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the other from Barcelona to Carcassonne, metaphysical, and speculative nature with in a country and circumstances ftill more still greater

brevity and reserve. difficult, along a space of five bundred thou- Citizen Prony pronounced a panegyric fand toises.

on citizen Pingré, who died on the 12th. This great operation, which requires an of Floreal last

. One part produced a great union of all the most perfect geodetical effect upon the minds of the auditors : means, and an inconceivable number of

" Pingré," said he," thcugh upwards astronomical observations, has been some- of eighty-four years of age, was not less times attacked, and sometimes suspended. assiduous at the fittings of the National InBut the law of the 18th Germinal, of the stitute, but he came accompanied by methird

year of the republic, has given fresh lancholy: bis eyes fought these in vain ibat fpirit to every part of the undertaking. friend, that competitoi, whose per no less The different commissioners charged with profound and bloquent than bis own" its execution are now busily employed. At these words every body present diMechain is resuming his triangles at Per- vined the name of Bailly, and loud appignan; Delambre is setting off to con- plause interrupted the orator. It redoutinue his at Bourges and at Dun; and both bled when he named that excellent man, so hope to return to Paris after having com- celebrated on account of his learning, and pleted their honourable and laborious fo remarkable for his courage, for his protalk.

biry, and for the virtues he displayed durA differtation was read to the class by ing the revolution. They were repeated: Citizen Tenon, upon the different de- a third time, and were mingled with tears, grees of increase and decreast of the hu- when Prony spoke of the tragical end of man skull, considered particularly at the Pingré’s respectable friend. four principal periods of life; at the birth, After a moment of involuntary filence, at the age of fix years, at the age of ma- occafioned by the idea of Bailly's death and turity, and in the season of decrepitude. Of that of Pingré, Baudin, of the Ardennes, After indicating these different degrees, read a treatise on the Spirit of Faction, in with a great deal of precision, the author which he denied that an attempt to give afferts that the knowledge thence resulting freedom to all could be denominated face will be of great use in the management of tious. Brutus, the first consul, William the head, while growing, and when attack- Tell, and Washington, might have failed, ed by diseases more or less serious, espe- as Marcus Brutus and Callius did at Phiciallý thuse that require important opera- lippi, and Barneveldt upon the scaffold. tions.

It is not success which distinguishes the Citizen du Pont de Nemours, after re- hero from the factious spirit: it is the marking the connexion that exists between difference of the object they have in view. the sciences, affirmed that the greater num

Nor would he admit that the being a ber of questions of political economy, espe- minority constituted a certain proof of cially those that relate to the causes and faction. Cato's firmness, surviving in the effects of the prices of productions and midst of almost universal deipondency, did merchandize, could only be solved with not make him a factious man; fince all perfect exactness by means of the most the Romans woulu have wished to be free; tranfcendant geometry, without which but Cato was almost the only one who nothing better than a vague and uncertain preserved fufficient courage to remain fo. result can be obtained. He gave, as an ex

But he who, under the pretence of support. ample, the effect of freedom restored to ing rights, endeavours to diffolve the state commerce, or of a tax taken off any com- ittelf, becomes a facrious man ;.

" and the modity; an effect which cannot be pro. epithet will doubtless apply to the two perly expressed, unless by two correspond- Gracchi, against whose memory the very ing serpentine and aflympiote curves. He names of those who have taken them for called upon the learned members of the models bear witness.”-(This passage exphysical and mathematical class to turn cited the loudest applause.) their attention towards these political Baudin concluded, by saying, that in a surves, which are perhaps innumerable. monarchy factions are only formidable to

Having thus ĝiven a fuccinct account of the authority of the prince ; while in a every thing of a; practical and physical republic they endanger general liberty, nature that deserves notice in the Trans. which is the property of all; and, confeactions of the Institute for the last three quently, that in the latter they ought to be months, we shall mention the labours of more odious to every one who pofleffes pathe French literati in matters of a moral, triotisın or virtue.

Citizen

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The SKELETON of a large species of QUADRUPED hitherto unknown

lately discovered one hundred feet under ground near the River la Plata.

