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U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

POSTAGE & FEESPAD

CENSUS PERMIT No. G-58

Official Business

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US GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1979-281-342.14

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3.186: P-23192 T-CLICULATING

CURRENT POPULATION REPORTS

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Selected Characteristics of Travel to Work in the San Diego SMSA: 1975

GOV'T DOCU

DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION

likely to use public transportation (about 6 percent) than suburban residents (1 percent).

SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF
COMMUTERS BY MEANS OF
TRANSPORTATION

This report is one of a series of publications of final data for selected standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's), from the Travel-to-Work Supplement to the Annual Housing Survey (AHS), initiated in 1975 under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The AHS is conducted for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The data in this report are based on interviews of households in the San Diego SMSA completed during the period from April 1975 through March 1976. Preliminary data from the Travel-to-Work Supplement, covering the first 4 months of the period, were previously published in Series P-23, No. 68, "Selected Characteristics of Travel to Work in 21 Metropolitan Areas: 1975."

Sex. A greater proportion of men than women drove alone to work in 1975, while women were somewhat more likely than men to use public transportation (table 3). The difference between males and females in the rate of carpooling, however, was not significant.

MAJOR COMMUTING FLOWS

Race. Black workers showed a lower incidence of driving alone (about 59 percent) than White' workers (72 percent), and a correspondingly higher incidence of using public transportation (12 percent compared with 3 percent). In addition, there is some evidence that Black workers in the San Diego SMSA had a higher rate of carpooling to work (23 percent) than White workers (17 percent).

The largest commuting flow in the SMSA in 1975, about 213,000 workers, was comprised of persons who lived and worked in San Diego city (table 1). In comparison, about 165,000 workers both lived and worked in the suburbs. Approximately 92,000 of the workers who lived in the suburbs commuted into San Diego to work, while about 40,000 of the workers who lived in San Diego made the reverse trip from the city to suburban employment.

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION TO WORK

Household relationship. Female household heads were less likely to carpool to work and more likely to use public transportation than male household heads in 1975 (table 3), but the difference between the two groups in the rate of driving alone was not significant. Comparing working wives with female household heads, the data indicate that the wives were less likely to drive alone or use public transit, and more likely to carpool than female heads of households. Twentytwo percent of the working wives rode to work in carpools compared with about 10 percent of the female household heads.

Of the approximately 569,000 workers living in the San Diego SMSA in 1975, the survey results show that a large majority (71 percent) usually drove to work alone (table 2). The proportion who carpooled to work (17 percent) was much larger than the proportion who used public transportation (about 4 percent), while 3 percent walked, 3 percent used other means, and 2 percent worked at home. Comparing city and suburban residents, the data indicate that the rate of carpooling was higher among workers who lived outside the central city (20 percent compared with 14 percent), while workers who lived in San Diego were more

Earnings. Comparing the three major means of transportation, workers who drove alone to work had the highest median earnings ($9,354), followed by workers in carpools ($8,332) and users of public transit ($4,733).

1 The racial category "White and other races” is referred to as "White" in the text for convenience.

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Postage stamps not acceptable; currency submitted at sender's risk. Remittances from foreign countries must be by international money order or by a draft on a U.S. bank. Current Population Reports are sold in two subscription packages: Series P-20, P-23, P-27, and P-60 are available for $40.00 per year ($10 additional foreign mailing); Series P-25, P-26, and P-28 are available for $70.00 per year ($17.50 additional for foreign mailing). The tim report is $1.00.

TRAVEL DISTANCE AND TRAVEL TIME
TO WORK

Travel distance by means of transportation. Among all workers in the metropolitan area, the average commuting trip was about 10 miles in 1975 (table 4). Mean distance to work for workers who used public transportation was about 8 miles, while workers who drove alone traveled about 10 miles on the average to get to work. Workers in carpools had the longest average trips in San Diego in 1975, almost 13 miles.

The interviews resulted in responses from 8,474 workers 14
years old or over. A facsimile of the Travel-to-Work
Supplement can be found in appendix B.

The Travel-to-Work Supplement was also included for the
1975 Annual Housing Survey National sample, and the
1976-77 and 1977-78 SMSA samples. Each of the SMSA
samples contained about 140,000 households spread over 20
SMSA's; for operational reasons the 1975-76 enumeration
covered 21 areas. Therefore, the 3-year cycle of SMSA
samples resulted in coverage of about 420,000 metropolitan
households in 60 SMSA's. (See List of SMSA's by Survey
Group.) Each of the survey groups of SMSA's contained four
very large SMSA's with approximately 15,000 sample hous-
ing units equally divided between the central city and the
SMSA balance. Each remaining SMSA contained about 5,000
sample housing units distributed in proportion to the actual
distribution of housing units between the central city and the
SMSA balance. The survey coverage relates to each SMSA as
defined for the 1970 census. A more detailed description of
the survey design and sampling procedures can be found in
appendix A.

