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Management of Cottor Manufactories.

459 5. The hours of labour are eleven go to church from. want of accommoda. and a half each day, viz. from six o'clock tion, are kept busy at school; and in the in the morning to seven o'clock at night, evenings, after public worship, the usual with half an hour of intermittion at nine teachers spend regularly three hours in o'clock for breakfait, and a whole hour giving religious instruction, by causing at two for dinner.

the scriptures to be read, catechising, 6. I ne only rules for cleanliness and &ct. Besides these night-schools, there health, are such as enjoin the practices are tivo day. schools for children too mentioned in answer to the third query. young for work, which, as well as the

7. Seven is the hour of Supper ; night-ones (excepting the providing their half an hour after, at molt, and as much own books) are entirely free of expence sooner as potsible. the teaching com- to the scholars. mences, and continues till nine o'clock.

8. The time of hiring differs with the The schools at present are attended by different descriptions of children. Those five hundred and seven scholars, in in- who agree for a itipulated weekly wage, structing whom fixteen teachers are .em- and who generally are such as live with ployed, thirteen in teaching to read, tivo their parents, are commonly engaged for to write, and one to ti, ure, belides a four

years ;

while such as are received person who teaches sewing, and another from the work house in Edinburgh, or who occasionally teaches churcn-mufic. who are otherwise without friends to

The mode of teaching is as follows: The take charge of them, and who, in lieu courle is divided inro eight classes, ac- of wages, are maintained and educated, cording to the progress of the scholars : are bound four, five, fix, or seven years, to each of these clailes one or more tcach- according to their age, or generally till ers are aligned, as the numbers in that they have completed their fifteenth year. flage of advancement may require. To The mode of hiring is generally by conthe teachers is specified in writing how tract of the parents, or curators of the far they are relpectively to carry for- children in their behalf. ward their scholars; which to foon as 9. The supply of workers for the they have accomplished, the scholars are mills comes, either from the native intransferred to the next higher class, and habitants of the place; from families the teacher receives a small premium for who have been collected about the works every one so qualified*. In their respec- from the neighbouring parishes, and tive classes, the teachers promote emula- more diftant parts of the country ; or tion in the usual way, by making the lastly, from Edinburgh and Glalgow, by top of the cials the post of honour; the number of destitute children there which is fill farther kept up by the dis- places constantly afford. tribution of small rewards every half 10. When fever, or any other epideyear to luch as, from an account taken mical disorder appears in the boardingonce a fortnight, appear to have been house, where that description of workers most frequently upperinot. On Sundays, who do not receive their wages in money that part of the children who cannot are accommodared, the means used to

prevent the spreading of the infection * The following is a liatement of the num.

are, the immediate removal of the sick bers in each class at present, which affurds an to a detached part of the house, and a accurate view of the general state of their edu- frequent sprinkling and fumigating of Gation :

the bed-rooms with vinegar. Typhous In the ift, or latter class, there 65 scholars. fever has not appeared there for years, 2d


but has during that time been in the 76

village, though never general, yet in 65

no cafe, so far as circumftances afforded 44

the means of judging, did it appear to 6th


originate in the oils, or even to be com7th

51 80

municated by the intercourse the work. The eighth, or highest class, are all good

ers have there with each other I. readers, and employ the half of their time cach night in writing

Such as ftand in no far- + There is accommodition at church for only ther need of initructions in reading, or whom ore hundred and fifty children ; they all go to there are about twelve boys and twelve girls, it m rotation. employ the remainder of their time after writ- I lhe following statement of the number ing, in learning arithmetic aed lewiig except of ch ldren in the boarding-house, ac different on occafia nal nights appointed for reving their periods, and the annual deaths there, best scading s.

evinces their general ttate of health :





11. The

11. The greatest part of the workers excepting now and then a dinner of herare lodged in their parents' houses in te rings in winter, and fresh butter in sumvillage, in the immediate neighbourhood mer. To the beef and cheese is added a of the mills, or in the town of Lanark, plentiful allowance of potatoes, or barleyone mile diftant; the principal part of bread, of which lait they have also an their food, as is usual'in tie country, allowance every morning before going to conífts of oatmeal.

