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1796.] Comparison of the Histories of Greece and Italy. 637

ITALY. nies in the lefser Afia arise in Tuscany from Arts, sciences, elo. Dante and Cimabue, and Europe.

the intercourse with the quence, poetry: every Boccaccio and Giotto. Arabs in Spain. Tuscan, where. The philofo- Petrarch, above all. Venetian, and Genoese phers follow the gene- Dricovery of codes. colonies in the east. rals,

Invention of printing. Arts and fashions spread

Arrival of the Grecks. by the Italians over Eu

The Medicis in Tuscarope.

ny. Protection given to

Second period.
Second period. 1200.
Travels and discove- The sciences

and Quarrels between Spare Wars and jealoufies be- ries of philofophers. books of Greece pals ta ani Athens. The tween Pifans & Floren- The sciences pals from into Italy. Travels of latter - prevails by fea. wnes; between the Ge- Egypt into Greece. the Italians in searcha Solon and his laws : nocle and the Venetians

of books and antiquities. victories and internal about tlie dominion of

Philip victorious eve

Every thing prepares cultivation make her the sea.

ry wheie, prepares the the age of Charles V. rich.


of Alexander. Each of them want Guelphs and Ghi. to rule the other. bellines: the white and Fourth period.

Fourib period. Great civil wars, espe- the black. Bloody war

Age of Alexander

Immense empire of cially the Peloponnesian between Frederic thelft his extensive dominions Charles V in Italy.-war: Atruggles between and the Milanese com

in Europe and Alia. in Europe--in the people and civil and monwealth, Disputes General peace. Great

The Italians more military authurities. between nobility and

men of every kind: tranquil after the defeat people, between the

arts, sciences, 1 nguage, of the lefler tyrants. captains and the vale luxury, shows, ind pub- Wonderful works in vaflors. lic exhibitions.

painting, sculpture, arThe Asiatic colonies The remote conquests

chitecture. Playhoules depart from their obedi- shake off the yoke of

and public entertainence to Greece, during the Italians during the the internal contests. civil factions.

Commerce between Commerce passes into Thebes rises; ftrug- Rome, Naples, Mi. the subject provinces. other nations: but Italy gles for

supremacy. lan, claim the general Greecethe common cen- keeps the treasures geo Besieged by the Spar- dominion, Sieges and

tre of them. The In- by it. These treasures tans. Victory of Epa- battles. The Turrians, dies and the East her draw into that country minondas. Athens, the Carrarese. Milan, tributaries.

whatever is found in Sparta and Thebes Florence, and Venice,

America and in the become predominant; prove strongeit. The

Indies. great jealousies and dif- pope quits Rome. Fac.

After the death of Decay of Italy : HiHords between them. tions and discords every Alexander, divisions, ef- berty lost in its various where.

feminacy, decay, perfi- tiates. Arts and sciTbird period. Third period. 1400. length the Romans, glected. Subjugated by

till at ences corrupted or ne.

dy, tyranny, General discord and The popes retire from

called in by the Greeks the FRENCH REPUBcorruption gives rise to Avignon. The


themselves, the projects of Philip, grows itrong in Italy: Philip che Ild; make

conquer LIC. of Macedonia. His alli- The Visconis Gonzaghi his son, Persens,prisoner, ance with the Thessa. join him. Universal dile

and convert Greece into tonians ; conquers the cord renders him more

a province of the Ro. Greeks, by the means powerful, and he de

MAN REPUBLIC. of the Greeks enraged stroys one party by against each other in means of the other.

I do not pretend, Mr. Editor, to have their civil war, called the facred war.

made a parallel perfectly complete; I By great vi&tories and

Several princes at

only wish to raise the curiosity of your great reputation, Philip tempt to be the Philip readers, towards a subject highly interet, obtains the general com- of Italy: the popes, ing to ail who cultivate ancient and ma mand. He conquers the the emperors, the king dern history. In such political and hisBaotians and the Athen of Naples, and, above torical parallels, we muß not look so nians at Chæronea. The all, the Venetians. They much to the exactitude of the details, as Greeks, tired of their were the Amphictions to the general body of facts which lead freedom, and fond of against strangers. The

to the conclusions. novelty and change, ex- civil disputes abate. pect to Aourith under Freedom loft by the London, September 19, 1796. J. DE the sway of a single weariness of the people Chicf.

of their struggles to pre-
serve it.

