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THE

OF

DURHAM.

a

1796.]
Plan of Experimental Farm.

539 greater consequence to the fuitors, arife tral Miscellany, to hear of other institu. from the unskilfulness or d.Thonesty of tions of the raine kind. practisers-none of which evils are re

fir,
your

constant reader, inedied by taxation,

July 29, 1796.

AGRICOLA. Were the Judges to exercise the power

PROPOSALS FOR ESTABLISHING AN given them by the Acts of Parliament,

EXPERIMENTAL SOCIETY OF AGRIfor regulating Attornies and Solicitors, and examine

CULTURE, IN

COUNTY young men when they come for admisfion, as to their qualifica. tions, &c. and require a testimonial WITH à view to the attainment of of their good character, the evils we this important object, it is proposed to coniplain of, 'would, I believe, in establish an Experimental Society of Agri. great measure be checked, if not entirely culture, and to prosecute such trials as removed.

seem likely to improve the art, on a It was with pleasure I heard, last farm taken for that purpose. Such an winter, of a scheme for the foundation institution, under the direction of well. , of a fociety, under the fanction of Par- informed and disinterested cultivators, liament, to consist of men of rank in the would afford to neighbouring farmers profession, before whom all young men, examples of the most approved rotation previous to their applying for admillion, of crops, of the most advantageous mawere to undergo an examination. Such nagement of land, and of the use of the an institution, would, I think, be of great best implements of husbandry. It would utility, as well to the profession as to tend to improve the stock of the country, the cummunity in general ; and we by introducing the most esteemed breeds, should then feldom hear of suitors suf- and hy affording an opportunity of af. fering by the ignorance or dillainy of certaining the excellencies and defects of their attornies.

each ; such as the quantity and quality Brifol, Aug. 15, ATTORNATUS. of food they require to make them 1796.

thrive ; their power of bearing inclemency of weather, their general hardi.

hood, and many other important circumTo the Editor of tbe Montbly Magazine. Itances, which stock-breeders can hardly

be expected to divulge, but which would SIR,

be fully and candidly published by the HE *great importance of an Expe- fociety. The cultivation also of artificial

RIMENTAL Farm to the future grasses, and the investigation of the virimprovement of agriculture being uni

tue of each, and of the foil and exposure versally acknowledged, I have much sau in which they fourish most, present an tisfaction in transmitting to you some ample field for improvement. And lastly, account of a projected institution of that the society, by pointing out the most ef. kind in the county of Durham. Many fectual and expedient modes of draining, of your readers will, doubtless, recollect of fencing, and of performing all those thát a similar scheme was some time various operations which are required in fince proposed by the society, at Bath, husbandry, might contribute to form a and another, more recently, by the fo

more intelligent and useful body of la. ciety in Leicestershire. I do not recol. bourers than can at present be met with. lect whether plans of either of these in every branch, in short, of agriculture, were matured; I believe none was pub- the society would (it is hoped) prove lithed ; and it is certain, that from some beneficial, by confirming established unavoidable causes, both projects were usages, where they are founded in truth; rendered abortive. It is ftill, however, by detecting and removing errors, where admitted by the most skilful farmers in they have been allowed to creep in ; and - this kingdom, that nothing will con- by exploring the yet hidden paths which tribute to greatly and certainly to the may lead to the perfecting of this the most speedy advancement of the Georgical necessary, and the most pleasing, of all the arts as the establishment of two or three

arts that are practised by man. experimental farms, on liberal principles, The outline of the plan of the Durham with submitted to the public. It is to

A plan for such an institution is here. farm, here fubjoined, will possibly excite be considered not as a complete and fettled çmulation in other districts; and I shall form, but as an outline, destined to be hope, through the medium of your cen- filled up and corrected by the more ma.

