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IV. The chicks, cadis, and imans, example, the French officers and folshall continue to exercise their res- diers were in the habit of allitting pečlive functions: 'each inhabitant at the great festivals and ceremonies shall remain in his house; and pray- in honour of the prophet. The ers fall continue as usual: every whole army took the tone of outone shall return thanks to God for ward respect for Ismaulism. the destruction of the Mammalukes. In a few days after the reduction Glory to the fultan; glory to the of Cairo, accompanied by several French army, his friend ! 'curles to of his principal officers and several the Mammalukes; and happiness to members of the Egyptian institute, the people of Egypt!”.

he went to see the grand pyramid, To the same effect, but with the called Cheops; in the interior of brevity of a conqueror, Buona parte, which he was attended by several after he was malier of Cairo, ad- muftis and imans. In a' curious dressed the bashaw and the people a:d interesting conversation, which of Cairo. He confirmed, when took place between himself and master of Egypt, by means of the those religious characters, on this fignal victory which his army had occasion, Buonaparte fultained his gained, his former declaration, to part so well as to impress on their preserve to the hashaw of the grand minds, at once, a respect for his seignior his rerenues and appoint- own understanding and knowledge, ment; and begged of him to allure and an idea, at least for a time, that the Porte that it would suffer no he entertained a respect for the faith kind of lofs, and that he would take of Muffelmen. Having saluted the care that it ihould continue to re- ftrangers and sat down with them, ceive the tribute heretofore paid to in their manner, on the ground, he

faid, “ God is great, and his works Buonaparte not only declared are marvellous. Here is a great himself a disciple and friend to Ma- work accomplined by the hands of homct, but, by means of his

What end had he in view emillaries, az well as no obscure who construĉed this pyramid?” hints in mellages and letters to dif- One of the priests answered, “ It is ferent parties of Muilelmen, infi- the work of a great king of Egypt, nuaied, that lie was acquainted called Cheops, who wished that his with their ipward thoughts and de- aihes might not be disturbed by fafigns, and endeavoured to propa- crilegious intrufions.” “Cyrus, the gate a perluason that he had been Great,” replied Buonaparte, “gare actually and exprelily commillioned, orders, that his inanimate body by the prophet, to refift, repel, and should be expofed to the open air, cverthrou, the tyranny of the on purpose that it might be the bers, to retorm certain errors and more easily and completely diffolabuses, and to promote justice, ved, and be re-united to the patumerry, and piety; the great ends ral elements. Dont you think that of the Mahometan and only reli- he did much better? Wi’hat think you? gion.

one of the mufuis bowing his head He was careful to pay homage, taid, "Glory to God to whom all on erery occasion, to the prophet. glory is due.” Buonaparte added, hy isis defire, and according to his Honour to Allah," (who was the


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[11 caliph that gave orders for the open- than as a devotee to the religion ing of this pyramid, and disturbing of Mahomet ; he told him, that the aflies of the dead.* The mufti every thing was quiet at Cairo and and inans made answer, “ Accord- Suez, and between thole places, ing to fome, Mahomet, the com- and peace established among the mander of the faithful, who reign- inhabitants; not a single Mainmaed, many centuries ago, at Bagdad; luke oppressor, he said, remained but, according to others, Haroth in the country, and the inhabitants, al Reschid, who fancied, that he without dread or fear, employed ho:ild find treasures in it; but when themselves in weaving, cultivating those whom he had sent had enter- the ground, and other trades, as ed this apartment, as the tradition formerly. Tlie duties on merchanis, they found nothing but mum- dize were now the same as they mies, with the following infcription were prior to their being raised by on the wall, written in letters of the Mammalukes; the merchanis gold, “The impious commit ini. had every ailiitance granted them; quity without fear, but not with- ard the road between Suez and out remorse.” Buonaparte, applied Cairo was open and safe.

He a proverb, well known to the per- therefore requested of the shereef to fons with whom he now converled, allure the merchants of his country, “The bread that is taken by vio- that they might bring their goods to lence fills the mouth of the robber Suez and fell them without dread with gravel.”

or apprehenfion, and might purIt was not only in Epypt that chase, in exchange for them, such Buonaparte laboured to propagate articles as they might with. a belief of his attachment to Muf- It is impossible to ascertain the lelmen and the Sublime Porte. He degrees of faith that was reposex in fent letters, to this end, to different different places, and by different agents of France, in different parts persons, in the religious profellions o ibe Turkish empire, and one of Buonaparte. Perhaps they were written, in Arabic, to the thereef wavering, and different at different of Virta, to whom he entrusted times in the fame persons. The arotter to their friend, Tippo Sal- prelence and authority of Buonatan. This letter was received at parte, and his literary staff, if we judi, carly, sirit of July, 1799, may borrow a metaphor from arms andience forwarded to the Holy to arts, as well as military, no doubt, Cir. Bat Euonaparte, who pol- detraced fomewhat from the comland much discernment, was at pliments which were paid to him, great pains to study characters, and and them, by the multi and iman who) varied his tone according to with whom they met and converted, int of the persons whom he ad- as he had done before, with the dreiled, seemed to contider the priests at Rome, on fundry cecahier phant of Mecca rather as a fions: yet they might probably be political princè, concerned for the impressed with a temporary coprofperity of his place and people, viction of his sincerity, until they


