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Three, Nicaraguan authorities have identified two streams of weapons reaching revolutionaries in their country: (a) The first stream originated in the Miami area and is identified by serial number cross-checking. These weapons were shipped to Nicaragua via Panama and then Costa Rica; and (b) stream two originated in Belgium early in 1960 according to affidavit. These war pieces were shipped to Nicaragua from Cuba via Costa Rica.
Four, recent reports are known of Cuban military aircraft of Soviet origin unsuccessfully attempting to land in Nicaragua.
Five, lastly, Panamanian aircraft and oceangoing vessels have apparently been used to transport military hardware out of the United States.
A word of caution is in order. The subcommittee is aware of the pendency of criminal actions in two Federal courts arising from weapons transactions at issue. Those cases will not be tried in these proceedings. Please recognize that official witnesses may circumscribe their testimony so as to protect individual rights and the Government's case chiefly.
Let me indicate that in a leadership meeting this morning, in the whip's office, in the Capitol, the program for the House of Representatives for the week of June 11, 1979, was given to each of us in the leadership. The chairman of this subcommittee is included in that group as an associate whip.
The Panama Canal legislation was not scheduled on the program for the House of Representatives for next week, except that I understand that at the insistence of the White House, this legislation is to be taken up next week, notwithstanding the fact that the House leadership did not plan to have it scheduled. It is our information that there is a barrage of well planned propaganda to be sent across the Nation in newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times, the Washington Post, as well as a barrage of telegrams to come in from distinguished Americans, including Henry Kissinger, former President Gerald Ford, John Wayne, and others, to urge that the House pass the implementation legislation Tuesday.
In that this well planned barrage of propaganda in favor of implementation legislation has been planned, and is ready to go, it is my understanding that the White House insists that the House take up the implementation legislation next Tuesday, even though on Tuesday, June 12, the tentative schedule as announced by the leadership in the whip meeting included only House Resolution 198, to dismiss the contested election in Maryland's Seventh District, and House bill 3821, the intelligence related activities authorizations for fiscal year 1980. Those are the only two bills had been were scheduled for Tuesday, June 12.
It is my understanding that 100-at least 100 Members of the House-are being invited to the White House Monday night for a session with President Carter regarding the implementation legislation. These facts, I think, should be known by the subcommittee and the members of the full committee, and the Members of Congress.
As I said, apparently there is a strong push being made from the White House that the bill be taken up next Tuesday, again, I say notwithstanding the fact that the leadership of the House did not
schedule it for next Tuesday. Again, according to one of the top ranking leaders of the House, at least 100 Members of the House are being invited to the White House for dinner and consultation with the President Monday night, preceding the Tuesday vote.
Let me now turn to the Honorable Robert Bauman, ranking minority member of the subcommittee for any statement that he may wish to make at this time.
Mr. BAUMAN. Mr. Chairman, thank you for yielding to me, but the minority has little to say about the scheduling of the House, and I will not have anything to say about that. I was not surprised, though, that the bill is not being brought up next week.
I did want to say that I concur in the evidence that we heard yesterday. I think at least a prima facie case has been made to prove that Panamanian involvement, whether official or unofficial, occurred in Miami. I think the evidence yesterday traced that stream of weapons, in two instances, to Nicaragua, and into the hands of the Nicaraguan Government.
I think today I would invite the subcommittee's close attention to the testimony that will be heard, particularly General Sumner. I do not know if you have had a chance to read it beforehand, because the implications of that testimony are great, indeed. They raise two questions in my mind. Whether or not the Congress was told the entire truth, the Congress and the administration, prior to the consideration of the Senate treaties.
Second, whether or not these treaties have not in fact already been subject to violations; so I would hope that those questions might be addressed subsequent to the General's testimony.
Mr. HUBBARD. Before we recess the subcommittee to the vote now being held in the House, I would repeat, one more time, that from what was said this morning, apparently the implementation legislation will be taken up next Tuesday, at the insistence of the President of the United States, based on the fact that all this well planned propaganda and advertising on behalf of the Panama Canal treaties has already been scheduled and paid for.
We will now recess for 15 minutes. [Short recess.)
Mr. HUBBARD. The subcommittee will now come to order and we will resume the testimony of various witnesses.
Next we will call Lt. Gen. Gordon Sumner, Jr. Lt. Gen. Gordon Sumner is a native of Albuquerque, N. Mex., U.S. Army, retired.
To read just a portion of his biography, upon completion of his tour with the 80th Field Artillery, he was ordered to duty with the Strategic Operations Division of J-3, Joint Staff in Vietnam, where he served until February 1968. At this time he assumed command of the 25th Division Artillery at Cu Chi, Republic of Vietnam. In September of that year, he was assigned as Chief of Staff of the 25th Division.
In March 1969 he returned to Washington, D.C., to assume duties as Chief of the Field Artillery Branch in the Office of Personnel Operations. In September of 1970 he was assigned as Senior Military Assistant to the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense.