For tbe Montbly Magazine. chemist, who looks upon the muriatic acid

as a compound. ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND SITTINGS of France is the same as': hat of Ciylon,

Citizen Guyton proved, that the jacinth OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTION

and that it contains, in like manner, an AT PÀRIS *.

earth already noticed by Klaproth. This [The Conductors of the Monthly Magazine earth being of a distinct nature from any

are hapiy it is in their power to present of the five simple earths, admitted by the Public with fo early a report on the chemists, forms a fixth, to which he corproceedings of the most splendid and im- tinues to give the denomination of Zirportant establishment for the promotion of conie. knowledge ibut perbaps has ever existed. Citizen Guyton moreover presented to Ibey propose to continue these reports as the class, the model of an instrument for carly as posible afier ench sitting of the determining the specific gravities of both Institution, and occasionally to infert at solids and fluids. He calls it a gravimeter, length the more interefting and ufeful and demonstrated its superiority over the memoirs.]

the arceometers, for which commerce and

the arts are indebted to Nicholson and FIRST SITTING. The 75th of Germinal

Fahrenheit. (April 4) 1796.

Citizen Cuvier, after reading a memoir 1howing, that, in consequence of his blooded animals ; and after pointing out late labours and observations, the orbit of the remarkable variations that occur in the Mercury, supposed the most difficult to be number of muscles of the hand, upon known, is now that the most accurately which the agility and address of the determined.

fingers depend, proceeded to thow the Citizen Berthollet defended the French mechanism of the organs of hearing in chemical theory from the artacks of three whales and other cetaceous animals, the German chemists, who had directed their true structure of which had before escaped objections against those acriform substances, the researches of anatomists. 'which make to great a figure in chemical Citizen Lassus pointed out an easy mean operations, particularly against the oxy- of curing a disease hitherto deemed ingenous and azotic galles. Citizen Ber- curable--a swelling and elongation of the thollet completely overturned the founda- tongue, of which the extremity sometimes tion of their objections, by relating the descends to the chin. result of his experiments upon phospho- In the class of moral and political scirus dissolved in azotic gas.

ences, Citizen Grégoire repelled a charge Citizen Fourcroy, after having com- brought against the French government pared with the theories of modern che- by the emigrants and the cabinet of St. mists some discoveries, very little known,' James's, who accuse it of having dettroyed which were made by John Mayow, an the philanthropic settlement which was English physician, more than a century formed at Sierra Leone, in order to reago, defended, in like manner, the French move the cause of Navery. principles of chemistry. Citizen Vauquelin Citizen Dupont de Nemours thence and he gave an account of a great number took occasion to observe, that this esta. of experiments they have made upon phof- blishment, of which England is fo juftly phorus with pure azote, with azote mixed proud, was first projected by a Frenchwith oxygen, and submitted to various In the Epbémerides du. Citoyen, he degrees of heat, with hydrogen; and, lastly, had himself demonstrated, as long ago as with sulphurated hydrogenoas gas (hepatic 1771, that the labour of a negro llave air). This Jalt subfiance forms with costs more than that of a free white; and phosphorus, fulpbureo-phosphorous gas, on that it was possible to form an establishwhich Mefirs. Vauquelin and Fourcroy ment on the coast of Africa, where the promise to make farther experiments. sugar-cane is naturalized, and where it

Citizen Van Mons, of Bruffels, sent a might be cultivated by free blacks. In memoir to the class, in which he likewise 1774, he laid his plan before Turgot, fupporis the principles of modern che- who approved of it; but it was reječted mistry, and refutes the opinion of a foreign by the council of the king.