322

ture

THI

ture reflection and better judgment of with the committee, to superintend its the subscribers. No step would have executirn. been taken towards carrying the project 5. The committee to dispose of the into execution, without previously con- produce of the farm, and apply the mosulting those who may be inclined to ney in aid of the necessory expences ; promote it ; bur it was so essentially ne- the deficiency to be supplied by lubcessary to the success of the undertaking, scription. that a sufficient number of active and 6. If the funds of this society. be intelligent practical farmers thould act adequate to the farther expence of tfta. in the committee, that it was deemed blihing an Agricultural Library, it would improper to solicit the concurrence of the add to the utility of the institution. - public, until that first great point had 7. In the choice of the farm, the ro. been secured. Messrs. Collins, of Barmp. ciery, or their committee, will, no doubt, ton and of Ketton ; Mr. Mowbray, of take care that its situation be centrical ; Sherburn; Mr. Mason, of Holywell; that it possess a due variety of soil; be Mr. Grainger, of Heugh; and Mr. conveniently placed for procuring a vaForster, of Broomyholme, have removed riety of manures, and afford (as far as this difficulty, by promising their aid; can be expected) an ample range for exand from the liberal spirit of the yeo- periment. manry, there is every reason to look, in N. B. Gentlemen desirous of affifing general, for their alistance. The lup- this plan, will please to signify their inport, therefore, of the public is alone tentions to Dr. Fenwick, or to Mr. Penwanting; and the promoters of the un- nington, printer, Durham. dertaking are willing to believe that it will not be withheld from it. The im- Since the circulation of tbe foregoing, a mee:provement of agriculture, indeed, pre. ing bas been beld of the COMMITTEE, ai sents such great and manifest advantages Durbam, when abe following specific to every class of the community, that the resolutions were entered into : enlightened and benevolent must be anxi

1. That to carry the plan into execuous to promote it.

ticn, it will require a farm of at least two

hundred acres. Outlines of the Plan.

2. That to furnish the farm with a 1, The society to take a farm, for the due variety and proportion of the best purpose of pursuing such experiments as breeds of stock, and with pioper matend to improve agriculture; of atford- chinery and iinpiements of h Ibandry, ing to the ni hbouring tenantry an &c. not less than one thouland pounds will ample of the most improved manage- be necessary. ment of land, and of the best implements 3. That from the kinds of soil chiefly of husbandry; and of introducing into wanted, the rent of the farm will prothe country the most valuable breeds of bably be about one hundred and fifty Atock.

pounds a year. 2. The manayement of the farm to be 4. That as it is of great importance placed in a Committee, to be annually that the person to whom the immediate chosen by the society, and a skiiful hut. management of the farm is committed bandman, to be brought from fome one thould be able, a&tive, well informed, and of the counties whe:e agriculture flou. respornble, his faiary cannot be taken at rishes most, for the purpose of woik ng is. less than one hundred pounds a year.

3. A journal of the farm to be kept, Instructed by such a man, it is expected together with a regular table of the state that the labourers employed on the farm of the weather; and to submit them to will prove highly valuable as servants in the members of the society, at their husbandry. general meetings, which it is proposed to 5. That as the stock cannot for some hold four times a year.

time be expected to make any retura, 4. The farm to be viewed by the an annual sum of three hundred pounds members on the morning of the quar- will be required to support the institution terly meetings. At these meetings also in its infancy. the progress of experiments under trial 6. That in the beginning of the in. to be reported, and fuiure experiments ftitution, the committee Thould meet' at to be proposed. Any affociate who pro- least once a month. poses an experiment (of which the ma- 7. That the committee should confift jority approves) to be requested, jointly of six practical farmers, three other gen

ex

clemca,

12.

1796.)
Sunderland Iron Bridge.

541 demen, and a secretary, to correct and reason to believe, that an application of arrange the Journal of the society, and cual tar, and pounded charcoal, to the superintend the publication of those pro- iron, in a heated date, will form a species ceedings which the society may wish to of japan, which will refill the weather submit to the public.

for many years. The wrought-iron is 8. That the stock, implements of huf, as three to twenty-five of cali-iron in the bandry, &c. thall remain the property of quantity used ; its price as 31 to the subscribers.

The particular description of the carcasies, &c, upon which the centre was

laid, and the various other very ingeni. Tu ibe Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

ous contrivances, during the course of SIR,

this very spirited unders, king, will be AS S your Provincial Intelligrnce for

laid before the public in a work now prethe present month will undoubt. edly include a relation of the open professional men.

preparing for the particul:r information of

In the meantime, ing of the new Iron bridge, at Sunderland, fome account of the principles has just neen published at Newcastle, by

a beautiful perspective view of the bridge upon which thac ftupenduus edifice is Mr. Robert Johnson, a very ingenious conftruéted, mav not be unacceptable to your readers, and the rather, as they young artist, and Mr. A. Hunter, enare totally different from ihose which graver, price 5s. which will, perhaps, have been erected of the same materiils, in general. From this view, it appears,

convey a better ives of it to the public in other places. The principle of this that it is a small segment of a very large bridge proceeds entirely upon the idea circle ; fur though its span is 236 feet, of rendering the arch infini:ely lighter the versed fine, or perpendicular to the than it could have been made in tone; chord, is only 34 feet. The syandrils, of by means of the great voids which course, do not require muh filing up; cast-iron will permit, and the simplicity and this is done in the ligh'est manner, with which that metal will adopt any by iron circles, placed upon the ribs, and form. The blocks, which are cast to serve as arch-stones, are made of the gradually diminithing in size, from the

