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CERTAIN perfons have for some time
paft been carrying on a difpute re-
fpecting the TALENTS of women, and
the difpute I perceive has found its way
into your Mifcellany. I believe, fir,
the queftion might be foon fettled to the
fatisfaction of all parties, if we were first
to agree
in what is meant, or fhould be
meant, by the word talents. Hitherto, if
I understand the controversy, talents have
been understood to mean the power or
faculty of publishing in profe and verfe;
and if we limit it to this, we may easily
decide, that women are inferior to men,
because there have been probably a thou-
fand male authors for one female.

But, fir, with fubmiffion, I would beg leave to fuggeft, that we narrow human genius and abilities very much, when we confine them to the bookfeller's hop. Are not there many very able ftatefimen who never write any thing but treafury-warrants, and receipts for their falaries? Nay, do we not admire the vaft genius of fome members of parliament, whole forte is entirely in speaking, and who, when compelled to draw up an addrefs to their independent conftituents, commit errors that would difgrace a school-boy? In fhort, fir, if we have no other way of judging of a man's talents, but by the quantity he publishes, either from the prefs or from his mouth, are we not giving all the praife to mere faying; and never reflecting, that an accumulation of words, without correfponding actions, is to all neceffary purpofes ufelefs and unprofitable?


Power and Influence of the Female Sex, from the fall of Adam to the present time." It is the pitifut jealoufy and envy of men which has deprived the fex of the honours due to them in hiftory; and likewife fome part of the concealment of their influence, arifes from the brevity of hiftories, their authors taking a fuperficial view of events, and feldom troubling themselves to inveftigate the fecret fprings of human action; whereas, if we will only examine into the minute particulars of great events, the fecret intrigues of courts, kings and minifters, or even of republics, we fhall always find that the women have had a great share in bringing about political changes, wars, treaties, negociations, &c. although they, from modefty probably, content themfelves with acting unfeen and unobferved, and the men, proud of the fuccefs of the affair, wifh to take all the merit to themfelves. Now, fir, let me ask you a plain question: which of the two is likely to deferve moft fame, and to confer greater renown on the party, the publishing a poem, or bringing about a revolution in a ftate or nation, perhaps with a few words? which requires greater abilities, to govern a kingdom, or to cajole a bookfeller to tickle the fancy of love-fick boys and girls by a novel, or to confound and ftun half the cabinets of Europe, by a bold stroke of invafion, a maffacre, and a partition? to write a ballad about a man and woman who never exifted, or to make the exiftence of thousands of men and women miserable?

This being premifed, and, I hope, allowed, we need difpute no longer about the fuperiority of the male fex. The talents of the fair fex, as to all the great and important events of human life, and all the leading tranfactions of kingdoms and ftates, have fo far tranfcended what has been attributed to us, that were I to compile a new UNIVERSAL HISTORY, however I might avail myself of the valuable labours contained in the old, 1 fhould certainly entitle it, "A Hiftory of the MONTHLY MAG. No. VIII.

But this is not all. It is not enough to appeal to the hiftory of ancient and modern nations, for proofs of the fuperiority of woman over man. This, perhaps, is not much in their favour, for a fuperiority of evil influence is not the prefent conteft, and would not be very honourable if it were established. No, fir, if we wish to ascertain the real and meritorious fuperiority of female talents, we need not confult the voluminous records of history; we need only bring the queftion home to ourselves. I thall instance but in one refpect, the power of perfuafion. This I take to be the great teft of genius and talents. He who poffeffes this, poffeffes every thing; and yet we know that what a man cannot do by whole treatifes and volumes, by a well connected chain of arguments, and the most convincing calculations, is generally done by a woman with a finile, a glance of the eye, or a very few words. Sir, we may talk as we please of our vast learning, of 4 I

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I am, fir, your humble fervant, Aug. 27, 1796. PHILOGYNES.

our voluminous productions, of our many establishes the fuperiority of the fair virtues for which we obtain credit in epi- fex. 2. E. D. taphs and funeral fermons. But with what painful efforts do we accomplish the leaft of our good actions! and to do a great good is the businefs of a long life. What is all our power compared, or, which is more dangerous, put in competition, with a tear or a fit?

