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care of that matter for themselves. In terday on this subject. There was, pose upon him a duty in the Legisla à new county it may often occur that a however, one thought which I had in- ture in their behalf, which shall reman holding the office of county clerk, tended to give utterance to at that time. quire him perhaps to neglect, for the who is called upon only now and then As the question has come up again, time at least, his official duties in reto perform some duty, may be the very I will state it now. It is this: the gard to the whole circuit ? man the people desire to send here, for officers mentioned in this section, and Mr. GIDDINGS. Will the gentle he may be better acquainted with the concerning whom it is proposed to say man allow me to ask him a question? wants of that new county than any that they shall not attempt to dis- Mr. LOVELL. Certainly.. other man in it. Now, shall he be ex- charge the duties of legislators for the Mr. GIDDINGS. Is there any such cluded on the ground that his duties as State of Michigan, while at the same proposition before the Convention as

county clerk demand his immediate at time they are under obligation to dis- that which the gentleman now makes, .: tention all the time? Is that the fact? charge other duties which are deemed in reference to circuit judges?!!!

Is it a fact, that even in the old coun- incompatible with the duties of legis- Mr. LOVELL. I speak of it as ilties the presence of these county officers lators,—those officers are, in a majority lustrative of the principle advocated is necessary all the time, when they of cases, chosen to the offices which here by some gentlemen. If you may have deputies and clerks who can in they hold by diffent constituencies from take a judge of probate, who owes & nine cases out of ten execute the duties those they would represent in the Leg- duty to a large constituency, and say of the offices as well as they them- islature. The argument is often made that a single representative constituselves? It seems to me that this is a here, - let the people have their own ency may take him to serve them in far-fetched reason; in my judgment it way, let them take care of their own the Legislature, then you may carry is not a very satisfactory one. I may affairs. And we are asked the ques- the principle further, and apply it to be wrong; but to me the argument has tion, cannot the people be trusted ? : circuit judges; and you can carry it not the force that it seems to have with Now, in order not to be considered still further and apply it to any State other gentlemen. I find that other invidious, I will go to my own county officer. Now, would it be proper that States are able to get along without for an illustration of this subject. I the auditor general for the State of excluding this portion of their popula- shall then, perhaps, tread upon the toes Michigan, for instance, having been tion from their legislative halls. of no gentleman here. Our county elected by a constituency that com

I hope this Convention will not has three representative districts, and prises the whole State, shall be allowed adopt this section. Should it be adopt- would hereafter be entitled to send to be chosen by any representative or ed it would, taking the State all over, three representatives to the lower house senatorial district, to represent their exclude a great many of our best men of the Legislature, if the present ap- special interests in the Legislature, from holding seats in the Legislature portionment should be continued. Our when his legislative duties would be The only reason that has yet been pre- judge of probate, chosen, of course, imcopatible with his duties to the whole sented to the Convention for this ex-like every other judge of probate, for State ? . clusion is, that the duties of these of four years, and therefore not elected Now, there is certainly no dearth of ficers, are incompatible with the duties at every biennial election, has a con- talent in this State of Michigan. I am to be performed in the House of Rep- stituency consisting of the whole not disposed to boast at all of the resentatives and in the Senate of the county, embracing the three representa- State of Michigan. Perhaps I have State Legislature. I cannot so under- tive districts. Now, I ask, with what no right to do so; I am one of her stand it; I cannot perceive what propriety can it be said that the people younger sons by adoption. But there was the original cause for such a of one of these districts shall take that is certainly no dearth of talent in this provision as this. It evidently grew judge away from the discharge of the State. The people will be served in out of some fear that some of these of-duties which he has agreed to perform the Legislature somehow. And as we ficers might exercise some power in for all three of the districts, and send have said virtually, by the amendment securing fees and emoluments. It was him here to discharge the duty of a which has been made to this section, suggested to me yesterday that some representative for one district alone? that a man may be elected to the Legcounty clerk, if allowed to come to the I may make the same argument in re- islature to serve after his term in some Llegislature, might get his fees as gard to all our judges; for when we other office shall expire, we shall alcounty clerk increased. I cannot see come to consider the article on the ju- ways be able to get the experience of that. I think he would come here sub- dicial department, we shall find that these men who are going out of these.. ject to the same disadvantages which the same persons, or some of them, who other offices. I present this idea beI suggested yesteday would surround now ask that this restriction shall not cause. I think there is force in it. a regent of the University, should he be continued in the Constitution, will It may seem to some here that the come to the Legislature. He would say that our judges are just the men offices enumerated in this section, are have to fight all the Legislature upon who ought to come to the Legislature. not incompatible with the duties to be any such point, because he would be Now, no one will question that they are performed in the Legislature. If we supposed to have come here for that a class of men most desirable to have cannot convince the Convention that very purpose.

