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Malta. He made presents to bles throughout the fourteen proTurks, Greeks, and Arabs. He vinces, into which Egypt is divided. patronized strict justice between Deputations from each of thele proman and man: he gave free pal- vinces were to form a general counfage and protection to the pilgrims cil, or divan, for the government going to and from Mecca, and en- of the nation at the capital, Grand (nuraged all kinds of commerce. On Cairo. Each deputation was to the fifth of August, when in pursuit confilt of three men of the law, of Ibrahim Bey, he had the good three merchants, and three fheicks, fortune to fall in with different par- or chiefs, of Arabs. The French ties of Arabs, who had taken a great generals, commanding the different part of a caravan, on its return from provinces, had it in charge to Mecca. He sent the pilgrims and choole the persons who should forin merchants, under a proper escort, the assemblies of notables, in the to Cairo.

particular provinces, out of thote He found a number of prædial persons who had most influence with laves whom he encouraged, and the people, and were the most difendeavoured to raise, by hope, to tinguished for their knowledge, their industry, and the dignity of men, talents, and the manner in whicha by giving them lands to be culti- they had received the French: They vated on their own account. He were charged to take special care gave equal rights of inheritance to not to name any persons for noall the children of the fame parents. tables, who had declared againi! He improved the condition of wo- the French: but to take a note of men, by giving them a certain por- their names, and transmit them to tion of their husband's goods, at the general-in-chief. A regiliertheir decease, and the right of dit- office was established for tiles to posing of it. He encouraged mar- estates, and other deeds that might riages between his soldiers and the be produced as evidence. The natives, and endeavoured to re- members of the divan allowed libea strain polygamy. He established ral falaries, and every measure was schools for the instruction of the taken that might tend to reconcile young French, Cophts, and Arabs, the Egyptians to the government of in French, Arabic, geography, and their new masters. mathematics. He was a friend to In pursuance of the orders of the thews, festivities, ganies, and other general, deputies from all the prodiversions; in all which he wished vinces of Egypt, allembled at Cairo), the French and the natives to min- on the eight of October, and held gle together. And he submitted, as their firti fitting under the title of a problem, to the institute by what the general divan. In this allembly inliruments and airs, the minds of Mongé and Bartholet performed the these lalt, might be the most readily functions of commillaries on the part and effecualiy impresied through of the French. The beauty of the power of music.

the Turkish dress, the gravity of By his orders, illued about the mid- the perions who wore them, and dle of September, a general allembly the numerous domesties in their was to be held, on or before the train, conlpired to thed on the ge. twelfth of October, of all the pola neral divan an air of majesty. The


Arabian chief, Abdalla Kezkaori, is inveterate and unchangeable. was chosen president. The only Neither the grand divan at Cairo, business transacted in the divan was nor the subordinate councils, an. the pasling into laws, or the giving swered the fanguine expectations of consent to the decrees of the ge- Buonaparte. Murmurs of discontent teral.

were foon intermingled with the But this shew' of freedom could deliberations of the national aflemscarcely be expected to impose on bly of Muffelmen. Every innovathe weakest minds. Besides the fion, it was generally agreed, though presence of the French commiffion- not at filt refolutuly expressed, was érs, and the manner of the appoint- contrary to the Koran, which had ment of the notables, there were foreseen and provided for all cases, other circumstances which brought worthy of consideration. There the subjection of the Mulielmen still murmurs did not escape the vigimore forcibly to their recollection. lance of the French commander, Orders had been given, that the who had his spies in every place, whole of the inhabitants of Egypt and was informed of every thing should wear the three-coloured that pallerl. He endeavoured to cockade; that all the Egyptian vef- preserve peace and good order, by fels (called germes) navigating the measures of prevention. Outof the Nile, Mould hoilt the three-coloured numbers of individuals who were flag. And this flag was flyirg from followers, and employed in various the great pyramid, the pillar of services of the government and arPompey, and the loftiefi minaret of my; and all the Europeans, of whatthe castle of Cairo, and the highest ever nation, residing at Cairo, he minaret of all the places of note in formed, about the beginning of the fourteen provinces. To the October, ten companies of national members of the divan alone it was guards, not to be employed as repermitted to wear, by way of dif- gulars, but to occupy and maintain tinction, if they chose it, three- certain appointed posts in the city, coloured shawls on their thoulders. on any announced emergency. A government resembling, as near It was not long before the insuras circumstances would admit, the reâion apprehended burst forth. form of the French republic, was On the twenty-fixth of that month, organized throughout Egypt. A immenfe crowds, armed with spears land-tax was imposed on all the and sharp stones, assembled in and villages in all the provinces. And around the grand mosque, and every a tax on houses in Grand Cairo, other mosque in Cairo. These were and other cities.

