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of liberty were every where cut mercy. A number of executioners down, and the tri-coloured flags followed in the train of the French torn in pieces and committed to columns ; scaffolds were erected; the flames,

and the blood of the unhappy BelThe generals of the French gians flowed profusely. army and the directorial agents, The brave and honest Belgiang, who fled to the army for protec- equally. obedient to justice and tion, did not fail to make the indignant at injustice and oppresfeverest retaliation. A number of fion, wearied and worn vut, withvillages were given up to fire out magazines, artillery, and places and sword. The insurgents, over. of retreat, enclosed bet ireen Hol powered in the castle of Dullel, land and France, and left to their near Malines, around which they fate by Europe, were, in, Januabad cast a trench, were massacred, ry, 1799, obliged to yield to their after they had surrendered, without mighty conquorors,


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Congress of Rafladt.-Description of Germany.--Germanic Confitution

The Germans, in all Ages, characterized by a Lore of Liberty.--States of the Empire - Three Colleges.---'iciffitudes in the Conftitution.-Election of the Emperor.-Geographical Division of the Empire into Circles.Division of the Empire, founded on Differences of Religion.-Diet of the Empire. - Advices of the 'Diet.- Decrees of Ratification.-Conclufum. Influence of the Emperor on the Proceedings of the Diet.-nd of the King of Pruffia. Deputations of the Empire.- Ordinary and Ex/raordinary Members of the Extraordinary Deputation of the Empire allembled at Rasiadt.-Their Pozeers and Functions. Negociation between the Parlies concerned, at Rafadt, carried on without the Intervention of foreign Powers.-Secret Articles in the Treaties of Base and Campo-Forniol'iolation of the latler, on the Part of the French, complained of by the Imperial Minister.Bafis proposed for a Pacification, by the French Plenipolentiaries.--Counter Propofitions, by the Deputation of the Empire. —Contimiation of Hoftilities by the French.-Disputes concerning the Origin and Commencement of the Il’ar.The Basis proposed by the French Plenipotes tiaries agreed on by the secret Articles of the Treaty of Campo-Formio. Secularizations proposed.--The Deputation agree to the Cellion nf half the Territory demanded by the French.-Who perfift in their firs Propositions.

-Debates in the Diet of the Empire.-The Cession of the left Bark of the Rhine agreed to, hy the Deputation, on certain Conditions:--Prirate l'icus of the individual States of the Empire.— The System of Secularization agrced to.-Farther Pretenhons of the French.-Objections to the c.-Jealousies and secret Views of both the negociating Parties.-Rapacity and Venality of the French Directory.— Interesting and insidious Intervention of the French Plenipotentiaries, in Favour of certain Imperial Cities.Relaxed and enfeebled State of the Germanic Constitution. The German States arranged respectively around Pruffia and Jufiria.-Fresh Pretonfrons of the French refifted by both these Powers.-Concesions of the Frencii.- dud of the De putation of the Empire.- A Majority of the Deputation agrees to the French Propofitions.- Protest in the Diet against their vote.Effect produced on the Negociations at Rafadt, by the Approach of the Russians to Germany.-Conclufum of the Diet, on the subject of the French Propofitions, ratified by the Imperial Commissary.--Requisitions of the Deputation of the Empire, for the Relief of the right Bank of the Rhine.-Declaration of the French Plenipotentiaries again the Admission of Rufian Troops into the Territory of the Empire.-Referred to the general Diet of the Empire of Ratisbon.--Entrance and Progression of the Ruijians into Germany. --Surrender of the Fortress of Ehrenbrilstein.---The French Army froses the Rhine. -- And penetrates into Suavia. french Proclamation.--


And Address of General Jourdan to his srmy, on their Entrance into Germany.-Taken into Confideration by the Deputation of the Empire. Which recommends to the general Diet the Adoption of seans for a speedy Peace.The Zeal of the Deputies for Peace, checked by the Imperial Coma milary.- Preludes of Ilar.


Y an article in the treaty of of rivers, of which the principal are

Campo-Formio, it was agreed the Danube, the Rhine, the Elbe, and fixed, that a congress should and the Weler. in consequence of be held at Rastadt, compoled solely its extent, and the number, indusof the plenipotentiaries of the Gere try, and wealth of its inhiabitants, maric empire and of the French re- it would be a very powerful and public, for the purpose of concluding formidable fiate, and a happy couna negociation between those pow- terpoise and barrier against the amers. This congress was accordingly bition of France, if the different opened on the twelfth of Deceni- territories of which it is composed, ber, 1797. That our readers may were united under one head, with the more easily enter into the na- suficient authority to constitute ture of this allembly, and the cha- them one united and compacted racter of its deliberations, it may government. But, the three hunnot be improper to recall to their dred staies into which it is divided, mind, very briefly, an idea of the polliefing, for the most part, royal Germanic conttitution, and of some prerogatives, even to the extent of of the principal viciffitudes it has making peace or war, are influenced undergone, in the laple of time, only by their own individual intefrom its origin to the present day, retis. They abandon the commuwhen it totters on the verge of dil nity of which they are members, at solution, if not, in fact, already the moment of its danger, to all the diffolved.

