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it'passes current among orthodox christians. But let us look the thing full in the face, and we see that beneath this flimsy covering of truth, there lurks a great error. If, then, this observance was not instituted by Christ, and neither practised nor sanctioned by the apostles in the early churches, but received its birth in a corrupt and formal church, which had departed from the simplicity of the truth as it is in Jesus, it appears plain to me that it is an addition, of human invention, to the simple institutions of Christ.

Fifthly, admit the foregoing propositions,

and the last will be self-evident. If it be true that Christ knew the wants of his church; that for those wants he made a special provision; that any addition to his institutions is a reflection on his wisdom and benevolence; and that the annual religious commemoration of the birth and death of Christ is such addition; then there can be no difficulty in coming at once to the conclusion, that we ought not to observe such days.

S. E. PORCELL. Gravesend.

Plutarch,
AND HIS TESTIMONY TO THE MEANING OF “BAPTIZO," .

BY THE REV. DR. GRAY.
No. 3.

II.
In the undisputed works of Plutarch as

The next instance of the term is in å many as thirteen instances occur of the very different connection. It occurs in the use of the word baptizo : to these may be

“Life of Alexander,” and in the description added two others, found in tracts which are

of the luxurious march of his army through

the province of Carmania. During this commonly inserted among his writings, but as to which his authorship is somewhat

march, says the historian,doubtful. Of the above instances four

“Yon would see neither buckler, nor helmet, nor are met with in the “Parallel Lives," which

spear, but all along the road the soldiers, with cups,

or borns, or Thericlean goblets, baptizing out of we have already mentioned, and the re

large casks and bowls, drank to each other, some mainder in what are called Plutarch's

of them continuing their march at the same time, “ Moral Works." Taking them up ac but others sitting, as if at table."-Vit. Aiexan. cording to this order, we propose, as in our 2 67. former paper on Josephus, to present so

III. much of the context of each example as We meet with our next instance of the shall enable the readers of “The Church” employment of the term in the “Life of to judge of the force of the term for them. Cæsar.” During one part of his stay at selves.

Alexandria, that celebrated general, we are

told, was exposed to such danger from his The first instance which offers itself is enemies that he was obliged to throw himcontained in the interesting relation which self into the sea and swim for his life. All Plutarch gives us of the wonderful me this time, says Plutarch, chanical apparatus employed by Archi “fle is said to have held several papers in his medes at the siege of Syracuse. He de hands, which he would not let go, although assailed scribes the Syracusans under the direction with missiles and baptized, but holding them above

the water with one haud he swam with the other." of this eminent man, as sinking some of

- Vit. Cæs. 49. the enemies' ships by means of enormous

IV. beams suddenly let down upon them, and

Our remaining instance from the" Lives" then adds :

is taken from that of the emperor Galba:“Others, by means of iron hands or grapnels resembling the beaks of cranes, they hoisted up "It can hardly be supposed,” says Plutarcb, from their prows till they stood perpendicular, and “that this emperor would have adopted Otho as [then] baptized on their sterns." -- Vit. Marcel. his heir even to his private property, knowing how 2 15.

licentious and profuse he was in his habits, and

# These are. « An Epitome of a Comparison between Aristophanes and Menander," and "A Disonisi. tion on the Life and Writings of Homer."

that he was baptized with a debt of fifty million's , author somewhat more to advantage. He of drachmæ."-Vit. Gal. 2 21.

is enforcing on those who would engage in . v.

public business, the importance of a supeIn quoting from the Moral Works of riority not more to avarice than to ambiPlutarch, we notice, first, a passage which tion : occurs in his treatise on the education of

“Just," he says, “as a mariner who had sailed children. He thus illustrates the mischief

safely by the Syrtis, but was alterwards wrecked

in the Straits, would have little to boast of; so he done by some parents to their children

who keeps his hands clean from the public money, through an over-anxiety to push them for

but is convicted of malversation as to dignities or ward :

honours, is dashed against an elevated promontory, “Just as plants," he remarks, "are nourished by it is true, but is baptizeit notwithstanding,"-Reip. a moderate supply of water, but are choked by a Ger. Præcep. 227. superabundance, so the soul from well-proportion

X. ed labours acquires vigour, but by inordinate ones

“Why," asks Plutarch, in the next in. is baptized.De Educ. Lib. 2 13.

stance where he employs the word, and VI.

