« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
CH A P. II.
Tie French keep their Ground in Egypt. Yet many Causes remain of
Alarm.--Means used by Bronaparte, for obviating or encountering these.An Alliance, osjerifire and defensive, between the Turks and Rufians.-E.pedition of the French into Egypt.- Objects of this avou ed. Or proballe.
Preparations for the Expedition. -- Difpofition of the Troops. — And March.- Opposed by Mammaiules, Arals, Samaritans, and other Syrian Tribes.--Battle of El-Arisch.-El-Arisch tuken by the French.-Progre's of the French Army to Gaza.--Of which it takes Poffeffion without Reji/ tance. And of Jaila (the ancient Joppa), after a desperate Rejifiance. Importance of jaja. --- Leller from Buonaparte to Ghezzar, Bashaw of St. John d'Acre.--Ghezzar's inficer.-March of the French Ariny along the Roots of Alount Carmel.-Touards St. John d'Acre. -Description and Hisory of Acre. French encamp before Acre. - And open Trenches agairf it. -- Project, combined by the British and Turkish Governments, for a general Allack mii Buonaparte, by Sea and Land. - Å French Flotilla, zeith Ballering-cammon, Ammunition, and Stores, taken by Commodore Sir Sidney Smith.- Breach ¢f'ected in the Wall of Acre. Repeated faults of the French, on Acre, repulsed.--Immenfe Multitudes assembled on the Surrounding llills, waiting for the Ilue of the Contep, wilh a Determination to join the l'idors.-Circular Letter from Sir Sidney Smith to the Princes and Chiefs of the Chrifiians of Mount Lebanon.—Their friendly Anfüer.---Sallies from the Garrison of scre.-- Account of Ghezzar BaShau.-Disconfiture and Retreat of the French from Acre.
TOTWITHSTANDING the fway was uncontrouled, fave by
destruction of the French fleet, those delultory and predatory inand that all reasonable hopes of cursions of the Arabs, who often timely support from the squadrons moleft the best established governat Genoa, Toulon, and Cortii, were ments. Buonaparte had strengthcut off, by the irresistible power of ened his army by the wrecks of the the English in the Mediterranean, Davy, and by recruits of different the French had now ellablished nations in Egypt. All the importhemselves in Egypt. Their domi- tant fiations were occupied by the mion might be tapped by peftilence Freuch. Taxes were imposed and and disease, or thaken and sub- collected Horses and camels, as verted by external aggretlion; and well as provifions for the army, this the rather, that they were 10 were lupplied in abundance. And. comple:ely humbled at foa; but, new fortreflies, rising in divers
sea over the inhabitants of Egypt, their places, firengthened Ure hands of
the invaders, by their genuine im- ing him a present, gave him in portance, and also by that air of charge, as a passenger, citizen Beau. forereign power which they car- champ, with difpaches to the Porte, ried to the imaginations of the containing asurances of the fincere humbled Musselmen. Yet many cir. defire of the French nation to live cumstances of alarm continued to with the Porte on the usual terms agitate the mind of Buonaparte. – of friendhip. At the same time The extension of the French arms he stated, in the letter, the grounds extended also the sphere of hofii- of complaint which he had against lity and resistance to their pouer. the bathaw, Ghezzar, who had Ghezzar Oglon, the bashaw of St. given a cordial reception to IbraJohn d'Acre, had allembled a great liim Bey, with about a thousand force, the destination of which, in Mammalukes, after he had been the prefent circumstances, could not driven out of Egypt into Syria, be doubtful. The bashaw of Damas- Finally, he stated, that the punishcus, too, was in motion. Multitudes ment which he might find it neceí, of Arabs might be induced to join fary to inflict on that balhaw, ought the enemies of the French. The ap- not to give the Porte any uncalipearance of a great force in Egypt, nefs. Buonaparte, foreleeing every or on its confines, might awaken the thing that would tend to give ofcourage, with the resentment of the fence to the Porte, had already difinhabitants, and overturn an autho- patched an officer to Ghezzar, by rity not yet confirmed by the lapse sea, with a letter, alluring him that of time, the abatement of preju- the French nation was desirous to dices, and the change of labiis. live at peace, and preserve friendWhile these dangers were threa- ihip with the grand reignior. But tered in the east, farther attacks he ingsted that Ghezzar fhould dilwere to be apprehended, and new miss Ibrahim, with his Mammacombinations, against the French in lukes. Ghezzar, who, in his miliEurope.
