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ing what care I ever had of your eftate, fo you to PAY MY DEBTS. Alfo I would and how respectfully I dealt with those have 6oool. to buy me jewels, and 4oool. which both' by the laws of God, of na- to buy me a pearl chain. Now, seeing ture, and civil policy, wit, religion, go. I have been, and am, 10 REASONABLE vernment, and honesty, you, my dear, is

unto you, I pray you

do find

my children bound to ; I pray and beseech you to apparel, and their schooling, and all my grant to me, your most kind and loving servants, men and women, their wages. wife, the sum of 2600l. quarterly to be Allo, I will have all my houses furnithed, paid. Also I would, besides that allow- and my lodging chambers to be suited ance, have bool. quarterly to be paid, with all fuch furniture as is fit; as beds, for the performance of charitable works: Itools, chairs, suitable cushions, carpets, and those things I WOULD NOT, neither filver warming-pans, cupboards of plate, WILL BE, accountable for. Also I will fair hangings, and such like. So for my HAVE three hories for my own faddle, drawing chamber in all houfes, I will that none shall dare to lend or borrow: have them delicately furnished, both none lend but I, none borrow but you. with hangings, couch, canopy, glass, carAlso I would have two gentlewomen, pet, chairs, cushions, and all things thereleft one fhould be sick, or have some unto belonging. Also my desire is, that other let. Also, believe it, it is an un- you would PAY YOUR DEBTS, build up decent thing for a gentlewoman to stand Alhby-house, and purchase lands, and mumping alone, when God hath bletied lend no money, as you love God, to the their lord and lady with a great eftare. Lord Chamberlain, who would have all, Alfo, when I ride a-hunting, or a hawk- perhaps your life, from you.

Remcming, or travel from one house to another, ber his ion, my lord Walden, what enI will have them attending; so, for either tertainment he gave me, when you were of those faid women, I MUST AND WILI at Tilt-yard. If you were dead, he said, HAVE for either nt them a hurle. Allo he would be a husband, a father, a broI will have fix or eight gentlemen; and ther, and said he would marry me. I I will bave my two coaches, ore lined protest, I grieve to see the poor man have with velvet to myself, with four very to little wit and honesty to use his friends fair horses ; and a coach for my women, fo vilely. Also he fed me with untruths lined with cloth, and laced with gold; concerning the Charter-house, but that the other with scarlet, and laced with is the least ; he withed me much harm, silver, with four good horses. Also I you know how. God keep you and me will have two coachmen, one for my own from him, and any such as he is. So now coach, the oi her for my women. Also that I have declared to you what I would at any time when I travel, I will be al- have, and what it is that I would not lowed not oniy carruibes, and spare horses have, I pray, when you be an carl, to al.

I for me and my women, but I will have low me 2000l. more than now I desire, such carriages as shall be fitting for all, and double attendance. orderly, not pettering my things with my

“ Your loving wife, women's; nor their's with either chiam

“ ELIZA COMPTON.” bermaid's; nor their's with waih-mail's. The above lecter may be seen in the Also for laundresses, when I travel, I Har ian Collection of MSS. No. 7003, will have them fent away before with the fol. 105; and as it contains such inconcarriages, to see all fafu. And the cham- testable evidence of the actual existence bermaids I will have go befor, that the of a REASONABLE WOMAN, in the reign chamber may be ready, sweet, and clean. of king James the First, I hope it will Also for that it is undecent to crowd up not be questioned, by sceptical persons, myself with my gentleman ulher in my but that such women may probably be coach, I will have him to have a conve- found in this country, even at the present nient horse to attend me, either in city period. or country. And I must have two foot.

Sept, 2, 1796.

H. S. And my desire is, that you defray all the charges for me. And for myself, besides my yearly allowance, I would have To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. twenty gowns of apparel, fix of them SIR, excellent good ones, çight of them for AT a moment when the question of the country, and six other of them very

invasion is agitated in all companies; excellent good ones.

