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1796.] Mickle's Lufiad.

787 tutions, without which his boasted fun of the Poets of Spain: I will not deperiority is empty pretence. Wilder nounce the title. Mr. Mickle, howtheories, absurder conclusions, greater ever, is not contented with this; he has perversity of manners, more pernicious defended his faults, allegorized' his ab. mistakes in morals, and errors in legisla- surditics, hid the thread-bare texture of tion, than have too frequently blotted the Portuguese, with his own embroidery, the page of history, and disgraced the and then raises him to a proud equality annals of mankind, feebler woman could with Homer, and Virgil, and Milton Scarcely have effected :-While the con- but Camoens must not be lifted up so templates their effects, and !uffers their high, neither must Homer, and Virgil, confequences, a sentiment of melan- and Milton, be degraded into such comcholy indignation will at times distend pany : though Camoens may, perhaps, her heart, and efface from it the lessons so come the next to Tallo, he must be prorasliduously inculcated of meek dependence imus, fed longo intervallo! For though and tame submission.

in the choice of a subject, and the unity Sept. 6, 1796.

A WOMAN. of design, he may have the advantage P.S. Some circumstances having occasion- over Lucan, and Statius, and Ariosto, in ed the editor of the Magazine to delay, till the execution of it he is lamentably in. the present month, the insertion of the ferior: preceding remaks on the ellay of C. D. The English reader will be surprised the writer has had an opportunity of pe- to hear, that the language of the Lusiad rusing the second letter of A. B. on the is reinarkably bald ; but before I proceed same frutfiel fubjcet, in which there is to point out what poetical beauties belong much affertion, but no new argument ad- to Camoens, and what to Mr. Mickic, Fanced. It may, perhaps, be observed, it will be proper to give the Portuzueje tliat were the works of an equal, or far review of the English version. greater number of male, than female, I use the Lisbon edition of 1782, edited writers, to be utterly lost to the republic by Tnomas Jofcph de Aquino, and the of letters, the deprivation would be com- fecond of his editions: paratively light, when weighed in the ba

“In my first edition,” says he," I informLance with the exquisite, philosophiced my readers of a new and famous tranpoetry of Shakspeare. A. B. does not Nation, published at London, by the celeseem to understand the comprehensive im- brated poet, William Julius Mickle. At port of the word education: the impressions that time I knew nothing more of the received by formal tuition, bear no pro- verfion, and contented myself with thus portion to those forced upon us by civil slightly noticing it; now, however, I and social institution. Talents spontane- have the plealure to give the public a ously shoot forth, equal to “ the spur a complete analysis of all that the celeof the occasion.”

brated translator has written in his seve. Nov. 3, 1796.

ral dissertations and tracts upon the sub

ject; for all this, I am obliged to the For ibe Monthly Magazine.' most reverend father Michael Daly, a OBSERVATIONS ON MR. MICKLE's pan, as all know, signaliy accompliíhed LUSIAD, WITH THE PORTUGUESE

in every kind of erudition, and more a CRITICISM ON THAT TRANSLA

Portuguese in his affections, than many who are lo by birth. I could enlarge in

weil deserved encomiums upon this fage, WHEN we read an imitation, we ex- did not my intimate knowledge of his

pect a beautiful poem, because the modesty prevent me. This, however, I imitator may add beauties of his own to

will always publish with a grateful mind, those of the first author ; but in a transla- that in the general reformation of studies tion, we ought to find a faithful copy of which tuok place in the reign of our the original.

lord the king, Don Joseph the First ; he Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere, fidus it was who principally revived Greek liInterpres

terature, which had been for so many is an 'admirable text for a title-page; but years dead in Portugal; and he likewise surely it is the duty of the translator to it was, who, with an ardent and indeprelerve the meaning of his original, fatigable zcal for religion, laboured in while he adapts its idioms to another the re-establiliament of the college, which language.

the Irish have here, for the edu at 1918 of Luis

de Camoens is entitled the Prince milionaries, and ibe preservation of the CaMONTHLY MAG. No. X.