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Travel time by means of transportation. The average com-
muting trip in the SMSA took about 19 minutes in 1975
(table 5). Workers who drove alone spent an average of 18
minutes getting to work, while the figure for carpoolers was
22 minutes. Public transportation users, on the other hand,
spent an average of about 35 minutes getting to work.

BACKGROUND AND STRUCTURE OF
THE SURVEY

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The Travel-to-Work Supplement to the Annual Housing Survey. The travel-to-work data presented in this report are based on information collected by personal interview during the period from April 1975 through March 1976, as part of the enumeration for the Annual Housing Survey Group || SMSA sample. In all, the occupants of 4,556 sample households in the San Diego SMSA were eligible to answer the inquiries contained in the Travel-to-Work Supplement.

Related travel-to-work data. In addition to this report,
several other data products are or will be available from each
of the three SMSA survey groups covered by the Travel-
to-Work Supplement. These products include other published
reports, unpublished tables, microdata tapes, and summary
tapes of census tract-to-census tract commuter flows for each

List of SMSA's by Survey Group

*

Tex.

SURVEY GROUP I

SURVEY GROUP II (1977 to 1978)

(1975 to 1976) Albany-Schenectady-Troy, N.Y.

Atlanta, Ga.* Anaheim-Santa Ana-Garden Grove, Chicago, III.* Calif.

Cincinnati, Ohio-Ky.-Ind. Boston, Mass. *

Colorado Springs, Colo. Dallas, Tex.

Columbus, Ohio Detroit, Mich.

Hartford, Conn. Fort Worth,

Kansas City, Mo.-Kans. Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif. *

Miami, Fla. Madison, Wis.t

Milwaukee, Wis. Memphis, Tenn.-Ark,

New Orleans, La. Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn.

Newport News-Hampton, Va. Newark, N.J.

Paterson-Clifton-Passaic, N.J. Orlando, Fla.

Philadelphia, Pa.-N.J.* Phoenix, Ariz.

Portland, Orey.-Wash. Pittsburgh, Pa.

Rochester, N.Y. Saginaw, Mich.

San Antonio, Tex. Salt Lake City, Utah

San Bernardino-Riverside-Ontario, Spokane, Wash.

Calif. Tacoma, Wash.

San Diego, Calif. Washington, D.C.-Md.-Va.*

San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. *
Wichita, Kans.

Springfield-Chicopee-Holyoke,
Mass.-Conn.

SURVEY GROUP III

(1976 to 1977)
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, Pa.-N.J.
Baltimore, Md.
Birmingham, Ala.
Buffalo, N.Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
Denver, Colo.
Grand Rapids, Mich.
Honolulu, Hawaii
Houston, Tex.*
Indianapolis, Ind.
Las Vegas, Nev.
Louisville, Ky.-Ind.
New York, N.Y.*
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Omaha, Nebr.-lowa
Providence-Pawtucket-Warwick, R.I.-

Mass.
Raleigh, N.C.
Sacramento, Calif.
St. Louis, Mo.-111.*
Seattle-Everett, Wash.*

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Sample size of 15,000 housing units; all others are 5,000 housing units. t Included with Group II for the first (1975-76) enumeration,

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SMSA. Data for the SMSA's in Survey Group II are currently available in all forms. Data for the SMSA's in Survey Group III are presently only available in Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 72, "Selected Characteristics of Travel to Work in 20 Metropolitan Areas: 1976." No data for the SMSA's in Survey Group I have yet been released.

Data from the 1975 National Travel-to-Work Supplement are currently available in Current Population Reports, Series P-23, No. 99, "The Journey to Work in the United States:

1975" and in the form of unpublished tables. As in the SMSA samples, the unpublished National tables cross-classify commuters and characteristics of the commuting trip by the socioeconomic characteristics obtainable from the Annual Housing Survey, which include age, sex, race, household relationship, and earnings. Information concerning these unpublished data may be obtained by writing to the Chief, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233

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Table 1. Place of Residence, by Place of Work, for the San Diego SMSA (Workers 14 years old and over. Numbers in thousands. SMSA as of the 1970 census)

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99.3

59.4

39.9

0.7

SMSA...

100.0

(9.2]

[0.6)

San Diego city.....
Outside central city.

(100.0]
(100.0]
(100.0)

100.0
100.0

99.5
99.0

83.7
35.6

15.8
63.5

0.5
1.0

(9.6)
[8.9)

(0.6) (0.6)

Note:

Percents in brackets, [], are of all workers.

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Table 2. Principal Means of Transportation to Work, by Place of Residence, for the San Diego SMSA

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Table 3. Principal Means of Transportation to Work, by Selected Characteristics of Commuters,

for the San Diego SMSA (Workers 14 years old and over.

SMSA as of the 1970 census. For explanation of symbols, see text)

52.00

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