637

3796.1 Account of the Skeleton found at Paraguay.

Citizen Camus communicated to the ing care that the divisions indicate the deciInstitute his remarks on the Illyrian mal parts of the day; namely, the tenths, tongue, either the parent or a dialect of thousandths, and hundred thousandıbs; or that the Sclavonic, and the source of the Po. the lay be divided into ten hours, the bours lith and Hungarian languages. These re- into a hundred minutes, and the minule into searches are one of the fruits of the au- a bundred seconds. thor's captivity.

PHYSICS. He mentioned afterwards the justice done to France by the learned of Germany,

The comparison of the nature, form, and and the great hopes they conceive from use of the liver in tbe different classes of the formation of a national institute of sci

animals. ences and arts; and thence proceeded to POLITICAL and MORAL SCIENCES. {peak of the arrangement of libraries. One of

First Prize. the principal regulations he recommends, is

To determine the influence of signs on the the making a system of Bibliography, or an index of books, pointing out the works of

formation of ideas.

Second Prize. real utility in every branch of science. A treatise by Citizen Ræderer followed, tions, is it proper for a republican frate to

For what purposes, and on what condiconcerning the funeral institutions, proper open public louns? for a republic, which permits all kinds of worship, but authorizes none.

LITERATURE and FINE ARTS. He would neither with to have the dead

First Prize. deposited on the bigb roads, as among the To examine the changes that the French Romans; not in catacombs, as was the custom of the Christians in the earlier berbe and Balzac to the prejent day.

tongue bas undergone from the time of Mal.. ages.; nor in caves, as among the Ger

Second Prize. mans; nor 'in temples erected to the dead themselves, as was the practice of the

To examine wbat has been, and what Greeks in heroic times; nor in church may be, the influence of painting on the mare yards, as among the people of modern Eu- ners of a free people? rope : he would have their remains laid to rest in a sacred wood. There trees, Notice concerning the Skeleton of a very large fowers, birds, air, and light would sur- Species of Quadruped, bitherto unknown, round the manes of the virtuous; and found at Paraguay, and deposited in the there barren and frightful rocks would Cabinet of Natural History at Madrid. present to the wicked lepulchral caverns, Drawn up by G. Cuvier. haunted by vultures, the symbols of remorse. Ic may be doubted whether this fanci.

(SEE THE ANNEXED PLATE.) ful way of disposing of the dead, will be THIS skeleton is foffil, It was found a more approved of by philosophers on this hundred feet beneath the surface of a fide of the water, than the charitable piety sandy foil, in the vicinity of the river of ef the legislator Pastoret, who proposed La Plata. It only wants the tail, and ten years imprisonment in fercers, as the fome pair-bones, which have been imipunishment of those who should in any tated in wood; and the skeleton is now way violate their alhes. It would, be- mounted at Madrid, where the Citizen Sides, be worthy Ræderer's ingenuiry to Roume, correspondent of the National

fhow how vultures can be compelled to Institution, has examined it with artenAy round the tombs of the wicked (errer tion. autour des cavernes sépulcbrales.)

This skeleton, represented in the an. In the same fitting Citizen Prony was nexed plate, is twelve feet (French) long, to have given an account of the progress of by fix feet in height. The spine is comregister land (le.cadafire), and Citizen Fon- posed of seven cervical, fixteen dorsal, and tanes was to have read his observations on four lumbar vertebræ : it has, consefome notes written by Voltaire in his youth quently, sixteen ribs. The facrum is upon a copy of Virgil, but time did not fort; the ossa ilia very broad, and their permit.

plane being almost perpendicular to the

spine, they form a very open pelvis. The following are the subjects of the There is no pubis or ischium ; at least prizes proposed by the Institute : they are wanting in this skeleton, and MATHEMATICS.

there is no mark of their having existed Tbe construction of a watch for the pocket, when the animal was alive. capable of showing ibe longitude at sea, tuk- The thigh bones are exceffively thick,

and

4 M 2

canum.