abutments towards the centre. The annexed form and dimensions :

whole is braced, and tied together at cop by timbirs, on which planks are l-id, to carry a kind of leid roof, with the earth and materials of the road above it. lis hei, he is 100 feet aboru hiyhwater mark í lo that ships of confiderable bur:hen aie contin ally rating under it; of course the pier are 76 feet of Clid malonry. S upendous limestone rocks are the foundation of that on the fourh fid; he rfing ground being somewhat more diftanc from the river on the north, the intervalis filled up with ample ware

houses, over which the road is carr'ed. Their thickness is no more than four What may have been the expence of it, inches, and their weight about 4 cwr. your crrispondent has not the means of These are kept in their places, and made being informid; but if it be confidered, to bear accurately upon each other, in the thar, in a great measure, both the inmanner of key-Itones, by bars of wionghivention, the expen, e, and the riik, belong iron, which run alung grooves (marked to one in Jividual (R wiand Burdon, Esq. by thades) on cach side of the blacks, one of the members for the county), who and are bolted through, at equal dis. cannot, in the utmost ultimale fucce!s, be tances, to braces of (aft-iron, paffing any farther benefitted than by the horizontally between the rits; of fix or ceipt of that common interest for his which, placed at five feet from each money which he might have had without other, the bridge consists. The wrough:. r lk any where, it mult certainly be classed iron is common Swedish, or Ruffian bare among the mil public-spirited underiron, which may be taken out, and re. takings of ancient or modern times. placed, if necessary: but there is every

V. F.

ON

3 Feer.

3 Feet

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4

SIR,

T

in v

ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE L', to the noun En, which form the

WELCH LANGUAGE. following class of words : To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine.

Cor, what is foremost or uppermost ; a point,

a head.

Fen, what has aj tnuss to proceed, or to flow; He communications which have

breith. already appeared in the Monthly Gen, intellett, or soul; organ of utterance ; Magazine, wich relpect to LANGUAGE, a mourh. promile much valuable information; and Hen, that is fully advanced, or matured;

old. they indicate that men of science begin 'Len, what is over, or covering ; a veil ; to cultivate this branch of learning with

Nen, what spreads over ; a vault, or canopy; that attention which it deserves.

the sky. Circumsiances having directed

Pen, what is superior; a head, a top; chief. pursuit to the investigation of the IV el

Ren, the Supr.-me; the Moft High; God.

Ser, what is put forward, or conspicuous; a Jonzue, it has been continued closely for

itigma. many years, chiefly from the pleasure it afforded; and it bids fair ultimately to

All words of one syllable, like those unfold things, which appear to me ex.

last mentioned, become verbs, when traordinary and surpriting, compared they are farther compounded, by affixwith what is known to the world upon ing a vowel. The terminations of verbs, the subject in general*.

which are generally covridered as mere Permit me, fir, to bring to notice a arbitrary figns of the different inflexions, few remarkable discoveries from the

are real words, with appropriate meanlanguage just mentioned :

ings, descriptive of luch modes, or times, In the first place, there are in it thirty- for which they stand, and are so used fix letters ; being, I believe, the exact separately. amount of the powers of articulation. In the next place :--Those elementary The vowel sounds, unconnected with founds, with such meanings as are an. confonants, imply motion or action, in nexed to them in Welfb, explain abvarious times. All the possible changes ftractedly most words in different lanof fimple rounds, or primary combination guages, agreeable to the appropriate of vowels and consonants, such as ab, ci, fignifications given to them. That the da, eb, and the like, are about three hivt may receive fome illustration, two hundred. These founds, having refpec- or three examples fall be given ; and rively a fixed abstract meaning, constitute first, where the fundamental idea is prethe bafis, from which every longer word served through a whole class of words : is regularly formed in all its parts. Sy (existing as a quality, or agent) that Some of the fimple founds stand always

sends, forces, laifes or shoots out from for principals, or nouns; and others

a point, in any direction.

Bal (by the agent, and al the element) remain as qualities; and the latter, ge

what is fent, impelled, raised, or pro. perally dropping their vowels, are pre

jesied from a point, in any directien. fixed to the others, in forming the first

Now let the reader turn in his mind fort of compounds; which are

all the words he can collect, in different fyllables, like bod, cad, man, and per. languages, beginning with Sy, and with All words of this kir that have a con

Bal; he will then, perhaps, fancy that mon bafis, do necessarily preserve the he perceives those two leading ideas pre. fundamental idea originally annexed to ferved throughout. For the fake of such bafis, however qualified by different brevity, one instance fhall luifice with prefixes, for the sake of discrimination, respect to particular words :-The ap; and multiplying of terms.