5 H




tholic religion in Ireland." He now gives the Zamorin, who in an arrogant speech in the words of Father Daly, an analysis commands that commander 10 make his of all the tracts prefixed to the Englith ships draw nearer to the shore and to de-, Luliad, with several extracts, After liver up to him their fails. Gama rethese preliminary differtations,” says he, fuses to consent, perceiving the evil intep,

comes the translation of the poem, which tions of the Zamorim. immediately he may be pronounced the most poetical that makes a signal for his fleet to attack the has yet appeared.” The translation is Portuguese thips : a description of the accompanied with notes, historical and engagement follows, and a tempest arises critical, in which he displays great know- which totally destroys the flect of the Zaledge of the history of Portugal, and a morim. The victorious armada now draws found critical judgment.

nearer to the shore, and begins to thunder “ Yet, though it be not our intention to with its artillery upon the city. The tercriticise the English translator, who has rified populace clamour around the palace, done so much honour and justice to Ca- and demand the release of the factors; moens, we ought not to pass over in to- and their prince, alarmed by the destructal filence, the various liberties which he tion of his-fleet, the infurrection of his has taken with the original, some which people, and the intrepidity of the Portu, he has confessed, and others which he has guese, releases Gama, and permirs him to not confessed. Of those which he has embark. This account occupies more not confessed, we will give two exam- than three hundred lines, to which not ples, leaving it to others to determine

one corresponding line is to be found in how far a translator is justified in fo al. the original. tering and foisting interpolations on his point out only these two instances, for text,

the sake of brevity: but the reader who is “In the fiĉtion of Adamastor, Camoens versed in the English language, as well makes tnat giant relate his history, and as in the Portuguese, will find many others that of his amours, to Gama himself: in which the translator has either sup. the translator, however, takes another pressed passages that are in the original, way; for he makes the spectre disappear or inserted passages that are not. after breathing out prophetical threats 6. Mr. Mickle has, indeed, in his preli. against the Portuguese, and the king of minary Dissertation, confessed, in general Melinda; then relates, that they had terms, that his intention was to give an among them this tradition, that in the English Lusiad in a free poetical spirit; war of the giants, one had fallen upon and he says truly enough, that a " literal their kingdom, whose groans were nightly translation of poetry is in reality a foleheard; that by the incantations of a holy cism. You may conftrue your author, man, the spectre had been obliged to de- indeed; but if with some translators you clare who he was ; and then the history boast that you have left your author to follows. The other place is in the be- speak for himself, that you have neither ginning of the ninth book :- According added nor diminished, you have, in reality, to Camoens, the Zamorim releases the

grossly abused him, and deceived yourself. Portuguese goods, which in the 3th Your literal translation can have no claim book had been landed ; and he finply re- to the original felicities of expression, the lates in the ninth, that Gama, impatient encrgy, elegance, and fire of the original to depart for Europe, commands his fac

poetry. It may, indeed, bear a relemtors to embark with their goods, but he blance, but such a one as a corpse in the receives intelligence, that his factors are sepulchre bears to the former man when detained : Gama immediately orders he moved in the blooin and vigour of life, Yome merchants to be seized who had

« Nec verbum verbo curabis reddere, fidus come on board his ship to sell precious

¢ Interpres stones, and prepares to depart. The wives and children of the merchants who are was the taste of the Augustan age. None thus seized on board the ships, go to the but á poet can translate a poet. Thc Zamorim, and complain that their hus- freedom which this precept gives, will, bands and fathers are lost. Moved by therefore, in a poet's hands, not only in their cries, the Zamorim releases the fufe the energy, elegance, and fire of his Portuguese factors, and reitores the author's poetry into his own version, but goods, and Gamna departs from Calicut, will give it also the spirit of an original." But the transator relates all this different. “ But notwithitanding this, a translation ly: according to his account, in the ninth ought to be a faithful representation of book, Gama is a prisoner at the court of the original, which it may be, without


rendering 5796.] Similes of Homer, Virgil, and Milton.