Citizen Dyanniere read two' memoirs, * For an account of this great Institution, see which show, that the author has enour Magazine, p. 119, No. II.

deavoured to bring political economy, as


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1796.] Important Proceedings of the National Institution.
nearly as possible, to the precision of the
exact sciences.
It results from his first memoir, that

At the second public fitting of the Nathe district of Gueret, in the department tional Institution, on the isth Messidor, of La Creuse, contains 43,580 inhabitants

, (July 3) Citizen Pelletier communicated in a space of 43 square leagues ; and that, to the first class his observations on Stronfuppofing an equal division made


thian earth, found in the north of Scotall the consumers, the wheat produced in land. Hope, profellor of chemistry at the district, though one of those the moft Glasgow, Schmeister, of Hamburgh, and exposed to inclement seasons and fterility, Blumenbach and Klaproth, of Berlin, conwould be more than fufficient for the fider it as a newly discovered earth, distinct nourishment of the inhabitants ; but that from the several kinds already admitted by as often any measures are taken which chemists, while several other icientific men obftruét the free commerce of corn, a

have long been of opinion, that the comscarcity is sure to ensue.

bination of Stronthian earth with the car. His second memoir principally consists bonic acid gas, is nothing more than a of calculations, furnished by Paris, Lyons, variety of the combination of barytes, or and London, by which it appears, that terra ponderosa, with that acid. "Citizen ail variations in the price of corn have a Pelletier resolved to put their opinions to sensible effect upon the health and ex

the proof, and made a number of experia iitence of mankind; that an excess in its ments, which he detailed to the elass, and price being known, a proportionate excess from which he thought himself authomay be safely assigned to the number of rized to infer, that the Stronthian earth is deaths in those towns; that the more go

different from Parytes, and, with still vernment interferes, the greater is the greater reason, that it is entirely distinck, variation that takes place in its price; and from the other simple earths with which that, consequently, all the branches of we are as yet acquainted. agriculture ought to be encouraged in On the same day, Citizen Fourcroy read such a way that the scarcity of one article a memoir concerning Barytes, and its remay be compensated by the abundance of semblance to Stronthian earth, from which others.

both he and Citizen Vauquelin thought In the class of literature and the fine they had a right to deduce consequences arts, Citizen Dufaulx read some fragments very different from those of Citizen Pel? of his travels among the Pyrenéan moun- letier. Chemists had long desired to have tains ; and Citizen Bitaubé, an essay, in. Barytes in a very pure state, when, a few tituled, On the Study of the Ancients. months since, Citizen Vauquelin discovered Citizen David le Roy read the first part

a mode of separating it entirely from the of his New Researches concerning the Ships carbonic acid. That point once attained, employed by the Ancients, from the beginning Citizens Fourcroy and Vauquelin were of the Punic Wars 10 the Battle of Attium, able to ascertain the principal properties of and of the Use that might be made of them the earth in question, and to make exin the French Marine.

tensive researches concerning its combinaRemarking the sudden way in which tions. The first part of these labours were the Romans, who had never essayed their the subject of Citizen Fourcroy's memoir, power at sea, eclipsed the naval glory of which he terminates by advancing, that the Carthaginians and ruined their ina- having carefully compared the new prorine, he ascribes almost all their success to perties of Barytes with those ascribed to the consul Duilius, the inventor of the cor- Stronthian earth by Klaproth, both he vus, a kind of flying bridge, which, by a

and Citizen Vauquelin think they have new and simple contrivance, hooked the reason to consider them as one and the enemy's fhips, and enabled the Roman fame earth. foldiers to board them two abreast.

In a second memoir, however, Citizen The author rectifies the very faulty de- Pelletier gives an account of new experiscription which Folard has given of this ments which he has made upon Stronthian machine in his Commentaries on Poly- earth and Barytes, rendered very pure by bius ; and thinks it might be advanta- a different process from that of Citizen geously used on board the French pri. Vauquelin. These experiments induce

him to persist in looking upon them as two The rest of the transactions recorded distinct carths. He informed the class, in this sitting, were not remarkable for that Stronthian earth was not confined to novelty or importance.

the place from which it derives its name;




but that it had been found in another part crystals called Zroites, were then read by of Scotland, and in Saxony also.

