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1796.)
Public Affairs.-France.

*747 of his army took the village and bridge KILMAINE, marched by the right to of Cerea. But some part of the French pass the Auftrians. The battle began on troops taking a wrong route, general all fides with great spirit, but the French WURMSER was enabled to retake both in a mort time penetrated the centre of the village and the bridge. BUONAPARTE the Auftrians, and carried St. George, marched himself thither upon the first and took 3000 prisoners, with 25 pieces report of cannon, but it was too late. “We of cannon. muft," said he “make a bridge of gold to Various reports have been in circulaan enemy which fies, or oppose a barrier tion fince these dispatches arrived, inof steel.” The Austrians then made good timating a change of fortune which has their retreat, who, from all calculation, happened to this enterprising general; would otherwise have been obliged that but as they were still unfanctioned by day to have laid down their arms official authority, when this sheet was and surrendered themselves prisoners. committed to the prefs, we have not preWURMSEK defiled all the night of the sumed to insert them. inth towards Mantua, with such ra- On the 12th of September the archduke pidity, that in the morning he arrived Charles, leaving a considerable corps early at Nogara. He learned that the in referve, at Win.'ccken, marched with bridges of the Molinella were cut down, the main body to Friedberg. From and that a French divifion waited for thence general KRAY pushed on with a him at Cartellaro. He perceived that it strong advanced gard towards Wetzlar, would be imprudent to force Cestellaro, on the approach of which the French because at the dawn the French were in abandoned the town, and took post on pursuit of him; but the Austrian general the heights behind it. General Horze defiled by the bridge of Villa Inípenta, was detached at the same time towards and defeated their intention.

Weilbourg, but was not able to render General ANGEREAU ariving on the himself master of the place. 10th of September before Porto Leg- The Archduke, whose chief operanago, invested the place. General Mas- tion seemed hitherto to be directed to. SENA dispatched thither the brigade of wards Wetzlar, now turned to the left, General Victor, to invest it on the and following the great road to Limside of the Adize; and after some par. bourg, encamped on the 14th near ley, the garrison, 1673 strong, furren Weyer. His object was to penetrate dered themselves prisoners of war. The the centre of the French line, at the French found there 22 pieces of field points of Limbourg and Dietz, whilst ordnance, and the 500 men made pri- general Kray turned it by the left, foners by general Wurmser, in the from Wetzlar, and general MILIEU battle of Cerea, who by these means kept in check the right, pofted near were delivered.

Nassau. The Archduke found general On the 14th of September the divi- JOURDAN very advantageoufly poftcd, fion of general Massena set out at cay- and in considerable force, on the heights break from Castellaro, towards Mantua, in front of Limbourg, with an appaby the road of Deụ Castelli, in order to rent intention of disputing the passage seize the Fauxbourg St. George, and of the Lahn; he therefore judged it adthus compel the Austrians to enter the visable to defer the attack till the coplace. The engagement began at noon, operation of general Neu was more cerand the Austrians defcated the French, tàin, and till more troops thould arrive. with some loss.

On the 16th, the Archduke advanced General MASSEN A took, on the night against the front of general JOURDAN'S of the 14th, a position behind. On the position, whilst general Nev, from Kirmorrow, day-break, the French berg, turned it.. JOULLAN; who perlearnt that the Austrians had drawn ceiving himself in danger of being cut out nearly all the garrison of Man- off, abandoned the heights with preci

to defend two important posts, pitation, and being closely pursued, was called the Favourite, and St. George ; obliged to take 1hc'ter behing the Lahn, and by this bold measure to preserve the leaving the Auftrians masters of Dietz means of procuring forage for their nu- and Limbourg. The Tirailleurs de merous cavalry. At two o'clock in the fended themselves in the suburbs of the afternoon, general Bon attacked the latter with so much obitimacy, that night Austrians posted before St. George, on came on before it was potlible to dislodge the left of the French army.