788 Tendering word by word, as is evidently a work of this nature no place could have proved by the various versions of Homer been found for introducing controversies and Virgil in the European languages, upon religion ; but he has taken care to and particularly in the Englifh. They show his hatred and aversion for the Cam preserve the spirit of the original

, with tholic faith. He repeats over and over our suppressing or interpolating entire again, the old and almost forgotten calum. passages. Nor can the translator avail nies of idolatry, and other similar charges himself of the authority of Horace ; for it which have been to completely refuted a clearly appears from the context,

that this thousand and a thousand times, and of precept is entirely for imitalors, and not which now all sensible Protestants are for translators; and certainly there is a themselves ashamed. He falsifies facts wide difference between an imitation and and makes ridiculous and absurd allusions, a translation. A translation, in which which prove nothing except the malignity fuch great liberties are taken, may very of the author. This he does, no doubt, to easily deceive the reader.—Let us fup. accommodate his book to the taste of his pose, for instance, that some future Vol- countrymen, and increase its sale." taire, without knowing the Portuguese Having presented you with this translanguage, should wish to form some idea lation from the Portuguese Review, I of the poem of Camoens, by means of Thall reserve some additional observations Mr. Mickle's version : if he should ima- of my own till your next publication. gine that the description of the battle and

T. Y. tempest in the ninth book is in a very inflated style, and abounds with false sublime, he would naturally attribute all

For the Monthly Magazine. these faults to the original, notwithstand- SIMILIES OF HOMER, VIRGIL, AND ing not a trace of this description is to be Milton (CONTINUED). discovered there. Thus would he be deceived,

as Voltaire himself was, by im- TORRENTS and Rivers may form puting to Camoens the absurdities of

the next class of objects used for fia. Fanthaw.

militude. The former are frequently “We have thus, with all poflible brevi. introduced by Homer, who, as an inhaty, made the Portuguese reader acquaint

bitant of a mountainous country, was ed with the diligence which Mr. Mickle well acquainted with their appearance the

and effects. In his different pictures of of Camoens,

poem and the language and history of Portugal; circumstances of general resemblance, ,

this kind we shall perceive, amidst the and we have given him some idea of the labour he has taken to compile fo unany the original painter from nature.

those variations which clearly indicate

The illustrations of his author, and to defend him from the infolent criticisin of Rapin following is one of the most simple in and Voltaire, and other critics, who were

its circumstances: equally igrorant of Portuguese literature: As the full river pours along the plain, in all this the translator has shown vast When, swell’d by thowers, it rushes from the crudition, and an accurate judgment.

hills, “ After allowing this, we must not

And many pines, and many aged oaks, pass over some grofs errors of Mr. Bears down the stream, disgurging in the main Mickle, though it is with reluctance that A muddy deluge: thus, in hut pursuit

, we remark them. In many places he The mighty Ajax o'er the troubled field

. treats the Portuguese nation with great incivility, and particularly in a note to The fimile here is perfectly just, and the life of Camoens, where he inveighs answers in more than one particular. against our lord cardinal king Henry, for Thus, the oaks and pines may well rethe punishment which he justly inflicted present the warriors of note who fall upon the Scotch Buchanan, from which before the hero; while the torrent loada he draws an inference very injurious to ed with mud expresses the general rout the Portuguese nation, and very unwor. of the Trojan troops. This is a pura thy as well of the gentleman as of the suit : but when Diomed makes his atp philosopher ; for, in the nature of things, tack on the Trojans, as yet drawn up in the character which he gives of the Por- a body to oppose him, though breaking tuguete cannot poisibly be true of any cio at the first onset, the very fame fimile is vilized people.

judiciously varied in foine of its circum, “It might have been hoped, too, that in stances :

5 U 2


has bestowed upon

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Il. xi, 492.

Il. iv. 452.

Æn. ii. 305



He rulh'd along; as the full torrent rolls, Thro' hollow channels, mix their foaming That sweeps the bridges in its rapid cousc,

ftrcams When, urg'd by Jove's own show'rs, it sudden In some mid valley, while their echoing roar comes,

Among the hills from far the shepherd hears : Nor can the bulwark'd bridge, r'r turfy So from the mingling hosts the shouts arose.

mound That guards the cultur'd farm, its rage withstand,

The figure of the shepherd in this But down the smiling works of man are piece is merely an ornamental addition ; dash'd:

but in the following of Virgil, which is So from Tydides' arm the Trojan bands, obviously taken from it, this circumstance With all their numbers, fhrink, nor wait the is essential to the fimilitude. Æneas is Thock.

