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creed the abotion of all privileges senate, appointed the members of a and titles, the Sovereignty of the directory, and of two councils, and peopk', the integrity and indepen- remitted to them the form of godence of the republic, the return vernment, which they were to put as much as posible to the constitu- in execution. tion as it stood before the uríurpa
The directory was to consist of tion of 1556, and the bestowing five nerfons ; and to nominate fire places of power and trust on thole minifiers : one for foreign affairs; who could and would adminifter one for domestic ș one for justice; them cheapest. But while they and one for war and the marine. readily, and with a good grace, The directory was also to chewe a made these important cessions to the national treasurer. Fourteen compopular party, they thought it pru- millaries were also to be a pointed dent to retain the provisionary au- by the directory for the administrathority. The patriots, through the tion of the departments, and to reorgan of their deputies, reprelented lide in the country. All the acts of to the senate and the legislative com- the former government were to remiffion, that the wish of the people main in force. And those who were was, to have a constitution founded 10 have either civil or military emon a more perfect equality of right ployments were, as far as poslīble, and division of power. The senate to be continued in their places, or resisted those reclamations, and were to receive indemnities. The consupported by the French agents, who tribution of two millions of livres treated the patriots as anarchists, was raised, only, on the ex-nobles. and disturbers of the public peace. This was a kind of counterbalance Six other members were added to to the complaisance that had been the legislative commillion: but this thewn in continuing the provisionmeasure did not occasion any altera- ary authority in the hands of the fetion. Agreeably to a notification nate. The salaries of the public from the French general, a hundred functionaries were judiciously prodeputies, chosen by the city and portioned to the smallness of the territory of Lucca, were about to Itate. The directors were to reopen their fittings, when a confti- ceive fifty crowns a month, the tution ready made, and formed as minifters twenty-five, the members nearly as circumstances would admit, of the legislature twelve, and the on the plan of the Ligurian republic. other agents of government in proThe general, having disolved the portion.
CH A P.
'CH A P. X.
Meeting of the British Parliament.-Speech from the Throne.--Debates
thereon in both Houses.-Army, Navy, and other Eftimates.-- Supplies.Ways and Means. - Taxes.- New Mcafure of Finance. ---Rufian Subfidy. -Debates.-Eulogy on the Rufian Emperor.- India Budget.-Amended Bills for the Redemption of the Land-Tax.--Motion by Mr. Tierney, for the Prevention of any Negociation that might prevent a Peace.-Sufpenfion of the Habeas-Corpus-Ad.-Conversation relating to the Treatment of Perfons confined in the New State Prison.
E come now to give some great and brilliant victory, an enduced by the great events, above fidy, and extravagance, had fixed related, on the councils and conduct the attention of the world, and of Great Britain: the great antago- which was peculiarly directed nist, around whom all the powers against some of the most vulnerable were naturally arranged, that were interests of the British empire, had, yet unwilling to bend the knee, in the first instance, been turned and able, with her aid, to make to the confusion of its authors; and a stand against the spreading tyranny the blows, thus given to the power of France.
and influence of France, had af On Tuesday, the twentieth of forded an opening, which, if imNovember, 1798, the king, in a proved by suitable exertions on the tpeech, from the throne, to both part of other powers, might lead houses of parliament, stated “ the to the general deliverance of Eufignal success, which, by the blesling rope. of Providence, had attended his “ The wisdom and magnanimity arms, been productive of the hap- fo eminently displayed, at the prepiest consequences, and essentially sent juncture, by the emperor of promoted the glory and happiness Russia, and the decision and vigour of the country. The unexampled of the Ottoman Porte, had thewn series of our naval triumphs had that those powers were impressed received freth splendour from the with a just sense of the present memorable and decisive action, in crisis: and their example, joined to which a detachment of his fleet, the disposition manifested almost under the command of rear-admiral universally in the different countries Nelson, had attacked and almost struggling under the yoke of France, totally destroyed a fuperior force mult be a powerful encouragement of the enemy, strengthened by every to other states to adopt that vigoradvantage of situation. By this ous line of conduct, which exVUL. XLI.