I repeat it, fir, let us bring the question

home to ourselves. What is it that conftitutes the felicity of domeftic life? Is it the wealth we have acquired, the houfe we live in, the equipage that bespeaks our rank, or the fervants that bow at our command? No, fir, to ufe an expreffion of Mr. BURKE, it is "the dignified obedience, and proud fubmiffion" we owe and pay to the female fex. Our hearts confefs that they deferve it, and that we cannot help paying it, and cannot, therefore, help acknowledging their fuperiority. When we refufe to pay it, when our minds are in a state of rebellion against thofe lawful fovereigns, where is it that we dare to breathe fentiments of a feditious tendency? Is it in their prefence? No, a look, a word awes us into fubmiffion; and when we conceive the thoughts of refiftance, we fly, like cowards, to fome fecret place, to fome neutral ground, to the defert heath of celibacy, and the infulated fociety of worn-out batchelors, where we may growl our complaints with impunity, and talk of refolutions which we have not the courage to carry into execution.

Confcious of the fuperiority of the female fex, fome have lately queftioned whether they ought not to be admitted into the employments of civil life, for which women feem fo admirably fitted: on this fubject I mean, at fome future occafion, to offer my fentiments. As women have been admitted to be Queens, there furely can be no inferior office to which they are inadequate. A very eminent judge lately decided, that a woman might be chofen overfeer. The office is but low, indeed, but there have been queens who perhaps wifhed, at fome period of their lives, that they had never filled a higher ftation.

I fhall not, however, anticipate what I have to offer hereafter on this fubject. My prefent defign was merely to hint, that great talents are not neceffarily fhown by much writing, and that they may be accounted to poffefs the greatcft talents who accomplish the greatest purpoles by few means, which, in my niind,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


N your third Number (page 186.) appears a Letter from a gentleman who adopts the fignature T. wherein he has favoured the public with his ideas of the manners in which he supposes lime to be ferviceable to vegetation.

The writer endeavours to account for the utility of lime in hufbandry, by affuming a principle originating with fome experiments of the late Sir John Pringle, namely, that lime is a fepuc and promotive of putrefaction. Whatever merit be attributed to his fubfequent reasoning, the principle itfelf I fufpect to be erroneous.

The caufticity of lime is a quality of extenfive ufe in feveral manufactures: tanners and fell-mongers employ it to extricate the hair and wool from the skins, preparatory to their operations; but caufticity is not putridity, for hair thus feparated is ufually worked up with lime into a compofition for plaiftering walls and ceilings, and will, in that ftate, be preferved for a great number of


Vegetable fubftances are, perhaps, better preferved when inclofed in limemortar, than by any other method. I have often noticed willow laths, apparently uninjured, in the partitions of old buildings, where they had remained fifty or one hundred years and in fome kinds of mortar, in which lime is a principal ingredient, traw or chaff is employed, and thus combined will become very durable.


In the manufacture of indigo, limewater is ufed, partly to promote the feparation of the colouring matter, and partly to prevent its putrefaction whilst drying.

When, in dying with indigo, the vat is brought in to a fate of fermentation, there is a ftrong difpofition to putrefaction, and quick-lime is applied, in proportion to the danger, as a preventative.

It is well-known alfo, that eminent phyficians have strongly recommended the frequent white-washing the cells of prifons, the apartments of hofpitals, and the chambers of thofe who are vifited with putrid difeafes, in order to check or prevent the effects of putrid effluvia.





Fallowing, an ufeless Practice.

From thefe circumstances, I think myfelf juftified in doubting the truth of the principle affumed by your correfpondent, T. And am inclined to believe quick-lime to be rather anti-putrefcent, than feptic.

Quick-lime laid on land muft, from its caufticity have fome effect, the heat it communicates during the operation of flaking, may probably deftroy a confiderable number of infects, and by increafing the warmth of the foil may promote vegetation, and haften the evaporation of redundant moisture: but these effects can only be temporary: when completely flaked, lime is reduced to an impalpable powder undistinguishable from pulverized lime-ftone uncalcined. It is in this ftate, I prefume, that its permanent utility is moft obvious, and thus employed it adds to the quantity of the foil, and by being intimately mixed with it, leffens its tenacity, and prevents its confolidating into a mafs impenetrable to the roots of vegetables; and whatever be its chemical qualities or combinations, the ultimate effects will, I believe, be the fame.

Gravel, fand, gypfum, the afhes of foffil coal, and the fcrapings of the roads, are I fuppofe nearly fimilar in the manner of their operation. In ftiff lands they are of ufe in loofening the clods, and thereby allowing the roots to extend themfelves with lefs difficulty.