which is in a heading to some “Physical In the next passage where the word oc

Questions" which he proposes, curs, Plutarch is exposing the absurd fears

“Why do persons pour sea (water] on wine? and of the superstitious, who allow the same why do they say that some fishermen once received phantoms which have harassed them by an oracle ordering them to baptize Bacchus towards night, to disturb their peace by day. He the sea?"-Quæst. Natur. 2 10. represents such persons as becoming the

XI. easy dupes of religious impostors, who Our readers will, we hope, find more to would be likely to give them such counsels interest them in the next example, which as the following:

is taken from a treatise “ On the Sagacity "Baptize yourselves in the sea, invoke some of Animals." As an instance of this, Plusorceress, and sit a whole day on the earth."

tarch cites the case of a mule employed to De Superstit. 3.

carry salt, which having accidentally slipped VII.

once while crossing a river, perceived, on Our next example of the use of the word

getting up again, that the water had made is found in the treatise entitled, “The

its load lighter :Genius or Demon of Socrates." The

“Ever after," Plutarch states, “the shrewd conduct of such demons, he observes, to

animal, when crossing the same stream, would wards ourselves is like our own conduct

lower and baptize the salt of its own accord, stooptowards persons whom we see in danger of

ing down and leaning to each side (successively]."* drowning. If these unfortunates are near -De Solert. Anim. 2 16. the shore,-near enough, that is to say, to

XII. be within our reach in any manner, we In the same discussion one of the dispueagerly render them assistance; but if tants complains thus of his adversary in they are far out in the ocean, we content

argument: ourselves with looking on :

“This fiue fellow sets on us just as a sober com“So," he observes, “these divinities leave such batant would on others who might be suffering of us as are baptized (i.e., voluntarily) by the af from a yesterday's debauch, and be still baptized." fairs (of life] to struggle out for ourselves, and to -Id. d 23. bear Cour troubles] patiently, and to rely on our

XIII. own efforts for getting safely into harbour."--De Lastly, in a piece entitled, “Gryllus," Gen, Socr. 2 23.

Agamemnon, who is enamoured of one VIII.

Argynnus, is represented as baptizing himComparing the state of persons quite in self in the lake Copais, with the view of toxicated with that of others partially so,

extinguishing his passion. he remarks of the latter,

"Oply the mind of such persons is confused; its On a review of the above quotations, impulses their bodies are still able to obey, not little doubt, we think, can be felt with rebeing yet baptized."-Symp. Lib.iii. Q. viii. 2 2.

gard to the significance of the word in these IX.

instances, where it is not figuratively used. We quote next from a tract entitled, In almost all of these it is plainly equiva“Political Precepts,” which will shew our lent to "dip," "plunge,” “immerse,"

, * The creature was cured by its masters, at last, of this trick, by the substitution of sand in the bags for salt.

“sink,” or “submerge.” Such are, e.g., , which yet remain to be noticed, the one is examples 1, 2, 6, 9, 11, and 13. What is so fragmentary that it can throw no light, meant by Cæsar's baptism (No. 3), can only either way, on the point under question ;* be, that he was under the necessity of the other is part of a grammatical disquisi. diving continually, or keeping his head tion, in which the nature of emphasis is under water. Some obscurity attaches to explained. As an instance of emphatical No. 10, from the unusual preposition em expression, a line is quoted from Homer, in ployed; we are inclined ourselves to regard which a sword is said to be warmed with the it as an instance of what is called the blood [it had spilt], and the criticism is, pregnant mode of expression, viz., that the that there was the more emphasis in this fishermen were to bring Dionysius to the expression, inasmuch as the sword was so sea, and then baptize him; but as this is baptized as to be warmed. Those of our uncertain, we forbear to press any conclu readers who will not think the trouble too sion from this example. Nos. 8 and 12 great to refer to the article in the Novemdiffer only from No. 4 quoted on Josephus, ber number of “The Church,” will see in that the nature of the saturation is not that this is an instance quite analogous to specified. “Drenched” would, in each of example 8 there quoted. these cases, be the nearest equivalent term in our language. The remaining instances,

If our readers are not tired of these viz., Nos. 4, 5, and 7, are all figurative;

classical discussions, we shall hope, in the but it is not difficult to see that the idea of course of the summer, to present them with a pressure, more or less overwhelming, is a like analysis of the evidence from Strabo involved in each of them. Liddell, now on the subject, together with such informathe chief authority as a Greek lexicogra tion as, may be suitable respecting the pher, translates No. 4, "over head and ears writer; for both of which purposes, how in debt."

ever, a single paper will be sufficient.

Stepney College. As it respects the two disputed passages

Notices of Books.