perience perience had proved to be alone He celebrated with equal warmth, confiftent with security and honour. 'eloquence, and justice, the pre
“ The extent of our preparations eminently glorious victory of the at home, and the demonstration of Nile; the spirit and union of the zeal and fpirit among all ranks of Ruflians and Ottomans, rouzed and his subjects, had deterred the enemy animated by that victory; the coufrom attempting to execute their rage of the king of Naples inflamed vain threat of invading the coasts of by the same cause, and the rifing this kingdom."
hopes, and spirits of the inferior “ In Ireland, the rebellion, which Italian states. His lord ship conthey had instigated, had been cluded
been cluded by moving an address, curbed and represled; the troops echoing, as usual, the speech from which they had landed for its fup- the throne, and affuring his majesty port had been compelled to sure of the loyalty and zeal of his parrender: 'and the armaments, fince liament, and the chearfulness with destined for the same purpole, had, which that house would fupport by the vigilance and activity of his the crown and constitution. The mo. squadrons, been captured or dif- tion for the address was seconded by perfed. The views and principles Lord Craven, who said that, by of those who, in concert with our our fingle exertions, the navy of inveterate enemy, had long plan- the French republic was annihilated. ned the fubversion of our constitu- Her boasted army of England had tion, had been fully detected and lost even its title, and every enterexposed, and their treasons made prise she had undertaken against us 'manifest to the world. Those was wholly defeated. Not only whom they had misled or seduced our crafts at home, but our most must now be awakened to their valuab! possessions abroad, were duty; and a just sense of the mise- secured. There was but one branch ries and horrors which those trai- of commerce which this country terous designs had produced, must did not almost exclusively poffels; impress on the minds of all his faithe namely, that of the Levant. Of ful subjects, the necessity of con- that trade France would now be tinuing to repel, with firmness, every tutally deprived: and this country attack on the laws and established ivould reap all the advantages government of their country." His which had before belonged to our majesty proceeded, as usual in times enemy, in that quarter, which aof war, to express his confidence, that lone contributed to the support the public resources and spirit of her navy. Buonaparte was cut would enable the house of commons off from all means of retreat, and to provide the necessary supplies on every fide beset with obstacles. without ellential inconvenience to These fucceffes bad already given his people, and with as little addi- fpirit and alacrity to several of the tion as possible to the permanent foreign powers, who liad unequiburtdiens ot' his people.
vocally declared their determination His majesty and the house of to join against the common enemy; commons having retired, the earl Russia and the Ottoman Porte had of Darnly went over all the topics already declared themselves, and touched on in his majesty's speech. he had no doubt but Austria, though
unwilling, would find it her interest danger should bring the powers of to join in the great united exertion; Europe to a league, upon honest which the example of our govern- principles, they must prevail over ment had recommended to all Eu- the revolutionary fystem; and it was Tope, and without which it would his hope, that his majesty's ministers be vain to look for either secu- had improved the late victory of rity or peace.
the Nile to that great purpole; that The marquis of Lansdown joined they had displayed to the powers most heartily in the praifes juftly be the advantages of magnanimity, stowed on our navy. It became all and before they came to parliament that house to join in merited thanks. to announce the continuance of But after that duty was performed, war, had incorporated those powers there would remain another duty to in a great and difinterested league, be performed by the king's minifters in which, instead of difgracing and by their lordships: the duty of themselves, by looking to this coundrawing from our naval victories try for fubidies, they had relumed the advantages they were calculated the dignity wbich became them, to secure. He was satisfied that it and at length resolved on proceeding was of consequence, not only to the direally to the object of restoring securepose and security of Great Bri- rity to Europe, without teeking, in tain, but of the world in general, its disorders, their own temporary to check the progress of the French profit. My lords, said the marquis, I revolution. It was neither necel- am disappointed to find none of fary nor consistent with found po- this in the speech from the throne; licy to load with approbrium even I see nothing held out to me on the enemy: but it was impoffible, which I can repole; I hear no he said, to speak of the conduct of account of returning magnanimity; the French without using the lan- and wisdom.