in the Legislature; I mean that they holding a seat in the Legislature, and : I hope some member of this com- possess that kind of talent which would at the same time holding one of these mittee will give some substantial be of great advantage in the Legisla- offices, require the discharge by the reason, aside from this argument of ture. And gentlemen will say that we same person at the same time of duties incompatibility. If no other reason must not exclude the judges from the which are incompatible, then there is can be given, I would ask if that is a Legislature, because the people should no use to argue the question. There sufficient and satisfactory reason for be allowed to send just whom they are some here, I had almost said, it were excluding so large a number of persons please. Now, I ask, if in our circuit, vain to attempt to convince, because it from seats in the Legislature, if the after our judge has been chosen by us is vain to attempt to convince a man people desire to send them here ? to serve the whole circuit in a particu- against his will, or against his interests. For my part, I think not.

lar capacity, it is fair and just to allow But I will not say so. Mr. LOVELL. I do not propose the single representative district in The gentleman from Saginaw, (Mr. to re-state the argument I made yes- which he may happen to reside, to im- | MILLER,) has said that there is no

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danger in allowing these officers to excluded from holding a seat in the I never have heard before that it meant come to the Legislature, because most Legislature. And I have no doubt that anything else. . of them are elected upon the same the committee on the judiciary depart. No amendment was offered to the ticket upon which members of the Lieg- ment will report a provision, that judi- section. islature are elected. Not the most of cial officers, except justices of the peace,

SESSIONS OF THE LEGISLATURE. them by any means; they are not shall not be eligible to seats in the Legnominated by the same constituencies, islature. I have, therefore, not said The next section was read as follows: as I have already remarked. The a word on that subject heretofore. But SECTION 8. The Legislature shall meet at superintendent of schools for the it has seemed to trouble the gentleman

the seat of government on the second Wednes

day of January, in the year one thousand county is certainly elected upon à dif- from Genesee so much, that I thought

eight hundred and sixty-nine, and on the ferent ticket, and is elected at the it better to make this explanation. , second Wednesday of January in every second spring elections. And, as was said by Mr. MUSSEY. Will the gentleman year thereafter, and at no other time or place,

"Junless as provided in this Constitution. The the gentleman from St. Clair, Mr. allow me to ask him a question ?

time of meeting shall be at eleven o'clock in CONGER,) yesterday afternoon, that offi- Mr. GIDDINGS. Certainly.

the forenoon, and the time of final adjourncer, of all the officers named here, I Mr. MUSSEY. Does the gentleman ment shall be at twelve o'clock, noon. ought not to be away from his, county claim that if this section is stricken out, Mr. COOLIDGE. I move to amend at the season of the year when the judges of the Supreme Court will this section by striking out the word Legislature meets. That is just the not be eligible to the Legislature ? " second," before the words “year. time when he can be doing the most Mr. GIDDINGS. I suppose that the thereafter;" so that that portion of the good for the schools of the county. article to be reported by the committee section will read, r on the second