work. Those who get their maintenance in 12. and 13. As far as obfervation, with lieu of wages, are lodged all together in regard to these two queries, has exone house. They confiít, at present, of tended, the workers, when too big for three hundred and ninety-six boys and spinning, are as fout and robust as others. girls. There are fix fleeping apartments The male part of them are fit for any for them, and three children are allowed trades; a great many, fince the comto each bed. The cielings and walls of mencement of the war, have gone into the apartments are white-washed twice the army and navy, and others are oca year with hot lime, and the floors casionally going away as apprentices' to washed once a week with scalding water finiths, joiners, &c. but cfpecially to and sand. The children sleep in wooden- weavers, for which last trade, from the bortomed beds, on bed-ticks filled with expertness they acquire in handling yarn, straw, which is in general changed once they are particularly well fitted, and of a month; a sheet covers the bed-ticks, course are taken as apprentices on better and above that are one or two pairs of terms. The females

very generally leave blankets, and a bed-cover, as the reason the milli, and go to private family ferrequires. The bed-rooms are carefully vice, when about sixteen years of age. swept, and the windows thrown open Were they disposed to continue at the every morning, in which state they re. mills, these afford abundant employment main through the day. Of late, cast-iron for them at reeling, picking, &c. as well bediteads have been introduced in place as to many more young men than ever of wooden ones. The upper body-cloth- remain at them. ing in ufe in summer, both for boys and girls

, is entirely of cotton, which, as they ON THE EDUCATION OF DissenTING have fpare suits to change with, are

MINISTERS. washed once a fortnight. Im winter the

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. boys are dressed in woollen cloth; and they, as well as the girls, have complete SIR, dress suits for Sundays. Their linens are changed once a weck. For a few If you do not think it will be occupying

too much of your agreeable Mifcelany, months in summer, both boys and girls with the concerns of a particular body of go without shoes and stockings. The

men (a body, however, ainong whom, I provisicns are dressed in cast-iron boilers, believe, the Monthly Magazine has tome and consist of oatmeal porridge for break- of its most cordial friends) I shall beg fast and fupper, and milk with it in its your intertion of a few refle&tions upon a season. In winter, its substitute is a inatter touched upon by two of your corcomposition of molasses, fermented with respondents--the education of Ministers fome new beer, which is called swats.

among the rational Difienters, For dinner, the whole of them have I fee, without surprise, much ungeevery day, in all seasons, barley-broth

nerous triumph over the failure of the made from fresh beef. The beef itself college at IIackney, in certain diurnal is divided amongst one-half of the chil

and periodical writings; among which, dren, in quantities of about seven ounces it is natural that a monthly publication, English to each; the other half are

now noft distinguished for deviating from served with cheese, in quantities of about the charaéier assumed in its title, ihould five ounces English to each ; so that they stand foremost in bigotry and fcurrility. bave alternately beef or checse for dinner, But these worthies may rest assured, that

what they most dread, namely, the fpiboarders. 2. deaths.

rit of opposition to civil and ecclefiaftical 1793 283

ulurpation, is still alive and vigorous ; 1794 306

and that, however circumstances may 1795 384

vary its mode of operation, iis gravid object is by no means abandoned. This, however, is a digreflion from the proper subjiet of my litter.

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In 1792







Education of Disenting Ministers.

461 Various unsuccessful trials have now themselves in commenting on scripture,, afforded such practical proof of the al- and composing sermons and forms of demoft insuperable difficulties attending the votion, if their labours have not as yec establishment of a collegiate plan of edu- enabled a sensible layman to select from cation among the rational Disfenters (I printed books every thing necessary for use the word ruttonal merely by way of the worship and instruction of Ch istians. verbal distinction) that it is probable the And as to what is calied the pastoral office, attempt will not speedily be renewed. that has long ceased to be 'a branch of The point, then, för determination will ministerial duty among the rational Dirbe, what fubititute can best supply its senters, especially of the superior classes. place ? Now the education of youth Such, I say, may be the reasoning of defigned for the ministry, has hitherto many thinking men upon this subject. been generally regarded as a fundamental Yet, from a survey of human nature, object in these institutions; nor can it be and the real motives which actuate mandoubted, that, by many, it is still so con- kind, I am well convinced, that public fidered. Afiuming, then, the import- worship, or religious society of any

kind, ance of this point, I own, I think the could not be kept up without a ministry, proposal contained in Castor's letter, a anong people accustomed to its use. very good one, and the best expedient Besides the pure fpirit of devotion, and that can, at an equal expence, he adopted. desire of initruction, which operate on Doubtlefi, there are many diisenting the frequenters of religious assemblies, ministers very capable of teaching the who will deny, that reverence and rewhole or part of what has constituted spect for a particular character, curiosity, their own itudies, and whose situation is the love of novelty, and the mere habit such, that two or three pupils, with a of yielding to professional authority, bandsome allowance, would be both an powerfully conspire to the same end? agreeable and useful domestic addition. When the leader of public service was And if there were a kind of interchange become only one of themselves, how or rotation of pupils, each might enjoy many of a congregation would be temptthe benefit of learning, from different ed to say, Why could I not read a tutors, that branch which they were best sermon and prayer of my own choice to qualified to teach. In this case, it is my family, rather than come here to attrue, they would no longer posiels the tend upon my neighbour's reading ?" advantage, or disadvantage, of affucia. The mere circumstance of the duty betion with lay-Itudents ; but this (however ing in one cale performed in public, in the ir be considered) is already at an end, oiher, in private, would not, in the provided the collegiate lyftem, lately estimation of many, be important enough adopred, is not again to be tried. No to induce them to put a force upon their other choice seems to remain, but either inclinations. Interest and attention would an acodeniy for students in divinity alone, languish ; natural indolence would soon or, at least, principally; or such a do- find additional reasons for staying af mellic plan of education for them as Caf. home ; and thus attendance would grator recommends.