The then. From the refiftance made at French generals Pigeon, Victor, and Limbourg, the Archduke was in hopes MONTHLY MAG. No. IX.

that

at

tua

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1 rear

that the French meant to risque an ac- While such were the operations of the tion, in the position of Hadamar; and, in detached corps, an opinion prevailed in consequence, the whole army afíembled the army of the Archduke, that the before day-break, on the 19th, betwixt French, under general JOURDAN, inDietz and Limbourg, from which points tended to make a stand in the position it was determined that a general attack of Ukerath. On the 21st, however, be fhould be made. A very thick mitt, received information that only a which prevailed in the morning, pro- guard of the French remained on the Vented ilie troops from advancing to Sieg; the main body having taken the carly as was intended; and when it direction of Duseldorf, whilst two dicleared away, the French were feen in visions of the right wing had actually full rerrcat, and already at such a dif- crofied the Rhine, at Bonn. tance as to lcare no hipe of bringing The Archduke now saw himself at them to aclion. They abandoned Tue- liberty to undertake his projected opeceilively, in the courie of the day, all rations towards the Upper Rhine, and their posts on the Lahn; those of the he inmediately made arrangements for left and centre retiring toward the Sieg, that purpose. and the division of ine right, and the Lieutenant-general WEMESH receiv. corps which blockaded Ehrenbreitstein, ed orders to advance, on the 22d, to Ukethrowing themselves into the Tete de rath and the Sieg, and at the same time Pont, Neuwied, and the intrenchments on the Archduke began his march towards the left bank of the Rhine.

the Mein. He crossed that river on the The Austrian troops passed the Lahn in 25th, and, leaving a confiderable reserve pursuit of the French. General KRAY cantoned betwixt Mentz and Franck fort, was op the 19th at Herboon, and puthed proceeded towards the Upper Rhine. on towards Delenbourg and Siegen. Prior to this movement of the Arch

The French, in the inean time, made duke, the Austrians had an unfortunate great exertions to fortify themselves in affair at Thchl, on the 17th. They-atNeuwied It was said at this time that tacked that place in two columns, and grcat disorders prevailed in general were at first luccessful. The French JOURDAN'S

army ;

1o great, indeed, were driven from the town and fort with zhat he thought it necessary to demand great loss, and forced to take refuge on extraordinary powers of the directory, the other side of the Rhine. Unluckily, without which it would be impossible the commanding officer of one of the to restore discipline and fubordination. Auftrian columns was killed, and that of This request was faid to be not only the other taken prisoner; and the troops, refuted by the direátory, but he himself deprived of their leaders, fell into the was removed from the command, which greatest confusion; whilst the French, was conferred upon general Bournon- having received a reinforcement from

Srasbourg, passed the bridge, which the On the 19th of September lieutenant. Auftrians had neglected to destroy, and general Horze, in advancing towards retook the fortress. Hochstehach, found means to bring on The disasters and difficulties, which an action with the rear guard of the general MOREAU has lately experienced French, which terininated in favour of have been considerable ; but we have litthe Austrians. MARCEAU, a French tle authentic information relative to his general of division, and distinguished operations at present. On the oth and for his bravery and conduet, was wound- rith of September, it appears, he quitted ied and taken prisoner ; he soon after his position on the left bank of the Yser. died of his wounds, and received from his General La Tour followed him closely, enemies the honours due to a brave man. and was, on the 12th, at Pfaffenhoven.

A contiderable corps of Austriaus, As general MOREAU seemed to dircet drawn from the garrisons of Manheim his march towards Neuburg, where it and Philipsburg, and reinforced by a de- was fupposed he would pass the Danube, tachment of cavalry, under count MER- general NOUENDORF crofled the river PELDT, advanced, in the time, into the below that place, in order to watch his margraviate of Baden, and met with motions; and on the 14th had'an enforze success. They surprized and dif- gagement with his rear guard, in which persed the corps which the French had the Auftrians were said to have taken left in that country; made a number of 1000 prisoners. prisoners, and took and destroyed a On the 17th of September, however, quantity of baggage and ammunition. general MOREAU made a forward move

VILLE.

ment,

1796.] Public Affairs.-Italy. . . Weft-Indies. .. America. 749 ment, drove in the Austrian out-posts, by his Holiness against the civil constiand extended his line as far as Landsberg tution of the clergy; and in this view on the Leck. General FROLIG ad- they have dictated the following form : "vanced on the 19th to Isny, where he "Some common enemies having indefeated the French, made 500 pritoners, duced me to publish briefs, which, in and disperfed the rest of the corps in the point of principle and effect, are repugwoods, and thus the right of MOREAU nant to the rights of nations, I do dila was completely defeated.