Souk Passages FROM THE LIFE OF A him as a 'spiritual' man persons never

CONVERT FROM ANGLO-CATHOLICISM TO gave a thought; and all the intercourse THE TRUTH AS IT IS IN Jesus: A NAR about their souls he ever had with the peoRATIVE op Facts. Pp. 48. Bath : Binns ple professedly under his charge was when and Goodwin.

he administered the sacrament to them on This little work will be read with interest

their sick-beds, as a viaticum and passport by many; with a considerable class it will to some undefined happy state of existence, have more weight than a fuller or more

the thought in the mind being rather an profound argument. There are some things

escape from hell than an entrance into in it of which we could not entirely ap

heaven. 'Service was performed' (such prove, but the spirit in which it is written was the expression in common use) once is earnest and pious. The writer was

on Sunday, at which all the respectable in“ brought up” in the Church of England. habitants of the place attended, paid little The picture he gives of the state of things attention to the sermon (which was always in the locality in which he at first resided,

omitted on Sacrament Sunday), and none is applicable, we fear, to too many others.

to the prayers, and departed satisfied with " The clergyman, at the time of which I themselves and their religious exercises, write, was generally known as being one of for another week. No thought that the the principal magistrates, the man possess

blessed Jesus, who came from God and ing the greatest political influence in the went to God,' was the author of this soneighbourhood where he resided, and a called worship, or that He was in any meaconversational, sociable sort of person. Of | sure recognized in it, ever entered my mind, or the minds of any. The minister 1 author's view of their meaning and appliwas one who knew not God, and obeyed cation. It deserves, and will repay, careful not the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, perusal; though there are some things in and who was as little troubled as any of the it upon which each reader will have to form flock about anything beyond this solitary his own opinion. With respect to the adSunday service." The author was led to mission of a member into a church, the adopt Tractarian views, even the extreme author says, “It is enough that a brother, one, which he states to be common among in whose judgment we have confidence, Anglicans, that "no person could be saved introduce him as a belierer :" the Lord'sexcept he had been baptized in the Greek, Supper, he thinks, should be observed every Anglican, or Romish Church ; and that all Lord's-day: "the collection for the poor who were not identified with episcopacy (as saints" he considers an urgent duty, and one at present commonly understood by these not now sufficiently attended to: he would systems), were heretics and schismatics, have all “church meetings” public: he doomed to eternal perdition.” He was, would practise "the ordinance of Salutahowever, afterwards made to see the un tion:" respecting the Sabbath, his view is scripturalness of these views, and hold the the same as that of the late Dr. Carson, truth as it is in Jesus. “Dating from my new whose essay on the subject, in an abridged birth,” he says, “I am now seven years old. form, he adopts as a part of his pamphlet. Seven years have passed since I awoke to Mr. Murch concludes in the following life and light. That period has unques words, with the spirit of which we entirely tionably been the stormiest and most event. sympathise: ful of my life; it has been eventful in trial,

* The sentence is as follows: "He" (i.e., some one anknown)" is commended because he baptized the stewards, who yet were pot stewards" (Gk. tamice), “but lamiæ, i.e., monsters."

“Be thou like the first Apostlesdisappointment, suffering, and sorrow; but

Be thou like heroic Panl; I can deliberately say, that, in all, the hope

If a free thought seek expression, set before me' has proved an anchor of the

Speak it boldly-speak it all. soul, sure and steadfast. The sense of

“Face thine enemies-accusers; God's love and adoption I have never been

Scorn the prison, rack, or rod; permitted to lose. Variation, change, and

And if thou hast a truth to utter,

Speak! and leave the rest to God." weakness there have been, I sorrow fully acknowledge, but God's heart to me has FRIENDSHIP WITH GOD: A SERMON. Bx been ever the same; I have confessed my CHARLES STANFORD OF Devizes. Wit2 sins, and proved his ' faithfulness and jus A Preface by JOHN SHEPPARD, Esq. tice in forgiving my sins, and in cleansing Pp. 26. me from all unrighteousness.' If I have An admirable and interesting sermon, wandered from my Saviour for a moment, from Isaiah xli. 8, fully justifying the or ever been tempted, like Peter, to deny request that it should be printed. An Him, sorrow and repentance have been the extract will be found among our “Misresult. I have found no satisfaction, no cellaneous," peace, at a distance from Him. God's 'favour is 'to me 'life, and his loving-kindness

