboren lazy, wrangle; but let them not moleft the would not think himself guilty of an imwords to which a determinate fente is propriety of speech, in declaring Antialready affixed. Let us in the eighteenth finboron more lazy. century learn to philosophize by reason, I am ready to allow, that terms, how. pot by verial contention; the former may ever authorised by general acceptation, be more laborious, but it is the moit useful. ought not to be taken for things; and
Whilft the ingenious Sinboron is pre- that, until we have a cear idea of the paring the Introduction to his Essay; things themselves, words are mere empty whilft he is briefly recapitulating the founds. To the mind which exercises coinmon-place remarks of every fcrib- its facalty of thinking, those ideas must bler, 10 fiatiering to the literary pride of occur, to which cuíloin has affixed a defilken coxcombs, I believe it is not pre- terininate found; and why thould not fumptuous to fay, that his advocates will fuch mind adopt the found to which be almost as numerous as his readers. its conception has already been affixed ? Few are the people who do not think it should we not think a man foolish, who easy to detect foine 66 colloquial barba- would ailign the found of bad to that risms, licentious idioms, and irregular conception of the mind to which the combinations," and themselves capable of world has astived the articulation of good ? communicating to the publicó a valuable Yer your learned ccrrefpondent has, I collection of criticisms on particular terms think unreatonably, differed from the geand phrases in cominon ute :” but that nerality of people in this refpect, and bis friends will continue to numerous, has resolved to apply perfect, happy, and when they have examined the fpecimon ignorant, to those ideas which have alhe has given of bis intended criticilins, ways been expressed by the prefixion of I will not venture to say.
“ moit." The ideas which he thinks This fpecimen he begins with a juft these terms ought to convey, are not the fiatement of the purposes for wnich com- jame for which common sense has used paratives were formerly adopted, and are them. I fee no reafon for violating " the now continued. The generality of man- common forms of speech,' as we shall kind are limited in their knowledge of want some new articulate founds for those men and things ; they derive the great- conceptions of the mind which they ar er part of their improvement from com- pretent ferve to explain. No doubt, Sinparing the ideas wished to be conveyed, boron has provided tlie substitutes; and