approve and revoke the same. General NOUENDORFF in the mean

“ Pius VI.” time had advanced with a considerable Citizen Cacault, at Rome, received, corps to Nordlingen, whence he moved, about the end of August, the answer he and took a position, on the 20ih, at Doi expected from Naples, purporting that his nainwert. His parties extended to Ulm Sicilian majesty disclaimed any intention and Gemund. Under these circum- of entering the ecclefiaftical state in a stances general MOREAU felt the necef- hoftile manner; though, for want of lity of retreating. In the night of the sufficient accoin modation for his nume. 20th, he repassed the Leck, at Augfburgh rous army in his own dominions, he had and Rain ; on the 22d, his head quarters quartered a few troops at Ponte Corro. were at Weifson hom, and he directed He also denied his having any intention his retreat towards Ulm. On the 22d of violating the armistice with France ; fix French commissaries, and all the peo- but at the fame time declared, that if ple belonging to the bread department, the enemies of Naples entered the pope's were taken upon the road leading from dominions, he will enter them likewise. Ulm towards Constadt and Stutgard. This answer, couched in haughty and They had been forward at the two last ambiguous language, was generally mentioned places to prepare bread for thought to indicate a rupture. general MOREAU's army Froin this

BRITISH AMERICA AND Westcircumstance the Austrians concluded

INDIES. that he designed to cross the Danube at

Notwithstanding the respectability of Ulm, and retreat, by Stutgard and Con{tadt, towards Kehl. But major-general

our naval force, " whilc that of the Nouendorff advancing from the enemy remained fhut up in their ports,” neighbourhood of Nerlingen, arrived

French squadron, under admiral before Ulm time enough to frustrate ge- ticed to Newfoundland, to capture

RICHERY, found means to pass unno

(eneral MOREAU's design; so that when, on the 23d, a strong column of the French veral thips, to do almost infinite damage defiled out of the town, they found the

to the inhabitants in the Bay of Bulls, heights, commanding the road towards

and other places, from whence he is said Siutgard, already occupied, and did not

to have departed, in order to search for attempt to force them.

The next day,

farther booty the Austrians attacked this corps, and

From our West-India inslands little drove it back to the gates of Ulm. Ge

else has been lately heard of but the dis

cafes and death of the British neral MOREAU finding himself in this

troops. firuation, abandoned Ulm on the 26th,

UNITED STATES. and proceeded along the left bank of the One-third of the legislature go out om Danube as far as Erbach, where he again the 4th of March next, and a very accrossed the river, and was supposed to tive canvass is already begun by those direct his retreat towards the forest- who wish to become their successors. town. On the last day of September The president's terın of office expires he arrived near Buchau, where, carly in alto on that day. It is expected that he the morning, he was attacked by the will be re-elected without opposition ; Austrians at all points. The battle lasted and his friends affert, in contradi&tion to the whole day ; but the event of it is the report of his intention of retiring spoken of doubtfully. After the battle from office, that in case he is re-elected general MOREAU continued his march he will continue to serve. towards the Rhine, without losing any In September, a terrible fire broke out of his artillery or baggage.

at Quebec, which at first menaced the

whole city with destruction. The church ITALY.

and convent of the Recolets were burnt A courier, from Paris, arrived at Rome down. It stopped towards Mount Carin September, and brought intelligence mel, after having entirely confumed 13 that the executive directory infifted on or 14 houses, among which are two bea formal retractation of the briefs issued longing to Chief Justice Monk.

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BIOGRAPHICAL

a

LATELY

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES chanism, aided by comprehensive and correct

powers of the mind. The philosophers of EuOF EMINENT CHARACTERS

rope were, on this occasion, as liberal in the DECEASED ANDA.

te tiorants of applause as those of surprise.'

During the America" war, which produced AT St. Domingo, Liedt. C. Clarke, ví the the timest allianc: between freedom and sci27ft iegimont of uragcons, son of Dr. C. of

ence, from a fonts of common danger, the phiLouth, Lincoln hire. Lieut A. Mackenzie, lofopher did not claim an exemption from the of the 2 Ift reg of light dragoons. Lieut.-Col.

duties of patriotism. Accustomed to kindle G Legard, of the 69th reg. ot foot. Aged 26, with enthu iasm in contemplating the fubliCapt. T. Steade, of the 21st reg. of light dia

niities of science, he could not behold the goons. iicut. C. Pennyman, of the 56th reg. magnificent spectacle of a nation asserting its of fo it, son of Sir J. P. bart. 19, Mr. J. de

rights without biending the feelings of a huRaymond, su geon, of the 82d reg of foot, con

mwe heart, and the thoughts of an enlightened of Mír. de R. of Whitehaven, who besiiles being head, with the feelings and thoughts of the padi prived of large property in France, has re- triot and the Statesman. During the arduous cently lost twu fons in the service of this coun

contest, as well as during the whole progress of try, Mr W. de R. aged 21, his eldest fon,

the French Revolution, he thouglit like a freehaving been killed on board the Stag, in which

man, he spoke like a freeman, he acted like a he was a mid'hioman, in an engagemen: with

fre man. Since the American war, he sucthe Alliance Dutch frigate.