IL. v. 87. describing the alarm by which he was Here the bridges, bulwarks, and roused on the fatal night of Troy. He mounds, which are principal objects in afcends the roof of his house, and liftens the landscape, correspond with the gross to the confused sounds, which he combattalions of the Trojans, which formed pares first, to that of fire in a field of a seeming, though ineffectual, barrier corn, and then to the roar of a torrent : against the assailant.

Aut rapidus montano flumine torrens Virgil, defcribing the Greeks bursting Sternit agros, fternit fata læta boumque labores, into Priam's palace, after the demolition Præcipitesque trahit sylvas: ftupet inscius alie of the gates and barricades, uses the Accipiens fonitum laxi de vertice paftor. same simile : Non fic, aggeribus ruptis cum spumeus amnis Or some big torrent from a mountain's hrow, Exit, oppofitaique evicit gurgite moles, Burfis, pours, and thunders down the vale Fertur in arva furens cumulo, campo que per

O'erwhelms the fields, lays waste the golden Cum ftabulis armenta trahit. Æn. ii. 496. grain, Not with so fierce a rage the foaming flood

And headlong sweeps the forests to the main ;

Stun'd at the din, the swain, with lift'ning cars, Roars, when he finds his rapid course with

From some steep rock the founding ruin hears.

PITT. Bears down the dams with unrefifted (way, And sweeps the cattle and the cots away. The peasant is here the counter-part of

Dryden. Æneas himself; and therefore the epithet The same poet imitates Homer in inscius, implying his ignorance of the comparing his heroes, individually, to cause, should not have been dropt in the

In the following palíaye both translation. Turnus and Æneas, engaged in different. In the preceding similes from Homer parts of the field, are thus resembled : under this head, the application is as

easy and accurate as the pictures are Aut ubi decursu rapido de montibus altis

lively and natural; whence it will appear Dant fonitum (pumoli amnes, & in æquora

more extraordinary, that in the one next currunt, Quisque suum populatus iter.

to be produced, where the description is Æn. xii.


wrought with peculiar strength and exact

ness, the point of resemblance should be Or rapid torrents from the mountains (weep, Roar down the sides, atid thunder to the deep; As when the whole dark earth in Autumn fwims

scarcely difcernible : With weight refiftiefs, and destructive sway, O’er half a ruin'd country take their way.

Beneath the rushing storm, when angry Jove Pirt. Pours down his heaviest rains, cnrag'd with men,

Who from the judgment-leat give false decrets, This translation, as well as Dryden's, Expelling right by force, and let at nought has failed in expressing the Quisque juum The vengeance of the Gods ; each river now populatus iter, “ cach laying waste his Swells to the brink; thie torrents hurft away, own track ;” which is neceffary for the And tearing thru' the slopes, rush headlong on just application of the same object of Down from the hills, and seek the azure main, comparison, to two opposite leaders. Deep murmuring, while the works of human toil

Homer has a noble and well adapted Lie 1. vel?d: thus the Trojan steeds in flight Simile, in which the conflict of meeting Groan’d decply, as they ran. torrents is described as a comparison of The rout of the Trojans by Patroclus; the shock of two encountering armies. and the disgraceful light of Hector in his As when two wintry torrents, from the cliffs, chariot across the foss, is the subject of the bruch from his copious tount pour'd rapid down poet's defcription. Eustathius, the great


ftuod ;


Il. xvi. 384 IL. xvii. 747.


GEORG. i. 199.

1795.] Similes of Homer, Virgil, and Milton.