tary preparations, had acted by Among the tips which lay in orders from the Porte, made no the barbour of Alexandria, at the answer to this letter from Buonaarrival of the French, was a large parte, but fent back the officer who vesil, belonging to the Turkish carried it, and put the French at government, of that kind called Acre into irons. caravals, sent to bring home the The spirit and fulftance of thefa annual tribute. It was the time dispatches, from Buonaparte, very when the Turkish frips of com- emphatically mark the advanced merce usually set sail from Egypt; decline and degradation of the Turand the caraval received orders kish empire. Such insolence and from government to return, with contempt, however, one would imathe other vesels, to Constantinople. gine, muft have tended rather to Buonaparte aflured the captain of provoke the resentment and rethe vessel of the friend thip of the venge of the Turks, under all their French ; desired that he would political weakness, fuil retaining a bear witness at home, that the Tur- proud and haughty spirit, than to kilis, as well as the French flag, conciliate even the appearance of was flying at Alexandria ; and, give acquiefcence and connivance.
Buonaparte, no doubt, knew how fore, Buonaparte, with his covering to estimate the spirit of the Porte, army, advanced to a very confiderwhich, under the disadvantages of able distance, northward, beat the ignorance, anarchy, and the torpor Austrian army, and returned, and of old age, would have, perhaps, carried the fiege of Mantua. come to some accommodation with It was the intention of Buonathe invaders of Egypt, rather than parte, if the Porte should still rehazard an appeal to arms, if the main quiet, in the midst of all this divan had not been encouraged and invasion and interference in the spirited up, by the victory obtained Turkish dominion and government, over the French fleet, near Abou- after he had driven Ghezzar from kir, to form an alliance, offenfive his government of Acte, to have and defensive, with the English and complimented the grand feignior Russians.
with the nomination of a new baBuonaparte, fufpecting that such fhaw: a determination, it may be an alliance would be formed, and observed, by the way, which leads that, in this case, a combined ope- to a very probable conjecture, that ration would take place against he entertained some ideas of exEgypt (an attack on the side of tending the power and influence Syria, and an attack by sea), resol- of the republic, under a fhew of ved to march into Syria, chastise homage and respect for the sublime Ghezzar, and destroy the prepara. Porte, in the same manner that the tions made for an expedition against English East-India company seized Egypt, rather than wait and re- and kept posseflion of different terceive the combined attack appre- ritories, in the name of the mogul, hended on the coasts of that coun- In Afia, a few victories often lead try.
to extenlive dominion and empire. This plan of military opera- If success Nould attend his arms intions, our readers may probably Syria, the glory of his name, by recollect, is exactly in the fame attracting, as usual, numerous warspirit with the masterly and bold like, but barbarous tribes, to a vic, conduct of Buonaparte, during the torious standard, might prepare the blockade and siege of Mantua, in way for his march to Conitantino1796, when he marched rapidly ple, and even Vienna. In the deagainst an Austrian army, which fign, declared by Buonaparte, of had turned the lake of Garda, and anticipating a storm ready to fall was intended to form a junction on Egypt, there is nothing improwith general Wurmser. If the bable; and it appears to be pretty French army, which covered the certain, that the end in view was siege, had waited their approach, not limited, as was fupposed by fir and given them battle near Man- Sidney Smith,* to the treasures atua, a sortie from the garrison might massed by Ghezzar Bashaw. have, probably, decided the action Buonaparte having, by a proper in favour of the Austrians; there- disposition of his troops, and other
* In his letter to rear-admiral Blanket, commanding the British squadron in the Red Sea; and to John Wilson, esq. appointed, by the governor and council of Bombay, agent to the East-India company.