ceffively filled the offices of treasurer of the At St. Pierre, Martinique, Lieut. P: Anstru- State of Pennsylvania, and director of the na-, ther, of the navy, son of Sir R. A. lart. of tional mint : in the first of which he manifested Bilcaikie.

inflexible int-grity, and in the last, the rare On his partage hume from the West-Indies, talent of combining theories in such a way as to Cul Howe, M?. for Yarmouth, aid-de-camp pruduce correct practical effeéts. Those who to his M jeity. Col. of the 63d reg. of foot, and ha e minds to estimate the great difficulties atnephew to Sii '. Stevens, bart.

tending the performance of such duties, will do On bis paffage from Ni w York, E. Butler, justice to the talents which discharged them, er. of Bath, brother to Sir R. B. of the king- and as to those who have not the capacity redom of Ireland.

quisite, their censure is praise. Rittenhouse Ia th · Welt-Indies, 22, Lieut. H. Day, of was the second president, the successor of the the Old Buffs, son of B. D. 61q. Alderman of illustrious Franklin, whose greatness he deNorwich.

lighted to acknowledge, and whose fame hc In the Inand of St. Vincent, Lieut. John contributed to enlarge, by correct and frequent Grallick, of the 2d Well India regiment. eulogium. After being caressed by a grateful

At Gibaltar, Capi. W. Bribans, of the Au- country in the bofom of honour, Rittenhouse rora, stationed thuse, son of Admiral B. From yielded to the solicitations of a private life, and some appearances after his death, it is supposed spent his last days in philosophic retirement. that he was poisoned by the prisoners under bis There we behold him the object of love, adcharg'on board.

miration, and reverence. The amiable graces of On his passage from the West Indies, Major domestic virtue lhed, perhaps, a milder and a R. H. Malcolme, of the 27th regiment.

more constant lustre over liis character than the On Sunday morning, July 1oth, after a vivid Aashes of science and the dead energies of very severe illness of a few days, aged 64, intellect. Here he felt content, nor seemed to Dr. Rittenhouse, President of the American

will for more. In his intercourses of friendPhilofophical Society Dr.Rittonhouse was a na- thip, sincerity and simplicity went hand in tive of America, and born at a time when the hand. A stranger to the too common arrogance advantages of a liberal education were far from of high pretentions, he met every man on the being free to all. He seems to have pursued alone ground of friendly reciprocity. Feeling a fue the energetic impulse of his own mind in def- perior attachment to those who propagated tining himself, at an early period of his life, to science, he did not conceal the estimation in scientific pursuits. As his circumstances were which he held them. He was among the first narrow, he was not liberated from the labours to welcome to America the perfecuted philosoof active life, he united the proessions of a fariner pher of England, and formed witlī him an inand a watch-maker, the last of which he filled timacy which only required time to be cementwith unrivalled eminence. Some of its nicer ed into a lafting friendship. operations continued to be his favourite mode of At Cold-Spring, Westhaven, in Northrelaxation during all the subsequent periods of America, in the 76th year of his age, the Green his life, of which many friends possess invalu- Mountain patriarch, patriot, and poet, Thomas able testimonials. In 1769, he was called by Rowley, esq. He moved into Vermont, then the American Philosophical Society, in associ- called the New Hamp;hire Grunts, in a very ation with other gentlemen, to observe the tran- early day, with a young growing family, who fit of Venus; and the accuracy which charac. have fince spread themselves very extensively. terised the observations and calculations he He took a decided part with Allen and Warner, made, was the result of great powers of me- not only in the field, but in council, in the op

pofition

1796.]

Biographical Notices.Gen. Marceau, &c.

751

position to the arbitrary proceedings against the just come from the schools, where, notwithpeople inhabiting this territory. He represented itanding the advice of Hobbes, afier the civil the town where he lived in allemblies and con- war in England, a monastic order still condeventions, and held the office of justice of the scended to teach the classics; and with them, peace for Rutland county, until in his advanced unwillingly infused a portion of that kindred age he removed out of it. As a poet, he was spirit, which illumined and dignified the histoportefied of a happy genius, and distinguished ries of Greece and Italy. The Itrug les of himself in many popular American publications. Athens and of Rome for liberty were familiar -Smith's New World; or, Morning and Even- to nim; and the crimes and expulsion of the ing Gazette.