dually divindle away among the luke. But your correspondent J. T. R. if I warın, while the zealous would mostly fully understand him, is of opinion, that join themselves to other congregations the whole establishment of miniiters to provided with a more attractive esta. diffenting congregations is unnecessary; blithment. I do not, by thele observa. and that public worship may be profita- tions, mean. at all to enter into the ques. bly carried on without their help. This tion concerning the general use and is an enlarged idea, and has been coun- obligation of public worthip, opposed to tenanced by some respectable names. Private; I am only stating pr. bable And, indeed, upon a fair balance of the events to those who entertain no doubts good and evil that have arisen from set- on that head. ting apart a body of men for the pur- With respect to the wishes expressed poses of religion, many may be persuaded, by J. T. R for the revival of a place of ihat a sect which attaches po particular liberal cducation for the laity among the powers or privileges to such an order, Diflenters, warmly as I contcur with but has rather been accuftoined to look him in them, I am not able, in any own upon them with fufpicion, miglit usefully mind, to formount the difficulties hitherto give the example of doing without them. experienced in the maintenance of a It may be thought, that learned men proper discipline amorg students of that have in vain been so long employing clit under a collcgiate plan-isficulties

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which have been the principal cause of belt: at the two extremities of this diathe failure of those well-intended at- meter, and just without the circumference tempts of this kind, which have been of the halo, were two parafelenze, irregular made for forty years past. The mif- in shape, but coloured prismatically with fortune is, that a sanction must ever be great vividness and beauty : from the two wanting to the discipline of a diffenting parafelence were extended two ample college, forcible enough to control the arches, also prismatically coloured near to irregular propensities of youth let loose their origin, but in a faint degree : these from the restraints of a school ; but not arches were of unequal extent, but if they yet fitted for self-government.

Even had been sufficiently extended, this obo with such fanctions, we see how defec- serser thinks they would have met at a rive the institutions of the establishment considerable distance to the north of the are in fecuring the morals and industry zenith. Whenever light clouds passed of their members. , After all, if the dir- over the face of the moon, the parajelene senting parent first chooses a good school loft their prismatic colours, appearing for his son, and, when arrived at acade- only bright, like the halo and its diamemical years, places him for higher in- ter; on the cloud's palfing away, the struction under the tuition of fome per- colours again became visible. The sefon of real knowledge and enlarged sen- cond observer, who, at the time of the timents among those of his way of think. phænoinenon, happened to be at the ing, he will probably unite as many of distance of about eight miles eastward of the advantages of liberal education with the first, had a very distinct and exas few of its dangers as can be procured tended view of it. He described the in the present state of things.

moon as only half-encircled (i e. on the London, July 4.

Laicus. upper part) with a semi-halo, the bright

ness of which he compared to that of the

galaxy : at the two extremities of this METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.

Teini-halo, there were two parajelena,

prisinatically coloured, and accurately To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. round; but fading by degrees into the [Concluded from our last.]

azure of the sky : from the paraseleriæ

extended eastward and wettward, lumi-I BEG leave tò subjoin to this long,and nous arches, exactly parallel to the hos

fear tedicus letrer, an account of the rizon, terminating (at what number of circumstances of a remarkable lunar phæ- degrees distance either way could not be nomenon, as they were related to nie by afcertained) in two other parajélına, of two gentlemen who had an opportunity of the same magnitude as those nearest the observing it. The situation of the first moon, but tainter. This observer was observer (his view being bounded by positive, that no luminous diameter paflhouses, &c ) was not so favourable as that ed between the two nearest paraselence of the second, who was travelling in the over the disk of the moon. The phæno. country, though the difference in the re- menon continued without variation, exlations cannot be accounted for from this cept in brightness, during the whole circumstance alone. To these observations tine it was observed, which was hardly cannot indeed be applied the expreifion of less than an hour: in what time, or by Plutarch, who, speaking of the measure. what gradual changes, it ceased, I have ment of mount Olympus, by an ancient had no opportunity of knowing. A gecmetrician, says, the business was done sultry day followed these remarkable apου παρερως, αλλά μιθοιω και di

opyarwy. pearances ; early in the afternoon, fome Neither of the above gentlemen was pro- thunder clouds were seen, but the evenvided with the means of very nice obser. ing was fine till eight o'clock; aftervation, as (for example) any instrument wards, the sky became overcast, and the for measuring angles; yet the general ac- clouds thickened, hanging near the surcuracy and fidelity of both may be fully face of the earth : about nine, P.M.