Also I would have when more serious indications of such to put in my purse 2000l. and 2001. and an enterprize are given on the other



Thoughts on an Invafion,

627 fide of the water; and when more fe- ' attenípts. It would be tedious and rious apprehensions of it are conceived needlets to multiply examples of this on this, than at any former period, you fort; every man who has the least nauwill not perhaps refuse to give place to tical knowledge, can state, or conceive a few oblervations on a subject to tru- a variety of cases in which the the French ly interesting, and concerning which the can make a run over to this country, opinions of our countrymen are so enor- unless we keep a greater naval force at mously at variance.

ļea, in every point, than they can collect The true-born Englishman, on whom in any one, and that is plainly impossiMr. Burke bestows the well merited ble. praise of cherifbing bis prejudices, thinks But their debarkation, how will that he has closed the debate, when he has be effected ? Fifty thousand men are not bluntly asked, If we have not a superior landed in an hour; and the fleet which Heet? Entrenched up to the chin, in might be unable to prevent their como this formidable position, he smiles with ing to our coast, would destroy them bea equal contempt at the alarm of his fore they could effect a footing on Eng. adversary, and at the preparations mak- lich ground.-Not if they come over in ing on the coast of France.

small craft, accompanied by a fotilla And as long, indeed, as we are sure calculated to run into shoal water. When that the French government carry their once there, they might effect their land. views to nothing short of the conquest ing, with little molestation from the of the island, we have a tolerable assu. side of the sea. Kept at a distance by rance, also, that they will not land an their great draught of water, our line of army on our shores while we have a fu. battle thips could only witness a de. perior fleer to cut it off from all support, barkation which it would be utterly out reinforcement, or retreat. But it com- of their power to prevent. plete success be not their object--if it It appears, then, to be undeniable, that be merely their meaning to ravage our circumstances may occur, in which the coast; to ipread a dangerous alarm through French may fucceed in landing troops the country ; to shake the paper founda. on this island, in spite of a superior feet. tions on which the fortune of the state If a solitary army were to debark, they reposes ; or to establish themselves in fome might certainly be considered as anfans strong post, by way of cutting off part of perdus, sent on a forlorn hope indeed; our resources, and converting them into for our fleet, when once apprized of the subfiftence of their own troops; their position, would put supplies, and in that case, it would be no easy matter to reinforcements, and a retreat quite out show how our superior feet can defeat of the question. But from the known their purpose, unless we suppose it gifted abilities of the directory, and the fyfwith ubiquity, or furnished with a suffi- tem of warfare they have adopted, it cient warrant to impress the winds. may be conjectured, that after draws

By the conquest of Belgium and Hol. ing our attention to one quarter they land, the French may be said to have would direct their efforts against a va completed the investment of our island; riety of others, and take their chance and this the bold and sagacious Dumou- for being able to effect subsequent de. rier considered as a proper preliminary barkations, during that distraction of to the invasion of England. There is our fea and land forces that would not now a wind that blows from the necessarily ensue. heavens, that would not bear them to But it is highly probable, that their fome part or other of our coaft: but intentions to invadeus, like their prethere are a great many that would op- parations for a descent, were never sepose the passage of our fleet to the quar- rious, till they contemplated the poffiter where its presence might be neces- bility of rivalling or outmatching iis on fary. Let us suppose, for instance, that our proper clement. I know very well the French, by fecretly sending a squa. that it is a sort of heresy to doubt the ondron north-about, to reinforce the Dutch, - nipotency of our marine. But be it regain a fuperiority in the German ocean; membered, that in 1780, the combined as long as that superiority lafts—and ficets of France and Spain, drove Sir it will last as long as an easterly wind Charles Hardyup the Channel; and that in may prevent our sending an additional 1986, Lord Howe was obliged to run beforce to those scas—so long will our coast, tween Scilly and the main, to avoid a supe. from the North Foreland to the farther rior force. Nor should we have been able extremity of Scotland, lie open to their to have shown ourselves in these seas MONTHLY MAG. No. VIII.