If gentlemen desire to bring the colo, on the judicial department will exclude Wednesday of January in every year lectors of internal revenue, assessors, all the judges of all the courts from the thereafter." I do not propose to make postmasters and United States officers legislative department,

any remarks whatever upon this mogenerally, to run the Legislature of the Mr. MUSSEY. But so far as this tion at the present time, but I have State of Michigan, then do so. But article is concerned, they would be thought it proper to test the sense of as regards these other officers named eligible, if this section was stricken out. the Convention upon the question.. in this section, do not allow an injury Mr. GIDDINGS. So far as this whether we should have annual or to be done to one constituency, simply article is concerned, they would be l biennial sessions. in order that a person may be allowed eligible; but the article on the judi- Mr. LAWRENCE. I rise for the to serve another constituency in the ciary department will undoubtedly purpose of stating here, what I believe Legislature, unless you really think make the necessary provision in the to be the almost universal sentiment there is a dearth of talent in this State, matter. ..... .. .....

of the people that I represent. They and there cannot be found other men The question was then taken upon look for annual sessions of the Legisqualified for that purpose..

the motion of Mr. MILLER to strike out lature; I have never heard any other Mr. WALKER. The gentleman from the section, and upon a division, ayes opinion expressed by them. So far as I Saginaw, (Mr. MILLER,) I understood 14, noes not counted, it was not agreed am acquainted with public sentiment to say, that there was no danger that a to..

I believe they expect annual sessions, man would be a candidate on the same

and deem them necessary for the pros. ticket for two offices at the same time.

* FROM ARREST muna

perity of the State. I, like that gentleman, have great con

Mr. BURTCH. That is the univerfidence in the people, and believe that the next section was read as follows: sal expression, so far as I h they will generally select those men SECTION 7. Senators, and Representatives of my constituents. They feel as whom they think best qualified for any

shall, in all cases except treason, felony or though the creat and arrin 1

inter ony of though the great and growing inter

breach of the peace, be privileged from arparticular office. But I can suggest to rest. They shall not be subject to any civil ests of the State of Michigan demand that gentleman a situation that would process during the session of the Legislature annual sessions of the Legislature. I

olor for üfteen days next before the commence believe it is for the best interests of be rather an anomaly, and perhaps

ment and after the termination of each sesthe people would not be quite satisfied sion; they shall not be questioned in apy | 11

this State to have annual sessions. with it after it was accomplished. other place for any speech in either House. Mr. T. G. SMITH. In addition to Suppose that a man should be nomi- Mr. THOMPSON. I desire to ask what has been stated by other gentlenated for prosecuting attorney by one the chairman of the committee on the men, I desire to say that those of my party, and the other party should take legislative department, (Mr. CONGER,) a constituents whom I have heard express up the same man for member of the question in regard to the effect and any opinion on the subject, expect Legislature, and he should be elected intention of this section. I desire to that this Convention will provide for to both offices. I never heard of such inquire if Senators, for instance, who annual sessions. I do not know that a case in connection with the Legisla- are elected for four years, are privi- there is anything more than expectature; but in the town in which I live, leged during that entire term, from ar- tion on their part. My own judgment. only last year, the people elected the rest in all cases except those specified is that the necessities of the State resame man for supervisor and town in this section?

quire it. I think the past experience clerk. Why should not such a thing Mr. CONGER. The provisions of of this State shows that we ought happen in the election of members of this section are the same as those in to have annual sessions of the Legisthe Legislature, and other officers, if the present Constitution, and I believe lature. There are a great many interthis section should be stricken out? in the Constitutions of other States. ests in this State which would have : Mr. GIDDINGS. I desire to say I do not know that I could decide ju- been benefitted by more frequent sesone word in the way of explanation. dicially what the legal construction of sions of the Legislature. I think that In regard to the judge of probate, the this section would be. I think it is the subject of extra expense is but a gentlemen from Genesee, (Mr. LOVELL,) not altered at all from the section in mere trifle. I think that it would be has had a judge of probate in his eye the present Constitution. I suppose better to shorten the length of the sesfor several days past. Now, I desire that it is meant to apply to the time sion somewhat, and have them more to say right here, that my impression while a man is actually acting in his frequently, than it would be to have is; that a judge of probate should be capacity of Representative or Senator. longer sessions, and have them once in

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two years. I hope the amendment of in New England, although there, I be- it was concluded by the committeer the gentleman from Berrien, (Mr. lieve, most of the States have annual that biennial sessions would best sub-1 COOLIDGE,) will be adopted.

sessions of the Legislature. But here serve the interests of the State. And Mr. LONGYEAR. I was somewhat it seems to me that we need annual I apprehend that full discussion and sürprised, upon reading this section; sessions more than they do in the consideration, and reflection upon this to find that the committee on the legis- older States. This State is now in- subject, by this committee of the lative department had reported in favor creasing very rapidly in population. whole and this Convention, will lead ::* of biennial sessions. From what I had There is legislation which we may not them to the same result.