His lord ihip proguage of the utmost reprobation. ceeded to delcribe the mutual Their course of havoc and devasta- jealoufies that fublisted among the tion, their unprincipled and detefta- great powers of Europe, and conble tyranny, corruption, and bafem lequently that, while these lafted, ness, must excite in every bolom no fyftem of co-operation against that cherishes the principles of France can be successful. As to liberty as the supreme good, and the boasted vigour, manifested by the happiness of human kind, as Ruffia and the Porte, it was imthe end of every rational govern. pollible to speak of fo monstrous ment, a steady resolution to check an idea as a conjunction between their career, and to save the world the Russians and ihe Turks without from the horrible calamity to which ridicule. Their mutual ditiruft and they doom it. But how was the jealousy exceeded that of other progress of their atrocity to be nations. And what, he afked, was checked? Had we not the experi- the Ottoman Porte? Did we not ence of five years to prove to us know that the most helpless of all the that we had undertaken the task countries on earth was Turkey? in a way not calculated to obtain It was not only merely incapable of the end? It was never denied that, external operations, but even of if at length, a sense of general domestic defence. The grand long
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nior had been defeated in more from our marine, from our infula thar thirty attacks on one rebelli- fituation, and from public opinion, ous bashaw. Experience ought to nakes us certainly more secure impress on our minds a conviêion than any kingdom on the contiof the hollow principles on which nent: and when we see that the political combinations are formed. powers on the continent make use We had assisted the great powers of us only for their own ends, cas of the continent: one of these had we again entangle ourselves with contracted large engagements with such confederates? I anticipate the us, and been enabled, through our reply to all this.” « How can we means, to make valuable acquisi- make peace? By repeated trials tions, “I do not, from his ma- it has been shewn, that it is imjesty's speech, understand that that posible to negociate to any purpower has come forward to dilo pose with the French directory.” charge its obligations; or to give Ministers know best wliether they any assurance that he will repay ought to have failed. I do not the loan, which he raised under the wish to exasperate. If they were guarrantee of the British govern- fincere, I only lament that they ment, and therefore, I say again, did not take the most dignified my lords, that even if a rew com- course, nor the most likely to obtain bination should be made, of those the end. I would have your lordpowers that have hitherto only looked fhips to thew, by your conduct, to their own distinct and individual that you seek for no other object objects, and who have deserted the than security and peace; that you common cause, the instant that they will support the government who had obtained fome miserable acquisi- shall act upon this single principle. tion to themselves, we can have no And let it be made manifest to all prospect of advantage from such a the world, that England looks to league. Nay, my lords, if the nothing else, It is particularly jealoulies of these great powers dignified to make this declaration Thould again be stifled for the mo- in the moment of conquest. Pole ment, I should not think this all tical Gtuations are always, and at that was neceflary to the combined the present period, rapidly changa movement of Europe against France. ing. The French of this day, are I should demand the concurrence not the French of last
And and exertion of the northern pow- therefore, however indisposed they ers allo.
It is material that the were on the last experiment, it powers of the Baltic should join is now worth the trial. I do not in the confederacy; but I see no- mean that you thould send to offer thing of all this, and yet we are to it, but choose the moment of victory continue the war upon the ground to make it manifest, that this is of hollow and disjointed combina. the only end you have in view; and tion, and that combinațion neither that you are constantly ready and general nor disinteresicd. Are other prepared to make it. After such powers less sensible of their danger declaration, our course is clear and than we are? Are they less liable fate. Let us lay aside all idle plaus to feel the atrocity of the French of conquest and acquisition, which fystem? The security we deriye we cannot