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during all the latter part of the contest; tate Marshal Saxe, who intitled his nor should we have dared to relieve Gi- military works a Reverie, than to stamp braltar, in the last quoted year, if the upon it a character of absurdiry; but Dutch had cordially united with our while it bears strong marks of talents, enemies; but, fortunately for us, the and military knowledge, it appears to powers above detained their feet in the me in many places absurd in the extreme. Maere and the Texel.

After having witnessed the speed with At the present moment, Richery's and which our troops on many occafions pethe Toulon squadrons, are said to amount netrated through the woods and wilds of to 21 fail of the line. The Spaniards, America, as well as the rapid progress according to all the accounts we have of the French through so many hostile received, have fitted out more than dou- countries, I can never believe that an ble that number. The Dutch have alsoa enemy who should debark in England considerable fleet; and the French have would not be able to advance above a a force, either lying at Brest, l'Orient, mile or two a day. Nor after the distance and Rochefort, or failed from those ports. the Highlanders advanced in the rebelWere all this strength mustered in one lion of forty-five, in which the author place, it would, in the present dispersed was concerned, can I give credence to his Itate of cur marine, amount to very fear- assertion, that an army of 50,000 mer ful odds, against which we might contend, would certainly perish by famine or by with ti.e hope, but without the certainty, his infallible attacks, with a trifling forci, of success.

upon their line of operation, before they · The next question that occurs is, where could make their way forty miles into are they to land? This will be better the country. Neither can I understand Solved by the engineers who have sur. how our hedges, so easily cleared by a veyed the coast, than by me. In every few field-pieces and howitzers; or our spot on which they have erected batteries, hillocks, ditches, and copfes can render and they are numerous, they have admit: this country impenetrable to the French, ted the practicability of the attempt, after seeing "the Alps and Pyreneas without fufficiently guarding against it. fink before them," and the immense foMany of those batteries might soon be rests and rivers of Germany oppose no Silenced by gallies, gun-boats, and other valid obstacle to their furious career. vessels, whole easy draught of water It would be well for all those who read would bring them close in ihore; and this book, to which its author's name as a large proportion of them are open and the times have given popularity, to in the rear, they could oppose no refif- recollect, that the excellent spy and intance to an enemy, when landed, in force. triguer who wrote it had made his peace

As to myself, I have little doubt that with our government, and was become a if a general engagement at sea were to pensioner of the state against which he terminate to our disadvantage, the enemy had committed so many offences. As it would strike at the vitals of the empire, by was written at a time when the terror of sailing up the Thames. As far as Til- an invasion was prevalent, and as he bury-fort, I believe there is no resistance councils the stockholders to lay aside their that a strong fotilla would not overcome, fears, it is not unreasonable to conclude

I am aware, that every such idea is that he was counsel for the defendant, and ridiculed by General Lloyd. The Dutch, paid for his opinion. says he, failed up the Medway with While I expose opinions of fo different twenty thips; but it is a folly to suppose a tenor, I admit, that it would be dan. that an enemy would attempt to sail up gerous to spread a panic alarm, that the Thames. But he forgets to say why might drive us to defpondeney, indeit is a folly to attempt the forcing a cision, and despair : but it would be ftill passa ge up a river lefs defended, and more dangerous to be lulled into a false more easily navigable, than the Medway, security, or to trust to insufficient means and with which multitudes of foreign of defence. Our boafted wooden walls, feamen are as well acquainted as our- considering the term as applied to fileers selves.

of great thips, are certainly an excellent As several of the opinions I have slight- rampart ; but there are two that I conly indicated here, are directly in the ceive to be better still. The next best teeth of the author I have just quoted, T is a fotilla, which could follow the ihall take this occasion to say a few words enemy into shoal water, and being renof his book. When he called it a Rhap- dered by its oars in a great measuro fody, hc, no doubt, mcant rather to imi. independent of the winds, could carry







On the Philosophy of Helvetius.