The great object with the farmer fhould be, to bring his land as much as poffible into the ftate of a well-managed garden. The gardener gives the earth no reft, his fpade and hoe keep it in almoft perpetual motion, and he replenishes it occafionally from his melon and cucumber beds, with ftable manure nearly or completely rotten.


Tracts of indifferent land may be found in all large estates, and the wealth of the proprietor, or the fund of the fociety, would ultimately be benefited, though an immediate profit could not rationally be expected.

Laboured difquifitions on the organization of vegetables, or the chemical properties of foil and manure, are a very rational employment for perfons of property, fcience, and leifure; but the practical farmer may fafely advance in improvement by imitating the gardener as clofely as circumftances will allow, and leave curious fpeculation to thofe who are qualified for it, and who cannot be effentially injured by the failure of experiments.

Wishing you fuccefs in the profecution of a work which breathes a liberal spirit, and promifes literary entertainment and extended utility, I am, fir,

Your obedient humble fervant, Baib, 27 Aug.1796. T. P.

For the Editor of the Monthly Magazine


I AM pleafed to fee the fubject of Agri

culture introduced into your Mifcellany, and if you think the following obfervations worth your infertion, they are at your fervice.

Noblemen and gentlemen of large landed property, and the agricultural focieties eftablished in different parts of the nation, cannot adopt any method fo likely to be beneficial to the country, as the appropriation of a quantity of land to the fole purpofe of experiment.

In the practice of the old fyftem of hufbandry, there is nothing more injurious to the public, or detrimental to the farmer, than that of fallowing land for a crop. The lofs of produce to the community from this caufe is prodigious; it is, therefore, well worth the attention of the better informed husbandman and the philanthropist to remove it. Our benevolent Creator has fo bountifully provided for our futenance, that the fructifying powers of the earth would never be wearied of yielding its increase, if men were rational and induftrious in the application of proper means to obtain it. By the hoe we prevent the in ruding weeds from robbing the growing plants of their food, and preferve the inv gorating quality of the foil from being exhaufted. To thofe perfons who plead for the neceffity of a fallow, in order to clear land from couch-grafs, and other weeds, I would fay, it is the plea of indolence; as the whole benefit they wish for may be obtained without the lofs of a crop, by induftry and a fmall expence.-I fpeak from experience the proper management lies in skillfully appropriating the land for fuch a produce as will only occupy it fuch a space of time as not to impede the neceffary work of cleaning it. Laft year, took in hand from a tenant, a field of fevenacres, after a wretched crop of wheat: this land was covered with couch grafs and wild oats: foil was of a deep loam.-As foon as the fcanty crop was cleared, I mowed the ftubble, and ploughed it lightly. This I repeated at four different intervals each ploughing being deeper than the former, taking care to keep open every furrow 4 I 2

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for the difcharge of the water. plough was followed by the loaded longtined harrows, the roll, the lighter harrows, and laft of all by eight women who picked up what couch visibly remained.

But that I might more effectually perform the operation of cleaning the land by renewing the fame labour as beforementioned in the courfe of the fummer, I cropped it the 12 of March with the early dwarf garden pea, which were fet nearly one bufhel to an acre by line. The crop was a very good one, which were taken to the barn for feed on the 15th of July laft. Having provided a dreffing of lime and manure at hand, I loft no time in preparing the land for turnips, and I have now as promifing an appearance of them as any of my neighbours who fuffered fuch a crop as I have defcribed to efcape them, and which they might have obtained without the leaft diminution of the means of deftroying weeds, or injury to the foil.

At fome future time, I will give you the particulars of my expences, and the value of the crop of peas, that a judgment may be formed of this kind of hufbandry. If land is freed from weeds by the means I have pointed out, and it had the benefit of (what is always applied to a fallow in this neighbourhood) a good dreffing of inanure,-I am perfuaded the fame advantages would arife, as is obtained by permitting it to remain ufelefs and unemployed.

I with to fee this ufclefs practice, as well as that of neglecting to plough up ftubbles immediately after a crop, difcouraged, and fhall be happy to fee a contrary practice recommended by fome more able pen than that of

Worcestershire. Aug. 25, 1796.