791 champion of Homer, acknowledges that the Trojans, while the body is carried off the only point of resemblance, in this mi-' by the Greeks : nutely detailed fimile, is the panting, or As stretch'd across the length’ning plain, a mound" rather groaning of the Trojan horses, With trees o'ergrown, restrains the watery tide, compared to the noise of the torrents. And potent rivers in iheir rapid course Mr. Pope, in his translation, artfully va- Refisting, turns aside the rising food, ries and extends the circuinstance of simi- And bears unbroken all the current's rage : litude in these lines:

So the twin warriors all the force of Troy Not with less noile, with less impetuouş force,

Repell’d. The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course,

The fimilitude is here perfectly obvious Than when, &c.

and exact. (See also Æn. xi: 296.] And he entirely surpasses the incident of Virgil has three similes derived from

rivers, of a different kind from those hithe groaning fteeds. In a note, roo, on the passage, he is filent with respect to

therto quoted. The first relates to that the fimilc, as such ;


the read. common-place topic of the tendency of er's admiration of the moral' ftrokes ob- every thing terrestrial to degeneracy and liquely introduced into the passage ; decline ; which he illustrates by the comwhich, indeed, are valuable, as conveying parison of a boat rowed against the stream:

-fic omnia fatis a picture of carly manners and senti

In p«jus ruere, ac retro fublapfa referri. Virgil also has a fhort, but clear and Haud aliter quam qui adverso vix fiumine

lembum well adapted fimile, in which the noise of a rapid and obstructed stream is the only Atque illum in præceps prono rapit alveus amni.

Remigiis fubigit ; si brachia forte remisit, object of comparison. Vix ea legati: variusque per ora cucurrit For such the changeful lot of things below, Ausonidum turbata fiemor: ceu, laxa morantur Still to decay they rush, and ever backwards flow. Cum rapidos amnes, člauso fit gurgite murmur, As one who 'gainst a ttream's impetuous course Vicinæque fremunt ripæ crepitantibus undis. Scarce pulls his flow boat, urg'd with all his'

Æn. xi. 296. force, Thus of their charge the legates made report ;

If once his vigour cease, or arms grow fack, Straight ran a mingled murmur thro' the court : Inftant, with headlong haste, the torrent while So when by rocks the torrents are withitood,

him back.

WARTON. In deep hoarse murmurs rolls th’ imprison'd This is a just simile when applied to a

melioration and improvement of nature, Beats on the banks; and, with a sullen sound, as in this instance of agriculture. The Works, foams, and runs in circling eddies round. expression of labour in the original, hy


adverfo, vix, fubigit, is wrought with all There remain two similes in Homer the exactness peculiar to this writer, and derived from the same source with those is imitated by the translator. already quoted, but different in their ap- In thc other passage, Virgil describes plication. The first is introduced where the combined army under Turnus marcha Hector, accompanied by the god Mars ing in a column to attack the Trojan camp, himself, advanced to check the progress under the foliowing image: of the victorious Diomed :

Ceu septem surgens scdatis amnibus aitus

Per tacitum Ganges : aut pingui fumine Nilus As when th' unknowing trav’ller in his march

Cum refluit campis, & jam se condidit alveo. Cross the wide plain, itops sudden on the bank Of some swift river rushing to the main ;

So mighty Ganges leads with awful pride And as he sees it foam, and murm’ring rage,

In seven large streams his swelling solemn tide : Leaps backward : fo Tydides quick withdrew.

So Nile, compos’d within his banks again,

IL. V. 597. Moves in now pomp, majestic, to the main. The picture here is uncon commonly lively;

Pitr. nor can any thing be objected to the juit. There is great dignity, and equal proness of comparison, except that the fur- priety, in this comparison of the silent ad. prile of the traveller, at the view of such vance of an army, not to a torrent, but to an obstacle, would scarcely be attended a mighty river filling its banks, yet not with an alarm, or fense of danger, like overflowing,. The first line of the pasthat of the warrior on being actively op- fage, composed of spondees, and distinposed by such formidable antagonists. guished by alliteration, very happily cor

The other passage refers to the coinbat responds with the sensation designed to about the dead body of Patroclus, where be excited by the imagery.

J. A. the twe Ajaxes repel the wkole onset of

(To be continued.]


Æv. ix, 30.

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