the fortreiles in which they were to Though it has been an easy mat- make their stand, and from which -ter to produce sudden effects on the to make their attacks. A secret minds of barbarians and semi-bar- correlpondence was established bebarians, it is extremely difficult, by tween the Mahometan priests and any powers of reasoning or improve the Mammalikes; fome of whom ments, however beneficial, to pro- were concealed in different houses, duce any permanent change in their in the garb of women. General fyftem of thinking; which, in pro. Dupuy, at the head of a regiment portion to the paucity of their ideas, of dragoons, repaired to the grand

mosque, trofque, to disperse the multitude insurgents was calculated, by the that was every moment increasing: French, at five or fix thousanci imen : He was furiously attacked, and that of the French themselves, in mortally wounded. Not a few of killed and wounded, was stated by his men were killed. The reli car- them not to have exceed a hun. ried back the general to his quar- dred, in killed and wounded. And ters, where he died in a few hours this lors, it was also stated, was thereafter. The alarm being given, owing to a mower of heavy stones the whole of the French were im- thrown on the French, from the mediately under arms. The gene. tops of houses. In this affrir the sal gave orders for a battalion to Greeks, at Cairo, took a decided march against the grand mosque, and active part on the lide' of the where the Turks were allembled, Frenci. Some of them took up to the number of eight or ten thou arms in their cause, while its issue fand. They were summoned, but was vet dubious: a greater number, decidedly refused to surrender. The after it was decided, were active in citadel ihen fired on the city, par. the discovery of fugitives. All the ticularly the grand mosque, into prisoners, whom they brought to the which there fell several bombs, ex: different military stations in Cairo), ciling terror and despair. Other and who were found guilty on eribattalions were fent against the dence, we may presune not very other mosques, in the avenues and scrupulous, were put to death. The approaches to which the Turks were disguised Mammalukes, conformably aitacked, and driven back into the to a fornier decree, underwent the molques. The doors of these were fame fate. Several parties of the forced by the French, who made a infurgents retaining their arnis, endreadful flaughter. But the Muf deavoured to escape death by a prefulmen, though defeated, were not cipate night; bui thele unfortunate let conquered. The place of the men were allailed by double terrors. lain was fupplied by new comba. While they were pursued by general tants, and the contelt was prolong: Danourt, at the head of a body of ed. This was a terrible day, and cavalry, they were met in front by scarcely was that which followed the Arabs of the detart, who are less bloody. Not a Turk who was erually hofiile to all strangers, Turks, armed with so much as a club, or a Europeans, and Egyptians, and 11one, escaped with life. TheTurks, sometimes parties of their vwn na. on their part, assassinated every in- tion; all strangers not of their owni dividual, or small party of French, tribe. They are always on horsewhom they found in the streets. back, and live in the midit of the They burst into the houses of the desart. Their ferocity is equal to French, and plundered them; and, the wretched life they lead, exposed if any European domestics were for whole days to the burning heat found, they were put to the sword. of the fun, without a drop of water Some traces of the insurrection re- to drink. They are peridious, and, mained tiil the twenty-third of Oc- maintaining a constant ftruggle for tober: towards the evening of which the niaintenance of their own existtin city began to resume the appear. ence, are but little sceptible of ane of tranquillity. The loss of the humanity and compaffion for others. TOL. XLI.