OR heard from members of this Conven- have needed this year, but which we : I know that the expression of opinion tion, and conversations I had had upon might need very much before two on the part of those who have spoken this subject with gentlemen from vari- years more roll round.

h ere to-day is in favor of annual ses ous parts of the State, during all the And there is another thing. There sions. I am not at all surprised that time the subject of the Constitutional has been great complaint in regard to the gentleman from Ingham, (Mr. Convention was under consideration, I biennial sessions because of the great LONGYEAR,) and the people he reprewas somewhat surprised at the report amount of hasty legislation. We are sents, should be in favor of annual of the committee. So far as my ex- told that many bills are passed without sessions; 'I am not at all surprised at perience and observation extend, this mature deliberation, in consequence of that. But it is said by other gentlesubject has been talked of among gën- the amount of work to be done by the men that their constituents are in favor tlemen in different parts of the State, Legislature in their biennial sessions, of annual sessions. But, have we been with whom I have come in contact, as Another idea is that there should be told by a single gentleman what good much as, if not more than, any other annual sessions of the Legislature, in result is going to be accomplished by subject that will come before this Con- order that the affairs of the State annual sessions of the Legislature ? vention. I have been frequently asked treasury etc. should be properly and What benefit is to be derived by the the question whether the Convention frequently investigated. Some think expenditure of fifty or a hundred would provide for annual sessions. that if we had had annual sessions of thousand dollars a year for sessions of And in every instance, when this the Legislature, we should not have the Legislature? It is the fact that subject has come üp in conversa- suffered so much in some of these de- we législate too much now, we pass * tion, I do not remember of hearing partments, as we have heretofore, when too many laws now, with biennial sesany expression in favor of biennial we had biennial sessions. För myself. sions. We can hardly become acsessions. I have conversed with a land for the people I represent. I must quainted with the laws now before they large number of citizens of this express the hope that the amendment are amended, changed, or repealed. State, among them some very promi- of the gentleman from Berrien, (Mr. It has at times been proverbial of this nent gentlemen who take an interest COOLIDGT) will prevail. I think it is State, when speaking of the uncerin public affairs. I do not remember the almost universal feeling of the peo- tainty of anything, to say, "As change. å single instance of any other expreg- ple that we should have annual seg-able as the laws of Michigan, Persion of opinion than in favor of annual sions. ** * *

haps that is not so much the caso now 898$ions. It is deemed by those with Mr. CONGER. The provision, as as it was formerly.. whom I have conversed, and in that reported by the committee, was not! My constituents are opposed to an- : opinion 1 fully and perfectly agree) the unanimous opinion of the commit bual sessions, they do not want the that in a State in which such rapid pro- tee. I may say, in justice to the com- Legislature here every year. They gress is being made in population and mittee, that upon the first consideration cannot see any good result to be dein wealth, and in all those things which of this subiect they proposed to pro- rived from having annual sessions of tend to make a State great, & more vide for a session of the Legislature the Legislature. I apprehend they are frequent meeting of the Legislature each year, instead of every two years. as unanimously opposed to it, as the is necessary, in order to provide for the Upon a reconsideration of that mat- constituents of the gentleman from changing interests of the State, and for ter one of the members of the com-Ingham, or any other gentleman here the progress and development of the mittee changed his position upon the are in favor of it. The universal exState. I supposed at the opening of subiect and then the majority were in pression of opinion in my section of this Oonvention that there was no ques- favor of biennial sessions, and the com- the State is in favor of biennial sestion in regard to that matter; that it was, mittee have so reported. I am myself sions. I would like any gentleman in fact, a foregone conclusion. There- personally and have been, in favor of here to show us what good result fore I was surprised when I found that annual sessions of the Legislature. I would be brought about by annual the committee on the legislative depart-I think the interests of this State will be sessions of the Legislature ? I had mént had reported in favor of bien- I promoted by having annual sessions. I hoped that we would adopt the princinial sessions. I hope the amendment shall, therefore be very much in favor ple of biennial sessions. I believe that will be adopted.

of striking out the word "second;" 80 that will serve as well, if not better, Mr. TURNER. Until I saw the re-l as to make the provision read win every| the interests of the people of the Statė, port of the committee on the legisla-1 year thereafter," instead of every and save a large amount of expenditive department, I had not supposed second year thereafter.”