In July 1972 he was assigned to the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as Chief, Western Hemisphere Division, Plans and Policy Directorate. In July 1973 he was assigned as Director, Near East and South Asia Region, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, International Security Affairs.
Also, in July 1973 he was promoted to major general. In August 1975 he was promoted to lieutenant general, and assigned as Chairman, Inter-American Defense Board, Washington, D.C., General Sumner retired from the active military service on May 31, 1978. He is presently consulting for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories, in connection with work for the Department of Defense and Department of State.
General Sumner holds various degrees, including those he attained at Louisiana State University, and the University of Maryland.
General Sumner, we appreciate your being here, and we await your testimony.
[The following was received for the record:]
STATEMENT OF LT. GEN. GORDON SUMNER, JR., U.S. ARMY (RETIRED) Mr. Chairman, gentlemen: I would like to express my appreciation for the opportunity to share my views with this Committee and the American people. Unfortunately, the facts of Panamanian involvement in supporting leftist/Communist terrorist groups in Central America have been denied the American people. But of even greater importance is the strategic significance of these efforts by General Omar Torrijos in destablizing the entire Central American region. This is only one part, obviously important, of a strategic effort by the Soviets and their surrogates, the Cubans, to deny the United States access to the Caribe Basin.
As the Chairman of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), during the period 1975-1978, I was made painfully aware of the efforts by Cuba to export subversion throughout the hemisphere. This problem has been the subject of repeated resolutions by the Board over the past fifteen years. Almost all of the countries under attack by the leftist terrorists have produced extensive white papers documenting the Cuban/Soviet involvement and is a matter of daily discussion at the IADB.
Less obvious and less discussed has been the Panamanian involvement in this effort. From the standpoint of the IADB, the entire matter was one of acute embarassment. As a member of the IADB Panama was officially committed to the security of the hemisphere, not its subversion. As a matter of fact, Omar Torrijos, as one of the 19 heads of state was my boss, along with President Somoza and President Carter.
My personal knowledge of Panama's involvement came from a two hour conversation with General Omar Torrijos in November, 1977. He told me then of his intention to support rebellion and insurrection in his neighbor republics. Following the bi-annual meeting of the Conference of the American Armies in Managua, Nicaragua, I traveled to Panama where a meeting with General Torrijos had been arranged by the Chief of Delegation from Panama.
While attending the Conference of American Armies in Managua, I had several conversations with President Somoza during which he outlined in great detail the Sandinista subversive effort and the support they were receiving from Havana. according to Somoza and some of his staff, some of this support was being funnelled through the Guardia Nacional of Panama. Naturally, this was a very disturbing and potentially disruptive development for the IADB, to say nothing of the impact on the Panama Canal Negotiations.
During my meeting with General Torrijos, I brought up this subject, fully expecting a full-blown denial. Much to my surprise and chagrine, General Torrijos defended the Sandinistas and his support of their efforts. Further, he stated that he would continue and increase this support. He told me that the United States and the IADB were unduly concerned with Communist subversion in Central America. I respectfully disagree with the General on these points.
In addition to the Sandinistas, General Torrijos strongly defended the opposition that was developing in El Salvador and stated that he, too, would support and assist the insurgents in their efforts to unseat his classmate, General Romero.
The entire session was most disturbing and I reduced the salient points to a memorandum which I forwarded to the late Gen. George Brown, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In addition, I personally discussed this problem with General Brown and other responsible officials in both State and Defense. In light of the indictment in Miami last month of five persons closely connected with Panamanian intelligence for illegally smuggling arms from the United States to the Sandinistas via Air Panama we have seen that Omar Torrijos lives up to promise. I never doubted that he would. Moreover, the report that a Cuban aircraft carrying 200 combat ready troops landed last week in Panama, from where the troops were then transported to a Sandinista camp in Costa Rica, strikes me as highly credible. It fully conforms with the intention Torrijos announced to me in November 1977.
My decision to testify against the Panama Canal Treaties before the Senate Armed Services Committee was in part influenced by my experience both in Managua and Panama. It was quite clear that General Torrijos was expanding his horizons to include support for revolution in Central America. I believed then, and do today, that he is under the influence of Communists/Marxists within Panama and Cuba, particularly Colonel General Noriega.
It was also quite clear that in addition to the many other faults of the treaties, we were involved with an unreliable and indeed dangerous partner in the negotiations. Neither the security interests of the United States, nor of the hemisphere for that matter, were to be served by supporting and assisting General Omar Torrijos and the people wielding power in Panama.
The unseemly haste of the group of people advising President Carter to consummate these treaties was just one more piece in a plan which has been devised to polarize this hemisphere into Left and Right-good guys and bad guys. The Leftist military dictators are all given white hats and designated as "human righteous” by a small group in the White House and State. The fact that they are supplying arms, training, money and support to murder and maim without discrimination makes a mockery of the President's Human Rights Policy.