Citizen Hauy. He describes the different While the above men of science were primitive and secondary forms of the four employed in improving the chemical species, and fays, that one of them (that theory, by ascertaining the number of sim, which was first mentioned by Crenstedt) ple earths, an immediate application of poffefies alone the remarkable property of chemistry to the arts was made by Citizen acquiring both kinds of electricity by the Guyton (de Morveau.).

mere application of heat, and of preserve It is well known, that the inalterability ing them for fome time after it has cooled, of platina, and the difficulty with which He observes, that the crystals which have it enters into fufion, render it, in certain this property, differ from the usual fymcircumftances, much more valuable even metry of crystals by the various forms of aban gold. The French chemists having the parts in which the two kinds of elec. indicated the method of purifying it, tricity reside. One of those parts has adand of reftoring to it its ductility, it is ditional fides, which are wanting in the mow fabricated into very useful inftru- other, fo that the part which will give ments and vessels ; but the art of render- signs of vitreous, and that which will exing it fubfervient to our purposes is still hibit appearances of resinous electricity, far from perfection, and the essential pro- may be pointed out before hand. Citizen periies of the metal as yet little known. Hauy concludes, by saying, that the TourCitizen Guyton thought proper, in confc- maline and Topaz were known to possess quence, to submit it to a series of experi- this electric property; that he discovered

Those he communicated to the it in the oxide (calx) of zinc, and in calclass relate to its denfity, its tenacity, its careous boraræ ; and that the crystals adhesion to mercury, and its amalgama- called Zeolites may now be added to the tion. They are of the more importance list, which he had long bien endeavourat this moment, as the Spanish govern, ing, to no purpofe, to enlarge, by a multiment has just sent to France a very con- tude of experiments made on a great va. filerable quantity of this metal (found riety of subitances. only in South America) purposely to ailist The organization of vegetables has been the French chemists in their researches. the object of Citizen Desfontaines' re

An eafy process for the solution of the searches. It results from the different elastic gum in sulphuric ether has been in- comparisons he has made of his obfervavented by Cirizen Pelletier. It is by no tions with those of several other natumeans difficult to conceive the great uti- raliks, particularly of Cirizen Daubenton lity of this solution, which, on being ap- upon the palm-tree, that vegetables are plied to the surface of a body, lets the divisible in:o two great classes, of which ether fly off, and forms a kind of varnith, the distinctive characters are taken from the that preserves it effeétually from the de- fructure, disposition, and developer.ent, fructive influence of the air.

of the internal organs.

After having Citizen Chaptal,' associate of the Na- proved that the feeds of all the vegetables pional Institution, after having fhown in comprehended in the first class have only a treatise the great consumption which soft one cotyledon, or feminal leaf, and that foap occafions in France of the cils of the those of the second have two, he points Republic and Italy ; after pointing out the out the advantages that may be derived great advantage that would refult to in- from these new principles, and does not dividuals, and to the nation at large, from despair of their allifting, on fome future the finding of a substitute ; and after giving day, not only to discover the patural rela, an account of the various fruitless attempts tion between different vegetables, but made for that purpose, explains the man- their genus also, and even their species. ner of making a very cheap kind of soap, Citizen Cuvier gave the class a descripwhich he calls foup of wool. It is com

tion of the skeleton of a very large quapolcd of a ley of wood alles, or of pot- druped, which was found in South Ameah, in which old scraps of woollen cloth, rica, a hundred feer under ground, which or flocks of wool, are boiled and dissolved is now deposited in the cabinet at Madrid, to the point of saturation. The author and of which Roume, associate of the Inenlarges upon the vtility of this composition, stirution, has sent an engraving, accomnot only for the fulling of cloth, but for panied with a scientific description *. the preparation of cotton intended for dying, for washing linen, and for other

* For the particulars of this interesting fact domestic uses and processes of the arts. in natural history, see the detailed account Observations on the structure of the given at p. 367 of this Magazine. We bave

1796.] Important Proceedings of the National Institution.