Your humble fervant,
J. S.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


IF Mr. COLERIDGE had ever made a pilgrimage to the birth-place of Chatterton, he would never have inferted thefe lines in his beautiful Monody the only one that has yet done honour to the subject:

"Thy native cot the flash'd upon thy view, "Thy native cot, where fill at close of day "PEACE fmiling fat-and liftened to thy lay."

The ftreet is as clofe and filthy as any in St. Giles's: there is a charity-fchool

there, and Mrs. Chatterton herself taught children to read and few, When fuch is the place and fuch the inhabitants, we cannot eafily conceive PEACE fitting in Pile-street.

In his drefs, Chatterton had none of the careleffness by which genius is fo of ten fo dirtily diftinguished. At that period laced cloaths were worn and he was fond of appearing in a fhowy fuit. It is ftrange that men of genius fhould fo frequently with to render themfelves fingular by their appearance, either by be, coming flovens, or, like Chatterton and Gray, by affecting the oppofite extreme.

The field has been fo often and fo completed gleaned, that no new anecdotes of this ftrange young man can now be expected. A complete edition of what. ever he left, either under his own name or that of Rowley, is fill to be defired, His unpublished pieces are in the hands of Mr. CATCOTT, of Bristol, on whom Chatterton has reflected a celebrity which he would otherwife have fought in vain, either under ground or on the top of a church-fteepie. Some of thefe fhould be preferved. To publifh them without fubmitting them to the pruning knife would be to injure the reputation of the author and to infult the decency of the reader. Some beautiful poems, (not contained in the editions of Rowley,) are in Mr. BARRET'S Hiftory of Br.ftol; and they appear amid that dull compilation, like a few ftars in a dark night, Thefe pieces, with the publifhed poems of Chatterton, and his contributions to the magazine of the day, if collected into a volume with his life, would form an acceptable prefent to the public. Subfcriptions have been propofed for erecting him a monument; furely this would be the nobleft?

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New Tranflation, &c.

that the fenfe and grammatical conftruction require a full ftop at the end of the line

Martis equis Acheronta fugit,

2. No rational poet would begin an ode, having for its object to alter a preconceived intention, by the praise of the perfevering man-tenacem propofiti visum: fuch praife tends to defeat the end in view.

3. He would not chofe this place for undervaluing the dangers of the Adriatic and of the fouthern form, to both which the paffengers to and from the new feat of empire would often be expofed, when he was endeavouring to throw obftacles in the way of the enterprize.

4. He would not defcribe one of the heroes, held up as models to be imitated, by the name of the rover vagus Hercules, where he wished to withstand a fpirit of migrating from one place to another: he would rather have chofen fome oppofite epithet of praise.

In the fcale of reafons adduced for fuppofing four ftanzas of this ode to have originally formed no part of it, the first and third are perhaps mere makeweights, but the fecond and fourth are furely decifive: befides the ode begins worthily with

Gratum eloquuta confiliantibus
Junone divis :-

and forms a complete whole without

thofe fixteen lines.

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But, in its prefent form, it terminates difagreeably, as if thefe virtues were to be of no ufe; whereas, if we fuppofe, Horace to go on to the praife of justice and steadiness, and then to reprefent all thefe excellencies as conducting to apotheofis, he will not only have prefented a lift of virtues proper on fuch an occafion to be enforced, but also a lofty motive to practise them.

On the fuppofition, then that the fixteen lines included between Juftum ac tenacem, and Acheronia fugit, belong at the end of the fecond ode of the third book, I propofe for your infertion, a new tranflation of that ode, whence the reader will be better able to judge of its coherence. To hardship, friend, enure thy fon betimes; Send the ftout youth with level'd spear to ride At the fierce Parthian foe, And in sharp warfare learn To jouft with danger, fnatch his fleeps abroad, And bear the narrow dole of penury.

Him from the hoftile wall
With anxious measuring eye

The royal mother, or the bride, thail view, Trembling, leaft he whom their rafh wishes fhield,

When gore-fed anger calls

To rend the recking ranks, Meet the young lion-tempt the doubtful ftrife.

'Tis tweet and feemly for our land to fall.
The flying footstep Death
Alfo attains, nor fpares
The coward's hamstring, or his branded back.
True Fortitude not only braves the fight
Undaunted, but the camp;

Nor heeds a clamorous crew

At punishment and pardon rash alike.
To thofe who merit not the stroke of fate

She reaches to unbar.

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