and the leg bones fill more fo in propor- examination, was not content with leaves, tion. The entire sole of the foot bore on but, like the elephant and rhinoceros, the ground in walking. The shoulder- broke and ground the branches themselves. blade is much broader than long. The Its close and flat-crowned teeth must have ¢ avicles are perfect, and the two bones of been very proper for this purpose. The the fore-arm are distinct and moveable position of the bones of the nole, having upon each other.

some analogy with that of the elephant and The fore limbs are longer than the tapir, would induce a suspicion that our hind. To judge by the form of the last animal wore a trunk, but it must have phalanxes, there muit have been very been very short, fince the length of the large pointed claws, enclosed at their ori- head and neck together equals that of the

in in a bony fhcath. There appears to fore-legs. However this be, we find, in have been only three of thelc claws on the the absence of canine teeth, and the shortfore-feet, and a fingle one on the hind. ness of the muzzle, sufficient characters to The other toes seem to have been deprived conftitute a new genus in he fan.ily of of them, and, perhaps, entirely concealed the edentated, which ought to be placed beneath the skin.

between the Sloths and the Tatoo!, Hnce to The head is the greatest fingularity of the fhape of the head of the former, it joins this skeleton. The occiput is elongated the tecth of the latter. It would be neand flattened, but it is pretty convex alove cellary to know particulars of which a the eyes. The two jaws form a con- skeleton cannot inform us, such as the nasiderable projection, but without teeth, ture of the teguments, foron of the tongue, there being only four on each side above position of the mammæ, &c. in order to and below, all grinders, with a flat crown, determine to which of thele it approached and grooved across. The breadth of the the most. In the mean time, I thought I branches of the lower jaw, and the great might give it the generic name of MEGAapophysis placed on the base of the zygo- THERIUM, and ine trivial one of Ameri, matic arch, deserve particular notice.

This quadruped, in its characters, taken It adds to the numerous faits which togeiber, differs from all known animals; apprize us that the animals of the ancient and each of its bones, considered apart, alío world were all different from those which çiffers from the correfounding bones of all we ni w tee on the earth?; for it is scarcely known animals. This results from a dee probable, that if this animal still existed, to tailer! comparilon of the skeleton with that remarkable a species couici have hitherto of other animals, and will readily appear escaped the researches of naturalists. It is to those who are verled in this kind of re also a niw and very strong proof of the insearches; for none of the animals which variable laws of the fubordination of chaapproach it in bulk have either pointed racters, and the juftrets of the consequences, claws, cor similarly forined head, shoul- thence deduced for the clailification of order-blades, clavicies, pelvis, onlinbs. Caniled budies; and under both these

As to its place in the system of quadru- views it is cne of the moit precious ditiopeds, it is perfectly inarked by the sole veries which have for a long time been inspection of the ordinary indicatory cha- made in natural history. racices, that is, the claws and tooth.

There now that it must be ciaried in the MATHEMATICALCORESPONDENCE, fam ly of unguiculated quadrupeds dettitute of cutting teeth ; and, in fact, it has For the Monthly Magazine. striking relations with these aniinals in all ON THE HEAT COMMUNICATED BY parts of its body This family is com

ONE BODY TO ANOTHER. poled of the sloths (Bradypus, ...); I. SEVERAL hypothefes have been Tatoos (Dafypus, L.); Pangolins (Ma proposed, for determining the nis, L.) ; Ant-eaters (ivíyrmecophaga, L.); proportional heat coinmunicated by one and 0.yétaiopus, or Cape Ant-eater. body to another,, but none of them have

[The writer proceeds to a detailed com been subjected to the firict examination parison of parts

of thele animals with the of the geometer, and the retul con parskeleton in question, which, for the fake ed with experimenrs. Sir Isaac Newtou of brevity, wc omit.]

fuppofis, that the heat of the fun is diThe great thickness of the branches of rectly as the dentity of its rays, or recithe lower jaw, which, fvrpailes even that procally as the square of the distance of of the elephant, seems to prove that the vait animal, which is the subject of our

* Principia Math. p. 466.

the

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