Tarquin race pointed out, and, in a nearly timilar In the 27th year of his age, of his wounds, situation, sanctioned. in his mind, the prosecution at Asterker chin, in Germany, Lieutenant-Gen. of the dynasty of the courbons. With princiMarceau, in the service of the French Republic, ples such as these, adueu to dauntless intrcpidity, on the 5th complementary day (Quintidi, feté unabating exertion, and military skill, it is not des recompences ) being the last day but one of to be wondered that his rife was rapid, and his the 4th year, according to the calendar of his promotion certain. Soon after the breaking out native country, which answers to the 21st of of the war of La Verdee, by far the most caSept. 1796, with us. Among the innumerable lamitous of any, Marceau was sent thither, with calamities incident to warfare, one, and that too the rank of general of brigade. There he had not the least lamentable, is the premature death to contend, not against discipline, such as he of many of those illuftrious men who smooth afterwards encountered during two campaigns on the rugged surface of a state, deemed by philo- the banks of the Rhine, but fomething infinitely fophers, little better than legalized murder; and, more terrible---it was fanaticism, which, clai in in some measure, recompence human nature, canvass, and wooden shoes, and armed at first for the multiplied miseries to which she is un- with nothing more formidable than clubs and naturally subjected. The present contest ex- pikes, encountered and defeated veteran troops. hibits numerous instances of this kind, in the Such were the royal and catholic armies,' the armies of all the belligerent powers ; and in avengers of the crown,' the league of Jesus, pone, more particularly than in the person of " the band of the holy and immaculate Virgin,' him who is the subject of this brief memorial. names that imply but feebly the superstition of General Marceau was born in 1769, and was the sturdy and ignorant peatantry who come consequently, but twenty years old, at the com- pored hem. Against such enemies, it was mencement of the Revolution. In common almost impossible to succeed in an offensive with almost every Frenchman not of the privi- war; and, indeed, they were never completely leged orders, and, to their honour be it spoken, overthrown, until other means were employed of many also born within the pale of nubility, for their fubjugation. Yet, notwithstanding he felt that his country was enslaved and re- this, such was the reputation of young Marjoiced at the prospect of beholding the liberties ceau, that he was appointed, in the 25th year of his nation vindicated. On the impolitic in- of his age, as general in chief, ad interim, of the tervention of the Emperor Leopold, he burned army employed againit the insurgents in La to revenge, what he deemed the infult offered Vendée ; ani Turreau, whom he superseded, to the independence of France. He accordingly bears ample testimony to his merit, in his entered into the army, and made his fist cam- • Memoires,' although a misunderstanding acpaign in Brabant: Mirabeau repented until the tually fubfiited betweed them. At the period last moment of his existence, that he had drawn we are now treating of, there were no less than his maiden-sword against the free-born Corsi- three commanders in chief, and three interme

while Marceau, on the other hand, and diate ones, nominated within the space of three all the patriots of that day, gloried in the pros- months, some of whom exchanged the baron pect of rescuing the Flemings from the iron for the axe, and were dragged from iheir own yoke of Austria. After fighting under a confi- head-quarters to the scaffold. Marceau was tutional King, a new epoch occurred in the more fortunate. On the appointment of a suhistory of France and of Europe, and the army perior officer, he was invited to repair to the which had acquired nothing but disgrace under army of the North, which happened at that a feeble and wavering representative of monar- critical period, to be earning laurels on the frochy, in the person of Louis XVI, following the zen waters of the Rhine, the Waal, and the memorable example of the camp at Maulde, Polders, and canals of Holland, under the famous readily swore obedience to a commonwealth.- Pichegru. It is not a little memorable, that the The youthful hero perceived that the happi- joint ages of these youthfil commanders, did ness, at least the glory of France, as well as his not at that time exceed fifty-seven, a time of own advancement, were intimately connected life, which before this eventful period, scarcely with the change : he was thus attached to the entitled a soldier to become a hera : it is to be new government, both by patriotism and arobi- oblerved allo, that the Prince de Cobourg, Duke tion, which will be allowed to be no common of Bruntwick, Generals Wurmser, Beaulieu, motive, in the history either of nations or indi- and in short, all the veterans, grown hoai y under viduals. In addition to this, he was friendly, arms, have been beaten by schooiboys like even by education, to the transition, for he had these. The success of this army was truly

astonishing,

cans

;

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