:: ture. that there would be any question in Mr. LUCE. I differ with the chair- I have not as much faith in the Lieg

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the amendment of the gentleman from great disadvantage to the public and to sessions or annual session. But when Berrien (Mr. COOLIDGE) will not be the State. Those who have most to do you retain the Legislature, as the adopted.. I know that my constituents with the laws, see the most of these re- highest body for making laws in the do not desire it, and I believe that is sults; whether it be the tax collector, State, you must confer upon that the desire of the constituents of a great justice of the peace, or the lawyer, it body a liberty adequate to the power many other gentlemen here..

makes no difference; the result is evi- conferred upon them. : Mr. LONGYEAR. I hope that no dent to them. It seems to me that I am in favor of having the Legislai one will consider that my location has with annual sessions, the evil to which ture meet every year, and of allowing any influence upon any suggestions of a I have referred will be very much them to sit as long as they may congeneral character that I may make in mitigated. :

sider necessary. If they fail to make. regard to the Constitution we are fram- Mr. LOTHROP. I was once very such legislation as should be made, ing. It is very true, as the gentleman earnestly opposed to annual sessions; that is a part of the price which we from Branch, (Mr. Luce,) has sugges- I thought biennial sessions would be a pay for our form of government. I ted, that a portion of my constituents very great benefit to the State of Michi- hope that the amendment will prevail; would be interested in having annual gan. I was at one and the same time that we will have annual sessions, and

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Lansing; there is no doubt about it. Legislature, and of limiting the length as long as they may think proper. 1 But I think it rather an unfair way of of the session. I confess that my own Mr. P. D. WARNER. I do not arguing, to throw up to a gentleman experience has not confirmed the know that I would have been inclined on this floor, the fact of his location as soundness of that opinion. My judg- to enter upon this discussion at all, but a reason against his argumente cment now is, that it is better to have for the reference made by the gentle

The gentleman has asked for any annual sessions, and leave the Legisla- man from Wayne, (Mr. LOTHROP,) to good reason why we should have annual ture unrestricted, as to the time they the manner in which legislation has sessions instead of biennial sessions. may sit, when they come together. The been heretofore conducted in this One strong reason, in addition to those Legislature of the State is the body Stato. which have already been given, is this; that is to ordain our laws. Whether Mr. LOTHROP. I only stated what we will have about so much legislation we shall have wise 'legislation or not, I did from information which I had any way, whether we have the Legisla- will not depend upon the number of received; I have no personal knowledge ture meet once a year or once in two times they meet; or upon the length upon the subject. I may have been years; there will be just about so much of time they shall sit. It must depend misinformed; if so, the gentleman will legislation in either case. The question upon the character of that body. If correct me. is whether you will have your legisla- the character of the body shall be im- Mr. P.D. WARNER. The information tion from time to time as it is currently proved, the character of their legisla- is perhaps mainly correct; but the reason needed, and have it done in two ses- tion upon questions connected with the assigned for the manner in which bussions, and deliberately and well di- Legislature will be improved. At all iness was done, is erroneous. I believe gested, or whether you will wait two events, whatever its character, under that it has been the practice for all legyears and crowd it all into one short our system of government, it is the islative bodies that have convened in session, and thus have the crude legis- fount from which we must receive our Michigan, after having been together lation which we have had for the last legislation. Whether expensive or not, for about ninety days, to be anxious to seventeen years? Who that has been a it is the price that we pay for the form be relieved from the restraints of legmember of the Legislature-I have not of our government. s