629 confufion and destruction among them of the brain is in all men equally perfect, when attempting to land. It is not, excepting in absolute idiots and madmen. however, by scattering a few gun-boats, of But is there no gradation from the very little force and bad construction, man of strong and sound intellect, down upon different parts of our coast, that we to the idiot. Has your correspondent can hope successfully to oppose an enemy never known persons, who, though not in who are employing myriads of artificers a state of absolute idiotism, are yet little in the building of small vefsels, and whose removed from it? Who shall draw the fhores, from the Texel to Bayonne, re- line where these removes end : As there found with dreadful notes of preparation !. are gradations below the standard of com

But the best of all, and indeed the only mon senie, may we not reasonably infer certain way of saving us from the hora that there are gradations ascending above rors, or at least from the wretched con- it? sequences that


result from an inva. The opponents or Helvetius believe fion, appears to me, as appears to in innate aptitudes not innate ideas. many others, to be the forming of a general In the same manner as the organ of militia of the nation ; and the adoption fight is formed with different degrees

1 of such political measures as may induce of strength in different persons, they afall parties to rally round the government. sert a difference of perfection in the No steps of that kind seem to be taking; organ of thought. I have known a child and I lament to say, that, in the mean catch a tune before he couid articulate time, the lives and properties of the Bri- a sentence, though his brother never distish nation are committed to the winds, covered the least inclination for music. and to frail compages of boards. Navibus Now the educution of their ears, had been & Gordibus vita populi Romani permiffi eft. precisely the fame ; for their mother had Sept. 14, 1796.

PIERRE. lung the same fongs to both in their

infancy. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. The instance of the Jesuits, which SIR,

Helvetius adduces, may be applied against IN your Magazine for June, a Corre- his system : it is a well known fact, that

spondent, who signs himself M.H. has their preceptors watched with the utdefended the system of Helvetius, and most attention the disposition of their asserted that “ nothing can be more pupils. One of them was believed inmonstrous and hypothetical, than the no- capable of attaining any kind of knowtion of a child (whose mind having re- ledge, till his tutor tried him in geomeceived no impression, is a total blank, try, and he became a celebrated mathewithout a single idea) being born with matician. : power of discrimination, a correct Is the brain always exa&tly of the same judgment, &c.”

size and lhape? Are the ventricles always The philosophy of Helvetius has be. exactly of the same size? Is the medullary come very fashionable in England. I, substance always exa&tly of the fame conhowever, believe, that all, arguments des fiftence-so that the vibrations may alduced from experience and analogy, ways be propagated with equal swiftness ? are directly in opposition to it. Two These questions must all be decided in the individuals– say the advocates of this affirmative, before it can be proved that fyftem, would be precisely similar, if all men are equally possessed of intellecthey received precisely the same educa- tual powers. rion; that is, if they should be precisely September 2, 1796.

S. R. in the same situations, and the same cir. cumstances; now this can never take To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, place. Thus, they assert what they SIR, themselves acknowledge never can be THERE is nothing so effential to the proved.

character of the historian, as that powMaterialists and Immaterialists are er of the mind which combines and conagreed, that the brain is the organ of denses into one view, facts, apparently thought; we have no business now with different, but which, on a nearer investi. the enquiry what it is that thinks-a gation, prove to be the component parts point which never can be proved, and of a regular system, which developes the of which the proof, if possible, would be hidden causes of things, and unfolds, useless. The brain, however, is the organ with almost intuitive accuracy, the sea of thought, as the eye is the organ of cret motives of the moit refined policy : vifion ; the point, then up which this yet how few do we see possessed of this fyftem rests, is, that the organization power? we are either presented ? with a bare frigid recital of events; or borne, To sbe Editor of toe Montbly Magazine. by the strength of imagination, into the unfathomable depths of speculative re

4 L2

a bare politeness. Themifto- rence, Venice and Ge. St. John's College, BLastos. cles, Miltiades, and noa obtain great victoCambridge, May 13.

