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WE, the People of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure its blessings, do establish this Constitution.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS.
Sec. 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty ; acquiring, possessing and protecting property; and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.
SEC. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people; and they have the right to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good may require it.
SEC. 3. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate for ever; but a jury trial may waived by the parties, in all civil cases, in the manner to be prescribed by law.
SEC. 4. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed in this state; and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a witness on account of his opinions on matters of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience, hereby secured, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousnesss, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of this state.
SEC. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.
SEC. 6. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor shall cruel or unusual punishments be inflicted, nor shall witnesses be unreasonably detained.
SEC. 7. All persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties; unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident or the presumption great.
SEC. 8. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime (except in cases of impeachment, and in cases of militia when in actual service, and the land and naval forces in time of war, or which this state may keep with the consent of congress in time of peace, and in cases of petit larceny under the regulation of the legislature,) unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury
and in any trial in any court whatever, the party accused shall be allowed to appear and defend in person and with counsel, as in civil actions. No person shall be subject to be twice put in jeopardy for the same offence; nor shall he be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
SEC. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects
, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press
. In all criminal prosecutions on indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
SEC. 10. The people shall have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the legislature for redress of grievances.
SEC. 11. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation.
Sec. 12. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by this state in time of peace; and in time of war no appropriation for a standing army shall be for a longer time than two years.
SEC. 13. No soldier shall in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in the manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 14. Representation shall be apportioned according to population.
SEC. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, in any civil action on mense or final process unless in cases of fraud; and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in time
SEC. 16. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law im. pairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.
Sec. 17. Foreigners who are, or may hereafter become bona fide residents of this state, shall enjoy the same rights in respect to the possession, enjoyment, and inheritance of property, as native born citizens.
Sec. 18. Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this state.
Sec. 19. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons and things to be seized.
SEC. 20. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in open court.
SEC. 21. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.
RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE.
Sec. 1. Every white male citizen of the United States, and every white male citizen of Mexico, who shall have elected to become a citizen of the United States, under the treaty of peace exchanged and ratified at Queretaro, on the 30th day of May, 1848, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the state six months next preceding the election, and the county or district in which he claims his vote thirty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter may be authorized by law: Provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent the legislature, by a two-thirds concurrent vote, from admitting to the right of suffrage, Indians or the descendants of Indians, in such special cases as such a proportion of the legislative body may deem just and proper.
SEC. 2. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of the election, during their attendance at such election, going to and returning therefrom.
SEC. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election, except in time of war or public danger.
SEC. 4. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence by reason of his presence or absence while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this state, or of the United States, or of the high seas; nor while a student of any seminary of learning; nor while kept at any almshouse, or other asylum, at public expense; nor while confined in any public prison.
Sec. 5. No idiot or insane person, or person convicted of any infamous crime, shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.
SEC. 6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot.
DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS.
The powers of the government of the state of California shall be divided into three separate departments : the legislative, the executive, and judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any functions appertaining to either of the others, except in the cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.
Sec. 1. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a senate and assembly, which shall be designated the legislature of the state of California; and the enacting clause of every law shall be as follows: "The people of the state of California, represented in senate and assembly, do enact as follows."
SEC. 2. The sessions of the legislature shall be annual, and shall commence on the first Monday of January, next ensuing the election of its members, unless the governor of the state shall, in the interm, convene the legislature by proclamation.
SEC. 3. The members of the assembly shall be chosen annualy, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, unless otherwise ordered by the legislature, and their term of office shall be one year.
Sec. 4. Senators and members of assembly shall be duly qualified electors in the respective counties and districts which they represent.
SEC. 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of two years, at the same time and places as members of assembly; and no person shall be a member of the senate or assembly who
has not been a citizen and inhabitant of the state one year, and of the county or district for which he shall be chosen six months next before his election.
SEC. 6. The number of senators shall not be less than one third, nor more than one half, of that of the members of assembly; and at the first session of the legislature after this constitution takes effect, the senators shall be divided by lot, as equally as may be, into two classes; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the first year, so that one half shall be chosen annually.
Sec. 7. When the number of senators is increased, they shall be appointed by lot, so as to keep the two classes as nearly equal in number as possible.
SEC. 8. Each house shall choose its own officers, and judge of the qualifications, elections, and returns of its own members.
SEC. 9. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.
SEC. 10. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and may, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member.
Sec. 11. Each house shall keep a journal of its own proceedings, and publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any three members present, be entered on the journal.
SEC. 12. Members of the legislature shall, in all cases except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privi. leged from arrest, and they shall not be subject to any civil process during the session of the legislature, nor for fifteen days next before the commencement and after the termination of each session.
SEC. 13. When vacancies occur in either house, the ernor, or the person exercising the functions of the governor, shall issue writs of elections to fill such vacancies.
SEC. 14. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secresy.
SEC. 15. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.
Sec. 16. Any bill may originate in either house of the