attacks of adverse fortune. Though Germany is computed to com- they acknowledge one chief, they prize a furface of twelve thousand are independant of each other, and square geographical miles, and to not attached by any particular or contain a population of twenty: private tie to the coinmon interest : eight, or thirty millions of ivba- belides this, the powers which they bitants. It is bounded on the porti, have gradually allumed, are inby the river Eider, and the Baltic creased at every new election of an sea; on the east, by Prutlia, Poland, emperor. For this reason, it is an Silesia, and Hungary, on the fouth, undecided point among German by the Adriatic sea, Italy, and Swit- doctors of laivs, whether the conzerland; and, on the west, by ititution of their country, be moFrance, the Northern ocean, and narchical or aristocratical. This in. the Seven United Provinces, at decision renders it a matter of doubt present styled the Batavian republic. with fome, whether there be, in Germany has not only the advan- reality, any precile and determinate tage of three seas, but also for in- constitution of Germany at all, ternal navigation, a great number The most probable opinion on this

lubject fubjeét is, that the Germanic con- with the electors. But this was not ftitution is an extremely limited the case. When Germany was semonarchy. With the exception of parated from France, to which it the short and stormy period between had become subject, to form an 1742 and 1745, the inperial dig- empire by itself, the chief of the nity has, for many ages, been vested nation was in polersion of full and in the house of Austria. This digo absolute sorereignty. Dukes, marnity was not hereditary in that fa- graves, counts palátines, and landmily, but conferred, on fuccellive graves, were no more than simple vacancies of the throne, by way of oficers of the crown, acting in the election.

name and by the authority of the At the period when the German monarch. But, as it was common empire became an electire king- to beltow on fons the places that dom, (for it was not so from the had been held by their fathers, and beginning), all the magnates, or to confer the great offices of late on most powerful chiefs, had a share families who had large possessions in in the election. But this privilege the territories over which they were passed infenfibly into the hands of appointed to preside, it came to the principal ecclesiastical and le- pass, in troublesome times, when cular princes, who were called the monarch could not exercise a electors. It was necessary, about strict vigilance over them, that they the time of the reformation, and kept their places by a hereditary lince, that the candidate for the im- title, and the officers of the crown perial crown should be of the Ro- became sovereign princes, their man catholic religion. Hence the power increased, in proportion as capacity of filling the imperial the hands were flackened, whici throne is reduced to a very few united them to the empire, nove houses of high distinction : those of and more, till at length a leal was Austria, the Palatinate, and Saxony. put to their authority, by the peace But, as the imperial election has been of Westphalia. It is farther to be almost uniformly carried, for many observed, that neither the kings of ages, by the former of these, whose France, nor those of Cermany, immenle hereditary dominions has their successors, were ever absolute, given birth to an apprehension, left lo long as the tribes of Germany it mould employ its vast power for were but finall. The chief conthe purpose of its own aggrandize. sulted the opinion of every free ment, rather than that of maintain. man, without exception. An ining the rights of the states of the herent love of liberty, it is recordempire, the electors have judged it ed both by Tacitus and Julius proper, at every new election, Cæfar, was characteristic of the fince that of Charles V. in 1519, 10 ancient Germans. When the emstipulate for the maintenance of their pire became too extentive for the own prerogatives and thole of their public deliberations of all free men co-efiates, by an instrument, called in a body, the king allembled the the Imperial Capitulation. It is a dukes, margraves, counts palatine, pretty general opinion, that the fiple counts, and landgraves to limitation of the imperial power, consult togetier, and with him, o had its origin in an origira kompact the affairs of the nation. Thole lords were not indeed, strictly speak tors of landed estates : that is, such ing, the representatives of the peo- proprietors as did not hold them as ple: ftill, however, they might be fiefs of the crown. For a long time confidered as such : they were al- there were no other states of the em'ways great landed proprietors, who pire. Thele two orders held their bare the clearest and most unquef- deliberations in common with the tionable interest in the welfare of chief of the enpire, under the fimthe people; and, besides this, it ple designation of two benches; the was in confant usage with the ecclesiastical bench, and the seculat grandees, before presenting them- bench. In the lapse of ages there fetres at court, to convene tlie free arose a third class of national repremen of their respective diftricts, in fentatives. In the reign of Henry, order to receive information of facts, the falconer, a great number of and charge themselves with the re- towns were built, both on the fronpresentation of their grievances: a tiers, and in the inferior of Gercutrom which also prevailed, it many, Part of these held of dukes will readily be recollected, with and princes, and part immediately the states-general of France. Thus of the emperor. The latter were the masvatus of Germany became called imperial cities, and their fates of the empire.


magistrates were appointed by the After Chriftianity made its way emperor, for the purpose of exerinto the heart of Germany, a great cising, in his name, the rights of number of archbishops, bishops, fovereignty, and drawing certain and abbots appeared on the same revenues for the imperial treasury. level, and in the same rank, with the They derived prosperity from comlay chiefs

, who, by and by, admirted merce; which enabled them to purthen into their number in the public chase the rights of fovereigns from convents, not only in consequence of the enperor, to form for themselves their refpected ftations and valuable republican conftitutions, and to acpoffeffions, but because the ciergy quire considerable domains; fomealone, in those days, were verfart in times by money, sometimes by main either letters, or the belt modes of force. Occupied, almost wholly, transacting public business. Thus in industry and commerce, they the states of the empire were digave themselves but little concern vided into two orders; the'cclefi- about the affairs of the empire. attic and the secular. Among the The particular wars in which they former, were ranked archbishops, were sometimes engaged, and to bithops, and abhors of royal foun- which they were always exposed, rations: the abbons of other me- rendered it difficult to eriablifi a nalieries did not enjoy the fame general peace, witlout some partiprivileges. To the order of prelates cipation, on their part, in its forwere joined, the grand-mafier of nation, and their attachment to the tentonic order, and the grand- the emperor, from whom they deprior of the order of St. John, of rived their political privileges, pointa Jerufalem. The secular order was ed them out as a natural lupport composed of dukes, counts pala- to the imperial power, againit'the tine, landgraves, margraves, fimple encroachments of the other flates, counts, and independent proprie. Their wealth ton, presented the

an pieni

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