They They present the most hideous pic-line, extending from the Nile to ture of barbarians that can be con- the lake Menzales. The number ceived. The unhappy fugitives of the French did not exceed five from Cairo, hemmed in between hundred. Fifteen hundred of the such enemies, and the avenging Arabs were killed or drowned, in French, liad no retreat. The fate the inundation of the river, and of the whole was ruin, flavery, or in the lake. The village Schoudeath. Buonaparte, having inflict- arra was taken, and committed to ed severe, though in his circum- the flames. Columns of light fiances perhaps not unnecessary, troops scouring the country, bepunishment, published an amnesty tween Damieita and

Mansoura, to all peaccable people, and held punished the chiefs of the rethe fame language of conciliation, volt. On the seventh of October and affected confidence, as usual, the division of the French, under

While the insurrection was brew- general Desfaix, who, having driing at Cairo, the French arms were ven the Mammalukes before, had employed in the suppression of plots passed some weeks in the neighof less moment, and in fubduing bourhood of the cataracts, in search open resistance in other places of the ruins of Thebes, defeated Scarce a day passed without some Mourad Bey, at Sediman, in Faye íkirmishing between the French and oui, a province of Upper Egypt. Arabs. At Sombat, capital of a The French had been greatly hadistrict of Gambia, the inhabitants rafled on their march by the troops allaflinated a detachment of French, of the bey, who endeavoured to consisting of one half of a demi- ftraiten the quarters of the French, brigade, and a part of a regiment and cut off their provisions. At of dragoons. On the thirteenth of day break they found themselves September, the village, by orders in front of the army of the bey, of the generals Dugua and Ver- five or fix thousand strong, comdier, was burned. About the posed of nearly an equal number same time there was an engage- of Mammalukes and Arabs, and a ment al Mitcamar, between the corps of infantry, which guarded Arabs and the troops under ge- the entrenchments of Sediman; neral Murat, in which the former where there were placed four were completely routed. On the pieces of cannon; general Deslaix night between the fifteenth and formed his infantry into a square fixteenth of Septeniber, the French battalion, which he flanked with garrison of Damietta was attacked two sinall divisions of two hunby a number of Arabs, joined by dred horsemen each. The Maminsurgents from several neighbour- malukes and Arabs, after long heing provinces. The generals Vial Gitation, formed their resolution, and Andreoffi attacked them in and charged a small platoon on their turn, at their head-quarters the right, commanded by captain in the village of Schouarra, situa- Valette, with horrible cries, and ted within cannon fhot of Dami- the greatest valour; and, at the etta. The Arabs, to the number, same time, the rear of the square. as stated by the French, of about They were every where received ten thousand, were ranged in one by the French with the greatest



[19 coolness. The challeurs, composing ment, cannon, and baggage were the platoon, presented their bayo- immediately in their possession. nets, and reserved their fire till On the side of the united forces the enemy were within ten paces. of the Mammalukes and Arabs, The barbarian cavalry were three beys were killed, two woundlefs intripid. They advanced im- ed, and four hundred of the flower petuously in front of the French of his troops killed on the spot. ranks. After firing, and throwing The loss of the French was, by their piftols and muskets at the them stated, to be thirty-fix killed, heads of the French, they rushed and ninety-six wounded. on into close action with their Here, as well as at the battle Ipears and fabres. Some of them, of the the Pyramids, the folwhose horfes were killed under diers made a considerable booty. them, crept along upon their bel- There was not a Mammaluke on lies, in order to be under the whom they did not find from bayonets, and cut the legs of their three to five hundred louis. Mouenemies. But all was in vain : they rad Bey retreated to the gorges were obliged to fly. The French, of the mountains of Tajain-raft, notwithstanding the fire of the to take care of his wounded, and four pieces of cannon, which was recruit his army. And thus Delthe more to be dreaded, that faix was left in possession of the their ranks were deep, advanced best part of Upper Egypt. to Sediman ; and the entrench


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