i slation, and permitted to return to had that honor, but I have had some- We gain nothing, so far as I can see, their homes. During the last session thing to do with the result of the work by biennial sessions, and we gain noth- of the Legislature, business was crowdof those who have had—who does not ing by limiting the time of the session. ed upon the House of Representatives know that with the best experience and Indeed some of the faults of legislation, to such an extent as to require, I will talent in our Legislature and we have whether justly or not, are attributed to admit; a little extra effort on the part had much of talent there and much of the fact that the period of the session of some of the officers of the House, experience who does not know that is limited. I am told by a gentleman in order to dispatch the business under subjects of legislation are so crowded here that during the session of last consideration. Several bills were acted upon them, that it has been impossible winter, for the want of time, bills were upon together; but I think it was with to give those subjects that degree of stacked together by the dozen, and the full concurrence of every member attention, and have the work of legis- passed by a single vote. Now, whether of the House, that that rule was lation so well digested, as is desirable unshackling the Legislature will cure adopted. I think that the journal of in the construction of laws, especially such abuses as that, I do not know. our proceedings will show that the when those laws must stand for two But the Legislature should have no forms and requirements of the Constiyears without the possibility of amend- excuse for such, abuses, in the tram- tution were fully met, in tho passage of ment? 1 . mels imposed upon them.

every bill that passed the House of I say that one great and good result I do not believe that we limit the Representatives.. to be accomplished by having annual amount of legislation by having bi- Mr. LOTHROP. Will the gentlesessions, will be the greater deliberation ennial sessions. The British Parlia- man allow me to ask him a question ? with which legislation may be accom- ment sit every year; the Chamber of Mr. P. D. WARNER. Certainly. plished; and the fact also that it will Deputies in France sit every year. Mr. LOTHROP. Does the gentlebe had at the time when it is needed. Yet the bulk of our legislation in two man suppose for a single moment, that. In this way we will avoid the crowding years is larger than the bulk of legis- if the fact be as I now understand him of the business of two years into one, lation in the British Parliament. Pre- to concede, and if the journal of the and then into a short time of session. cisely as we improve the character of House of Representatives properly In this way we will avoid the crude that body will we improve the legisla- stated that fact, one single one of those legislation which has resulted from bi- tion of that body, and in no other way. bills could stand before a court, as ennial sessions during the last seven- You may impose all the restrictions having been constitutionally enacted ? teen years, and which has been of you please, as to time, and to biennial Mr. P. D. WARNER. That ques

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tion I do not propose to determine; I to the government of our action here. parallel, having such extensive agriculleave that for others better skilled in If any great interests of the State are tural, manufacturing and mining interjudicial affairs. But the point to which likely to suffer in consequence of a ests, that we demand more frequent I desire to call the attention of the want of legislation, it is proper, and meetings of the Legislature than we have gentleman from Wayne, (Mr. LOTH- by the Constitution that we propose to had during the past seventeen years. I . ROP,) is this: that from my understand adopt, it is within the province of the believe that our most enterprising men ing of the provisions of the present executive, to convene the Legislaturo feel that our interests demand more Constitution there are no limitations whenever he pleases; and for the space frequent meetings of the Legislature. whatever upon the length of the ses- of twenty days the members of the I do not know what the large body of sions of the Legislature. They may Legislature receive compensation for the people think upon this subject; I: convene on the first Wednesday in their services. Therefore, even with do not know that they have given any January, and they may continue until biennial sessions, there is no opportu- very special attention to it. But I.. the two years of the term of members nity for any interests of the State to know that in our section of the State expire; and there is nothing in this Con- suffer from the want of suitable legisla- the men of character, enterprise and stitution to prevent them from draw- tion.

business, are all of the opinion that we ing their per diem for the whole time. Therefore I am opposed to the ought to have annual sessions of the But after the expiration of the first amendment; I am opposed to author- Legislature. And although, as I have fifty days, they cannot introduce any izing the convening of the Legislature said, I was formerly of a different new matter for consideration, except oftener than once in two years, because opinion, I have yielded to the arguin some round-about way which is I believe no essential good can result ments which those men among my practiced sometimes. I consider there from it. And more than this, I believe constituents have presented to me, and is no limitation upon the time during the people of the State of Michigan at shall vote in favor of annual sessions which the Legislature may be in session large do not desire and do not expect of the Legislature.