The phænomenon took place I observed, in the south-east, some luvery early (viz. between twelve and one) minous appearances, like fire-balls, fallon the morning of the sth of August, 1795. ing from the lower ftrarum of clouds to The moon was seen by the first obierver the ground : another luminous phænofurrounded by a halo, and a bright line, as menon occurred, which I should have a diameter to this halo, parallel to the ho. judged to have been the firing of a pistol, rizon, passed over the centre of the moon, had any report accompanied the appearon the disk of which it was seen as a ance. As the night advanced, the thick


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Dialogue of the Gods.

463 ness and darkness increased to an unusual ality, but the crisis of a metamorphosis degree: about ten, rain began to fall, long ago prepared, begun, and to be forewhich, in the after-part of the night, feen. It is the evolution merely of a new and in the space of about four hours, bloff m on the ever-teeming bosom of naamounted in the rain-gage to 1105 ture, which has, at lezgili, acquired the inches. On the evening, and in the night, vigour to unfold its colours to the sun, and of the 13th of the same month of Au- to pursue, in its turn, the endless progust, we had a remarkable storm of thun- gress through maturity to decay. Man, der and lightning; in some places, at no changeful man, will now tend this opengreat distance, it was violent almust be- ing weed, or flower, until its fruit be yond any thing remembered by very oid set; and Thake that down, in due ftalon, perions, doing much damage, and in with the like stormy impatience, when other places it was accompanied with an its hues shall have faded in his eve, and inundation of rain. What connection its taste have disappoin:ed his sense. But, might subfift between the state of the what could draw Numa to the haunts of air which gave occasion to the lunar the Christian deities? phænomenon, and the subsequent state N. To seek a countryman of mine, of the weather, I must leave to abler whose shade Mercury pointed out to me,

as it left the earth. meteorologifts to determine. Entreat

It would stay no ing your indulgence to ny prolixity, I where.

It looked at the heavenly, king, subscribe myself

dom of the proteftants--viewed the good Your most obedient servant, man, Luther, with a sneer, and Calvin, Chichester, May 10, 1796.

M. with a frown--bowed to Meanúhon,

and then hovered away, with Servetus

and a few more, as it in quest of a new For the Monthly Magazine.

limbo, to people with the Tages and heDIALOGUE


roes of a peculiar faith.

A. I should expect as much from Lclio [Nore. The reader is suppoied to have perused

Socini? the two dialo, ues, inserted at p. 233. and

N. The same : and he is to follow me 351, of the fecond volume of Varieties of

hither. Literature, as the trains of idea therein containcd are here often alluded to, and occasion- A. For a nobleman, born in the borom ally thwarted ]

of Italian refinement, he was somewhat JUPITER, NUMA, APOLLO; afterwards puritanical ; but, for a puritan, certainly, LELIO SOCINI.

the most polithed, most philosophical. Numa.'THEIR own turn is coming N. How can it have happened that Jupiter.

Apollo should become acquainted with Jupiter. Whole, Numa ?

his character. N. I was larely amid the mansions of A. Tired out with the modern poems saint Peter. The saints and martyrs which the Muses throng around me to rewere bewailing their quenched tapers, cite, I have lately, for relaxation, emand denuded temples. Every epithet of ployed the furies in reading to me poleexecration, that despairing vanity can nic theology. prompt, they bestow on the protestant N. An occupation, I should little have sing-leaders of this epidemic reformation. imagined for the leisure of Phæbus, un1 law Hildebrand's proud thade turn pale, Jess his fondnets for divination led him to and press the tiara clofer upon his brow. peruse so much of the new theurgists, as

Apollo. What had becn the matter ? relates to the expounding of prophecy:

N. Some ghosts had flitted to their A. Which, in this age of prying ig. purgatory from the fields of Ivri. I be- norance, forms no inconliderable portion lieve they never gave over their cause of human literature. until now.

LELIO SOCINI appears. 7. It is, however, by no means des- J. Approach, Lelio Socini, welcome perate, as yet.

hither, thou venerable old man. Al. N. An event makes so much more though driven by the whip of persecution impression, than the causes which had from the studious shades of Vallembrosa, prepared it.

and scarcely allowed, by prudent filence, A. Upon the ignorant, whom it sur

to purchase a secure asylum befide the prises.

lake of Zurich, we bid ihee hail! With 7. Allo upon the interested, whom it

us Olympians, the founder of a new fect whelms. Yet is every revolution in hu- was never an object of suspicion or aver, man affairs, and this, among others, in re. fion. “ To each his own god,” has al


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