SIR; finement: of the latter of these, how. TI

HE recent conquests in Italy by the ever inimitable in other respects, Da.

French armies, has recalled to my vila is a conspicuous example : of the mind some thoughts I have long enterformer we have daily instances; but the tained, relative to the palt vicissitudes, historian who is free from both these and the probable destiny, of that beautifaults, and to whom this power may with ful country: On reading the history of juftice be attributed, is Hume.

Italy, and of the Italian language, and on I have been induced to offer these re- observing the revolutions of the arts and marks by way of introducing to your sciences, it is difficult to avoid perceiving notice a subject (as it appears to me) by the strong resemblance between Italy no means accounted for by the professed and ancient Greece. A perfon thohistorians of those times, viz. the abdi- roughly acquainted with their histories, cation of Charles the Vth, emperor of will likewise find, that the course of civiGermany, and the resignation of the lization and of decay, has been nearly Imperial crown to his son, Philip IId. the same in both of them. I am contiRobertson, in his History, attributes it to dent, that the publication of these ideas, at the declining state of his health ; a (pe. a time when Italy is probably about to uncious reason indeed; yet it is highly dergo such very important changes, cannot improbable, that in so active a breast as fail to be agreeable to your readers. I that of Charles the Vrh, ambition should will, therefore, exhibit a kind of comparaaver have been extinct but with life.


of both countries, in the four The uncorrupt, the ever memorable great periods of their respective histories: Sully, in his Memoirs (a work replete GREECE.

ITALY. with acute observations) attributes the First period. First period. emperor's refignation to disappointment; Termination of the Termination of the and this, from a review of circumstances, Trojan war; the heroic dark age, towards the appears to me to be the true reason. age; týranny and abuse year 1000 ; earls, mar, Flattered, as Charles had ever been, with of power in the several quisses, and dukes, tythe hope of universal monarchy, the cru- sovereigns.

rannize over the people, el blow of Maurice, elector of Saxony's

and abuse their power

in the name of German revolt, was doubly felt : disappointed in his hope of making the Imperial digni

emperors. ty hereditary in his family, and dif- rise in inlurrections; or reconquered; Pisa

The Greeks, irritated, Freedom is purchased gusted with the bad state of his affairs erect commonwealths, and Genoa become free with respect to France, now exerting and establish the Am- cities; the confuls fucherself with renewed energy, under a phictionic league. ceed to earls and dukes; young and ambitious monarch; he was

league beiween the Itaconvinced, that the hope of obtaining uni

lian republics in the versal dominion would never be realized.

year 1167. His hopes being thus destroyed, which Games, feafts, facri- Horse-races, military he had been fondly cherishing during the fices, in great request exercises; laws and staa Patter part of his reign, he determined among the free Greeks. tutes; bravery follows.

liberty. to resign his power, before it suffered far

By Lycurgus and his Venice, the greatest ther diminution; and that his descent might be as remarkable as his rise had been laws, Sparta acquires the of the Italian cities, be

greatest weight and at- comes the common pro. fplendid, to finish his long career of tur

thority; he becomes tector of Italy. Eomus bulent 'ambition in the gloomy melan. the feat of justice and ad bonos Venetos was the choly of the cloister : that he might give virtue, and the com- common saying of all the world an instance of magnanimity mon centre to whom discordant cities. not inferior to the boafted philofophy the other states refort of Dioclesian.

in their wants or difIf this reason should not appear to be ferences. the true one, I trust that some of your Sparta in military valour, tica. In war, the rival


Athens, the rival of Tuscany was the At. readers will communicate one more conclufive.

surpasses her in arts and Venice. Pisa, and Flo.

others, as well as Leoni- ries, but their Themif. das, great generals. Wise tocles bad no gocd hit. xe; commeree, cola tocian, Learned meg

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