I desire to say that I am opposed to it of this Convention. I hope the Mr. WITHEY. My judgment is enannual sessions of the Legislature for amendment will not prevail.

tirely in accord with the opinion exthis reason: from the experience I have Mr. WILLARD. Idesire to say that pressed by the majority of the gentlehad in matters of legislation, I am soon after our arrival here, when this men who have expressed their views led to the conclusion that we now have, subject was first talked of by members and always have had, more legislation of the Convention, I was inclined to in favor of biennial sessions; I never than is desirable for the interests of the opinion that we had better retain have thought it was the part of wisdom the people at large. Convening the biennial sessions. But upon my return to have sessions of the Legislature onLegislature in annual sessions instead home during the last recess, in conver- ly once in two years. I am in favor of of biennial sessions, will not only not, sation with some of our prominent annual sessions, and for the reasons. obviate the difficulty we now labor un- men, reasons were presented in favor which gentlemen have expressed in this der, but will increase it, in my opinion, of annual sessions which have very convention. Without repeating those

just to the extent that we multiply the great weight with me. I was inclined reasons, I will only state that I shall .. times for the Legislature to meet. to give force to the argument which vote for the amendment of the gentle- :.

It is a complaint all over the State, has been presented by the gentleman man from Berrien, (Mr. COOLIDGE.) so far as I am informed, that our laws from Oakland, (Mr. P. D. WARNER, Mr. HENDERSON. I have but à :

are too changeable; that they are the argument of economy; and also word or two to say; I have but very ... changed too often. Laws are passed the argument which has been pre-little feeling upon this subject. I think

at one session of the Legislature, and sented by other gentlemen, that legisla- myself, that had this matter been are amended or repealed at another tion would be excessive.

submitted to the people of this Statė, session, before the people hardly know But there is no doubt but what a without any argument to convince them what are their provisions. It is pro- great share of our legislation at pres- that annual sessions were necessary, and posed by this amendment that these ent, with biennial sessions, is taken up had they been left to be governed by laws shall not be permitted to stand with retrospective acts. Our State is the experience of the past, they would even eighteen months, as they would rapidly increasing in wealth and popu- have furnished us with a large manow be required to stand, without an lation. For the past few years most of jority in favor of biennial sessions. extra session of the Legislature; but our municipalities have felt themselves This may be because a large portion of that six months after their adoption compelled, under the pressure of cir- our voting population have given the the Legislature shall again be con- cumstances, to transcend their powers, matter but very little thought, except, vened, for the purpose of amending, and then to wait for the meeting of the perhaps, so far as relates to the subchanging or repealing those laws. ILegislature to legalize their acts. Iject of expense; that may be true. believe that by the adoption of this know that last winter a large share And those who would vote for annual amendment, we will only accumulate of the time of both branches of the sessions would, perhaps, be the men legislation, and increase the difficulties Legislature was taken up with the con- better calculated to judge of those of which the people of Michigan are sideration of bills to legalize the past matters which would exercise a connow complaining, and have been com- action of different municipalities, which trolling influence in the decision of plaining for years, without any in- would not have been needed if we had this question. I think, however, the creasd advantage.

i had annual sessions of the Legislature, arguments presented by the gentleman . And there is another consideration, affording an opportunity for those from Branch, (Mr. LUCE,) with referone of dollars and cents. The inter- municipalities to obtain the necessary ence to the inconvenience to which our ests which I represent are somewhat legislation for the performance of those people would be subjected by annual connected with this question of taxes; acts which they desired to perform. sessions the common people, I mean, although I do not consider it one of I believe, Mr. Chairman, that our for I do not have reference to lawyers great importance as relates to the vital State has such diversified interests, ex- and others, whose attention is called interests of the State. But I believe tending, as it does, from between the to the different acts of the Legislaturé this question should be taken some- forty-first and forty-second parallel because of their profession-I think what into consideration, in reference of latitude to nearly the forty-seventh the argument of the gentleman from

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