precautions of a political nature, Regnier, under the command of provided for the internal quiet of general Grange, at Cathich; from Egypt, as well as security against whence they proceeded to Larifia, incursions by the Arabs of the de- otherwise called El-Arisch, a village fart, towards the end of January, pleasantly situated on the river Pe1798, gave orders to general Al- neus, and the seat of a Greek arch. meyrus to embark provisions and bisliop, as well as of mosques for fiores, for the army of Syria, to be the votaries of the Mahomedan reconveyed, by the lake of Menzales, ligion. El-Arisch was carried, by to the port of Tinch, and from general le Grand, with the bayothence to be carried, by land, to net. The barbarous Arnautes and the village of Cathich. The ar- Maugrabins, who defended it, took tillery, that had been employed in refuge in the fortress, but with such the fiege of Alexandria, was put precipitation, that, in barricading, on board three frigates, which were the gates, they fhut out two huna to cruize off Jaffa, and to maintain dred men, who were put to the a communication with the army. sword, or made prisoners. Camels and mules were provided
Scarcely was the blockade of Elwith extraordinary expedition, at Arisch begun, by Regnier's division, Cairo, for carrying the light artil- when a reinforceinent of infantry and lery, ammunition, and provifions, cavalry, escorting a convoy of proviof which, the most bulky, as well fions for the defenders of El-Arisch, as the most necellary article, was appeared in fight of that village, water. The army was parted into and encamped on a rifing ground, four divifions: one under general covered by a very deep ravine. At Kleber, one under general Regnier, that moment, general Kleber came one under general Bon, and one up with the advanced guard of his under general Lannes. The ca- division.
The ca- division. General Regnier comvalry was commanded by general municated to him the delign he Mourat, the artillery by general had formed, of turning the ravine, Dommartin, and the engineers by and surprising the camp of the general Caffarelli,* A junction was Mammalukes in the night. Kleber formed, on the fourth of February, entirely approved this project. The 1799, between the divisions of Kle- atlack was made, and fucceeded. ber, and the advanced guard of The camp was carried, and the
* The effective force of the army, destined for the Syrian expedition, is thus stated by general Berthier : The division of Kleber
2,349 men Ditto of Bon.
corps of Mammaluke cavalry cut village of Palestine, as they got out
had now fucFrench. Two beys were killed on ceeded in traversing eighty leagues the field of baitle. The two other of the most dry and barren part divisions of the army, with the ar- of the defart: for, the inhabitants tillery, formed their junction a few of El-Arisch, as well as thole of days thereafter. Buonaparte, him- Cathich, enjoy only a few fpots of felf, with his ctat-major, and a tirong cultured ground, and a fw palmguard, who had set out from Cairo trees near their wells: all around on the tenth, arrived at El-Arisch is a dry and burning fand. The on the seventeenth of February. In aspect of the plains of Gaza was his march across the defart, he lost the more pleasing and recreating to several men and a number of horles, the fight, that they appeared borthrough bad provifions, and the dered by mountains, which renderwant of water, as well as by the ed the profpect similar to that of attacks of the Arabs, who never European countries, without having cealed to harass him,
the tirelome monotony of Egyptian The main army, thus affembled, plains, and of thole parching fands took a position before El-Arischi
, on which uniformly fill the air with an the cighteenth of February. Buo- annoying, infufferable duit. naparte ordered one of the towers Abdallah B.haw, with a thonof the castle to be camonaded, and, fand cavalry, and fifty thousand a breach being foon made, le fum- Naploutians, lay encamped in the moned the place to furrender. The heights of Korrum. After barai, garrison was compoled of Arnautes on the French army, attempting and Maugrabins, all rade barba- to take it in uk, and wentangle rians, will out leaders, uninformed it in the mountains, he was beat in any of the principles of war ac. back, forced to raile his camp, duknowledged by civilized nations. ring the night of the twenty-fourth, Their answer was, that they were and fell back upon Gaza; against willing to come out of the fort, which place the French proceeded with their arms and baggage, as it to march on the twenty-fifth of Fewas their willi to go to Acre. Buo- bruary. The fortress of Gaza being naparte, anxious to spare the efiu- evacuated by the enemy, was taken son of his soldiers' blco, delayed poliestion of by the French, withthe afault. But at length, on the out relifiance. In Gaza, they found twentieth of February, the garrison a very leasonable supply of provisurrendered, on condition of being fions and military fiores. The inpermitted to retire to Barat, by habitants having gone ont, to meet 'the defart. A number of the 'híau- Buonaparte, the city was treated in grabins entered into the French a friendly manner. service.
On the twenty-ninth of February, On the twenty-fourth of Febru- the main army began to move toary, the head-quarters of the army wards jailin the ancient Joppa), a marched to Kan-jourds, the time sea-port on the coat of Palestine,