635 Citizen Daubenton communicated the It was resolved upon, however, althinugh plan and the first result of a series of ex- the protection given by the conftauted auperiments, made in the National Museum - tharities was hardly found to suffice, of Natural History, upon several domestic The operation became very laborious in animals. Their tendency is to make the heart of the winter, citizen Delambi e known the produce of the mixture of leve- being obliged to go every day through ral useful animals ; the least costly re- three leagues of snow in his way to and medies, and the most proper food for from the signal-house, and being also unsheep ; the means of giving a good taste der the neceflity of taking down his instruand smell to the flesh of tame rabbits, and ments every afternoon. that of improving the most productive Notwithstanding these difficulties, the breed of fowls.

work was drawing to a conclusion, when Citizen Buache spoke of some islands in he was recalled, with an injunction to sufthe South Sea, which have been confider- pend it without delay. It was at the time ed as fabulous, because not properly laid when the danger of disobedience was great. down by the carjier navigators, but which, Citizen Delambre, however, ventured to from the last voyages of Cook, Bougain- run the risk. He did not quit his moveville, and de la Peyrouse, actually appear able observatory, till he bad 'connected to have an existence. In that case they his triangles at Orleans and at Châreauare to be found by keeping in the latitude neuf. On the very day that he was putof thirty degrees and a third from the ting the last hand to that part of the busi180th to the 210th degree of longitude. ness, the wooden tower, on which he was

Citizen Goffelin brought together all standing, was blown down by a gale of that the ancients knew of the Arabian wind. Thus did the wish of a man of. Gulf, and of the mobility of its shore. He science to serve his then ungrateful counThowed that the Ophir of the Hebrews ftill try, make him brave death in a variety exists to the northward of Yemen; but of ways. that it is at present inland, in consequence He was not allowed to return to his of the retrocellion of the sea.

taik till eighteen months after, happy at Citizen Duvillard read the beginning of having brought it as far as the folid rocks a great work upon benefit focieties (caisses of Orleans and of Châteauneuf. d'économie) which by making a profitable The space between Orleans and Bourges use of the smallest savings of industrious was that which had given the most trouble citizens might afford all the allistance fuf- in 1740; and the difficulty was greatly infering humanity requires, and furnish all creased by the destruction of the steeple of the recompenses due from fociety.

Salbris and several others. Citizen Delambre related his labours in The winter came. Citizen Delambre the measurement of the meridian.

went to Dunkirk, one of the extremities In the last public fitting of the Academy of the meridian, and mcasured, with the of Sciences he had given an account of the greatest exactitude, the height of a circumdelays, dangers, and obstacles of every polar star in its cwc passages over the mea kind, which, in the space of the last nine ridian. This operation can only be permonths, had prevented his measuring more formed in the months of Frimaire, Nie than twelve triangles, from Compiegne to vose, and Pluviose, because it is necessary Pithiviers.

that the nights should be fourteen or fifa The next summer was more fortunate. teen hours long. Four months fuificed to measure the space The Memoirs of the National Institute between Compiegne and Dunkirk. The contain an explanation of the principles of steeples in the way greatly facilitated the the operation undertaken by Citizens Dea operation.

lambre and Mechain, in order to measure It was more difficult between Pithi- the arc of the meridian, which países viers and Orleans. The forest affording through France, from Dunkirk to the Pyno remarkable point of view, it became renean mountains, and which stretches necessary to erect a signal-house (Signal) along through Spain towards Barcelona. fixty feet high, and experience had thown Citizen Mechain, placed at the other the danger of drawing the eyes of the extremity.of the arc, was then making, people upon such objects in revolutionary with equal zeal, and with no lets embartimes.

rassments, observations, which perfe&tly

agree with those of Citizen Delambre, also annexed the engraved representation of

On one side the meridian is measured from the skeleton, which, we fruft, will gratify Dunkirkto Dun-sur-Auron, a diftance of two our curious readers.

hundred and thirty-seven thousand toises; on MONTHLY MAG, No. VIII.


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