This may be

propriate import of the English word illustrated, by putting the qualifying Run is well known; the abftract meaning prefixes--(V; fy, gy, by, "ly, ny, py, 'ry', of the same found' in Weth, by confi. * What is hinted at here is likely to be excess of energy or activity ; but it is

dering its coniponeat parts, would be completed by Mr. W. Owen, in a Dictionary appropriared in Welsh, to express agit?. of ti e Language; half of which is nearly publ'her. It will contain about one hundred tion or hivering, and the word Red is thousand words, discarding all compound epic used fynonimously to Run in English; thets; this will convey fune idea of the labour, which also implies excess of miction. The requisite to its completion, when it is unders' prefix used to both words is Ry or Re, food that there is no other Welsh Dictionary, over, much to excess; and perhaps this which contains a fixth part of that number, fixes the meaning of the common prefix

R,

mono

or

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1796]
German Anecdotes.

543 Re, to mean over or past a given point, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. 2, in Reverse, and the like.

Sir, Let this article thould run too long, I mut conclude with barely enumerating ITwill, with difficulty, be believed,

that Berlin, the chief city of the late a few particulars more, which may be king of Pruslia, should afford any proofs enlarged upon at a furure opportunity.

of luperstition or fanaticism : yet an inAll the fimple sounds are reserved to

stance very lately occurred, which has convey general or abstract ideas, and not occafioned the relignation of Mr. Brumparticular ihings.

bey, a preacher; and an order to abitaia The primary compounds express the from the future exercise of his office as most general of particular things.

preacher or teacher. The circumstance The combination of several sounds, or

which gave rise to it, is thus related : long words, express the more complex Richter and Schulz, ihe two colleagues ideas.

of Brumbey, very generally admired Such a regular system of speech seems to prove, that man originally ma:le ufe of preachers, except by the followers of

Brumbey, not approving the old pfalm. only simple founds to convey idcas :

at the communion, That the mind, without communica. tion, conccived it in its more complex lay God be praised and blefred, forin: or

« Who bath himtelt fed us Thar language was imparted to the first “ With his Hesh, and with his blood," maa, perficily cottructed.

gave out the verse, A very great number of compound words, refolvable to their primitives in

" I thank thee, from my heart, O Jesus!" the Velfb, run through many languages. Brumbey and his followers were very

There are in the l'eljh, words per- i dignant at this change, and accused the fectly finilar in found to the mytbologic preachers of actually denying the godNumes of the ancient world, answering head of Christ. Complete confusion exactiy to most of the explanations given took place in the church: Brumbey's by Gebelin and Bryant.

pariy screamed and shouted out their It would be difficult to adduce a single beloved pfalm, and were on the point of article, or form of conitruction, in the attacking Richter at the altar; and a Hebrew Grammar, but the fame is to be fanatical shoemaker was taken into cure found in 1Velfb; and there are many tody by the police. Brumhey, 'in his whole sentences in both languages exactiy fermon, explained the communiòn text, the same in the very words.

and taught his audience, that it was nor The Irish and Welsh are fundamentally human blood, which they fed on at the the same, but differing much in dialect altar, but the real blood of the Father, and pronunciation.

Son, and Holy Ghost; he then' wrote The Sclavonic, Brelon, and Welsh, are to the king; from whom (as, according one language, with but little variation of to his account, his two colleagues, and dialect, which I conceive to be an in- all the Berlin preachers denied the divia portant discovery.

nity of Christ), he begged his discharge. The Sclavons and Ielfh being separate In consequence of this letter, a confifto. people from a very remote period, mili- rial enquiry took place; of which the tates greatly against the cominon notion result was as above ftated, and the poof the instability of language.

lice was particolariy ordered to take There is not the least difference be. care, that this very orthodox preacher tween the language of the Laws of Howel ihould not hoid any conventicles. A new in the tenth, or Geoffrey of Monmoutb's preacher is also to be appointed by the History in the twelfth century, and that mayistracy. now spoken in Wales.

As a contrast to the anecdote recited Some may be apt to condemn the above from Berlin, an instance of toleraabore as rather visionary, but if any tion, which has occurred at Spree, dehould be inclined to point out what serves to be recorded. In consequence seems improbable, perhaps I'may be of the destruction of the

Lutheran able to bring forward many extraordi- church, the Calvinists have indulged the Bary proofs in support of what is ad. Lutherans with the use of their own vanced.

church. The two sects now assemble, Your's, 8cc. : with their respective preachers, at difAxzx 1.

MEIRION . ferent hours, in the same church. ON 5.

Thursday,

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