Kecent Publications. better than life. Beloved friends, I stand, A Guide to the Pronunciating Scripture as it were, at this seventh milestone of my Proper Names. By the Rev. J. Thompson, journey, to tell you that I have had a faith M.A. (Pp. 68. London: Houlston and ful and trustworthy Guide, one who has

Stoneman.) saved me from many a danger, delivered Take Advice! addressed to Church Memme out of many a difficulty, upheld me

bers. By the late Rev. James Smith. when I was faint and weary, and brought (Pp. 28. London: J. Kennedy.) me, in spite of all the hindrances, by a

Anti - Popery: a Lecture. By James right way.' • Hitherto the Lord hath helped

Hoby, D.D. (Pp. 30. London: Houlston me.'"

and Stoneman.) The Voice of SCRIPTURE On The Wor The Holiness of Christ Maintained; being ship of GOD IN PUBLIC. BY SPENCER

a Glance at the Statements of Scripture MURCH. Pp. 49. London: Houlston and

respecting the Imputation of Sin to Jesus Stoneman.

Christ, his Suretiship, and Substitutionary A very useful manual, comprising an ar- | Work, &c. Eight Letters, by Thomas ranged collection of Scripture passages . Crumpton. Pp. 55. (London: Houlstona bearing upon public worship, with the land Stoneman.)

A Page for the Young.

THE NEW BOOK.

bodies and the beautiful clouds which adorn

it." “Another new thing, Cecil!”

“The sky! But why should you call it “That is right, uncle! that is right! I do

a book ? A book is to be read, and how love to hear you say, 'Another new thing!'

can we read the sky ?" How old is the new thing that you are going

“With a little instruction I trust you will to tell me of ?"

be able to read it very well. You have “Only five or six thousand years."

heard of the two great books of our heavenly Five or six thousand years; and yet you

Father--the book of Revelation and that call it new !"

of Creation. Now, if creation be called a “ Yes, Cecil; I call it new on account of

book, why should I not call the sky a book, the new purpose to which you are to apply

if I find that it sets forth much of our great it. The new thing you are about to hear

Creator, which I am able to read ?" of I shall call a new book, and you must

“Oh! how I should like to be able to learn to read it."

read the book of the sky !” “But has it any pictures in it ?". “Pictures ! It has nothing but pictures

"Astronomers read the book of the sky, in it! Some of these are grave, some

philosophers read it, and why should not

christians? Yet, among the thousands who fearful, some beautiful, and others so transporting that you cannot look at them with

are daily looking at the pictures of this

book, how few are there who comprehend out the tears coming into your eyes in a

what they mean! Thousands have not yet moment.” “Shew it me, uncle ! shew it me! Are

learned the alphabet of the skies. But

listen, while I explain the language of a few there many pictures in it?" “It is made up of pictures-thousands of

of these pictures; for God speaks by them

to us, and we ought to understand Him. pictures ; and then they are so large.”

When we see above our heads at night the “Thousands of large pictures! Oh, let

great book of the sky opened, and the us have the book epread out on the great

glowing picture of the stars spread out round table! I see we shall have a fine

before us, it is as though God was manitreat. The book! the book, uncle! The

festing his wisdom, power, and goodness to new book!” “As to spreading out the new book on

us; and the language of the picture is

Believe me!'" the great round table, that will be impossible; for it is far too large for any table to

“I knew you would make it come hold it.”

right.” “I never heard of such a thing! A book

“When the tempest is abroad, and the larger than the great round table! That big black clouds hang heavy in the air, must be a curiosity! We will open it then

when the forked lightnings flash to and fro, on the parlour floor.”

and the bursting thunder seems to shake the “The parlour floor is not half big

solid earth and the heavens, when the rain enough."

comes down like a deluge! what says the “Uncle, you astonish me! But we must

awful picture of the skies ? It says, as dishave the book opened, however big it may

tinctly as if the voice of the Holy One was

heard, Fear me!'be; we shall find room for it on the lawn, I am sure."

“That is an awful picture! I seem to “Not so, Cecil; for the book of which I

understand all that you mean now, uncle," have been speaking is bigger than the

“ When the storm has passed by, and the world !"

rain has subsided, when the heavens are lit “What ! bigger than the world! Now,

up on one side by the glorious sun, and spanuncle, how can you possibly make it out

ned on the other by the glowing rainbow, that this new book, let it be what it will, is

the picture of the sky appeals to every eye bigger than the world ?”

and heart. God speaks through it, and his “I think that you will admit that it is so, language is, 'Trust me!'" when I tell you that the new book is THE “Better and better! I do see that you SKY, and that the pictures are the heavenly I may really read the pictures in the sky."

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