In summary, I would like to make the following points to this Committee:
1. The United States has a vital critical national security interest in the Caribe Basin. It cannot afford to stand by and watch this area destabilized by Castro, Torrijos or the Soviets.
2. General Omar Torrijos is actively aiding and abetting leftist subversion in the area. He has nothing but contempt and scorn for this country and our apparent weakness.
3. The Carter Administration policies are counterproductive and indeed are supporting instability and confusion in not only the Caribe Basin, but also the entire continent.
4. The Panama Canal Treaties should not be implemented under the present circumstances. Rather we should be examining other options to bring balance and moderation back into the Panama Canal problem.
The simple fact of this matter is that this country negotiated in haste, with complete disregard for the strategic realities, two treaties which are now being used to blackmail the U.S. Congress into paying money which will support subversion in the hemisphere. Don't for one minute think that the rest of the world is not watching this comic opera performance as Torrijos exploits this situation.
Thank you. I will now answer any questions.
BIOGRAPHY OF LT. GEN. GORDON SUMNER, JR., U.S. ARMY (RETIRED) Lieutenant General Gordon Sumner, Jr., was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico on 23 July 1924. After attending New Mexico Military Institute and Texas Agriculture and Mechanical College, he attended Armored Officer Candidate School at Fort Knox, Kentucky, graduating on 2 June 1944.
After duty with various Armored units, he was assigned as an instructor at Armored OČS. In 1945 he joined the Second Infantry Division and served with the 38th Regimental Combat Team at the Mountain and Winter Warfare Center.
In 1946, General Sumner was ordered to join the 6th Division in Korea where he commanded an artillery battery in Chinhae and was aide to the Division Commander in Pusan. Returning to the United States in 1946, General Sumner attended the Artillery School and served with the 6th Armored Field and the Gunnery Department at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.
In 1950, General Sumner returned to Korea with the 77th Field Artillery Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Division and participated in the Fall and Winter campaign. In November 1950, he was wounded and captured by Chinese forces northeast of Pyongyang. Escaping after two days, he returned to Japan through medical chan
nels and was assigned to General Douglas MacArthur's staff where he authored General MacArthur's daily communique.
Returning to attend the career course at Fort Sill in 1951, General Sumner completed parachute training prior to assuming the position of Senior Artillery Instructor at Louisiana State University in 1952.
Following this tour, General Sumner joined the 11th Airborne Division in 1955 and gyroscoped to Germany with the 544th Airborne Field Artillery Battalion. After two years as a Battery Commander, Battalion Executive and Battalion Commander, General Sumner joined USAEUR Headquarters in Heidelberg. During this period, he worked with the developing NATO Atomic Stockpile Program and was a member of a Joint State-Defense negotiating Group.
In 1959 General Sumner returned to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to attend the regular Command and General Staff College Course. Upon graduation, General Sumner was assigned to the Defense Atomic Support Agency for duty with J-3, Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C. During this period, he participated in the development of the Single Integrated Operation Plan (SIOP) and the National Military Command System.
In 1963, he was ordered to the Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, Virginia, following which he was assigned to the faculty of the National War College. In June of 1964, he attended the National War College, graduating in June of 1965. At this time he was ordered to command the 6th Battalion, 80th Artillery of the 7th Infantry Division at Pob-won-ni, Korea.
Upon completion of his tour with the 80th Field Artillery, General Sumner was ordered to duty with the Strategic Operations Division of J-3, Joint Staff, where he served until February 1968. At this time, he assumed command of the 25th Division Artillery at Cu Chi, Republic of Vietnam. In September of that year, he was assigned as Chief of Staff of the 25th Division. In March 1969 he returned to Washington, D.C. to assume duties as Chief of the Field Artillery Branch in the Office of Personnel Operations. In September of 1970 he was assigned as Senior Military Assistant to the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense. In July 1972 he was assigned to the Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as Chief, Western Hemisphere Division, Plans and Policy Directorate. In July 1973 he was assigned as Director, Near East and South Asia Region, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs). In July 1973 he was promoted to Major General. In August 1975 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and assigned as Chairman, Inter-American Defense Board, Washington, D.C., and retired from the active military service on 31 May 1978. Presently consulting for Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories, Department of Defense, Department of State, General Sumner holds the B.A. Degree from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La., the M.A. Degree from the University of Maryland and completed course work on a Doctoral Degree at American University in Washington, D.C. He has published articles in the Infantry Journal, the Australian Quarterly and the National College Forum. He is a member of Phi Kappa Phi and Pi Sigma Alpha, Honorary Academic Fraternities. Decorations awarded to General Sumner include the following:
Distinguished Service Medal.
STATEMENT OF LT. GEN. GORDON SUMNER, JR., U.S. ARMY,
(RETIRED) General SUMNER. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, gentlemen. I would like to express my appreciation for the opportunity to share my views and the experience, and I think the experience is the important part of this, with this committee and the American people.
Unfortunately, the facts of Panamanian involvement in supporting leftist/Communist terrorist groups in Central America have been denied the American people. I saw a great deal of this when I