The ancient Egyptians believed that the foul nerer wholly for look the body, wlile any part of it nung, or was held together.




compared his professions with that able correspordence with the Mama spirit of domination, and worldly malukes, and, on the sixth of Scpinterest and advantage, which ap- temher, condemned and executed. peared in the tenor of his conduct. I''s head, with a label of his crinie, A like observation may be made on 1975 carried through the fireeis. certain testimonials which were gi. This act of severity was fitted in. ren in favour of the French general, died in inspire terror: but the per by Mufelmen, and others, parti- fidy of Koraim would eahly he fora cularly a letter from the notables of given by Mulle!men, while his Cairo, on the arrival of Buonaparte, death might be followed by the to the shercef of Mecca, giving an usual conioquences of martyreom. : accouut of his respect for the law of The talk undertaken by Bronathe prophet. There was more fin- parte, to an algamate the prejudices cerity probably in a hyn'n, com- of the Netometans wiih tlie preposed by the musii of the Cophes, tenfions of the French, was d fault and chaunted in the grand mosque almeft beyond example, and even m! Cairo, on the twenty third of July, more arduous than that of Malonet. in celebration of the arrival of Buo- The plan pursued by Mahomet was naparte in that city; who, at the great, but simple. The spirit of it command and under the protection was terror: the inftruments of Allah, had come at the head of means of executing ii, great and the brave warriors of the well, fimple also; God, war, and fate. succour the oppreffes, and drive It was a more complicate!, and a ont the beys with their Marana pirer undertaking to mingle terror lukes. It is conceived in the most with reasoning, the rights of man beautiful style of eastern fimplicity, with the privileges or rather preand gives no mean idea of either rogatives of Mode!men, and the the sentiments of the multi of the submision of the followers, to strane Cophts, or his taste in compofi- gers, at best only dubious friends to tion.

the prophet. Ofihe manner in which That the expresions of refpect Buonaparte fet about to accomplith for the French general-in-chief that design, fome idea may be were not always voluntary and fin- formed, from a view of a French cere, were it a matter that needed feast at Cairo, on the twenty-tbird cny proof, would be placed, besond of September, the anniverlary of doubt, ivy the conduct and fate of the French republic. Koraim, ihereef of Alexandria, wlin, On the setting of the fun, Sepafter fwearing fidelity, with the tember twenty-Second, the feasi was mutti and principal fheicks of the announced by thisee falutes of artilcity of Alexandria, to the French lery. The commencemeat of the republic, was convicted of treason- feast was proclaimed at sun rising


The fignasures of thele to the declaration of fidelity new how natural it is for all religionisis (, perhaps, the ancient polytheins) io afiec? heavenly-mindedness and an indifference to the things of this world: obe poer Suleiman, muiti of Maliki; tbe from Ibrabim el Poarge, chief of the Sect Hamste; ib: fnor Mrkoned i 1lfira; the poor Ahmet', &c. The titles bestowed on Christian prelates did no: arise immediately from fertia ments of religion, but froin the dignity and consequence accruing to them from fecular porrons.

the struck up

the next morning, by three dif- of each division, who fell in the act charges from the whole of the artil- of delivering Egypt from the yoko lery; that of all the different divi- of the Mammalukes. fions of the army; that of the park; As soon as all the troops had ar. and that of the marine, or fotilla, on sembled, and were drawn up on the the Nile. Immediately the generale place of Libecquier, the commandwas beaten through the whole city, er-in-chief, accompanied by his fiaff and all the troops, in the higheft officers, the generals of divifions, order, appeared under arms, in the the commitary-general, the complace of Libecquier. In this place miffaries of war, and of civil admi. a circle had been traced of two hun- nistrations, artists and men of sci. dred fathoms diameter, of which ence, the biaya, or Turkish oficer, the circumference was formed by next in anthosity to the bathaw, the one hundred and five columns, de emir Hadji, and the members of the corated with three-coloured fags, divan, (of which we all presently bearing the names of all the depart- give fome account) both of Cairo ments. Thele pillars were united and the provinces. The commandby a double row of garlands, em- er-in-chief, with his suite, seated blematical of the unity and indivisi- themselves on the platform that ran bility of all the parts of the French round the obelisk. Superb carpets republic

covered the mount on which it One of the entries into the circle food. The inusic of the different was decorated by a triumphal arch, demigrades

warlike on which was pourtrayed the battle marchies, and patriotic airs, and of the Pyramids: the other by a forgs of victory. portico, above which were places Tlie troops, after going through leveral Arabiciunt.riptions. Of their exerciles with great readiness these there was one as follows: and precision, came and arranged " There is no God but one God, and themselves around the obelijk ; Mahonet is his prephel."

when a proclamation, by the com, In the middle of the circle, there mander-in-chief, for the discipline wae raid an obelisk of granite, of of the army, and the good governthe height of seventy feet. On one ment and well being of Egypt was of its faces was engraven, in letters read aloud, by the adjutan-general. of gold, To the French republic

, ann.7: It was listened to with the most on that oppofite to it, To the expul, profound filence, and followed by fion of the Mammalukes, ann. 6. On repeated cries of vive la republique. the collaterial fides, thele two in- A hymn was performed at the or fcriptions were translated into Ara- chestra, and the troops filed off, in bic. The pedestal of the obelisk perfect order, before the general-inwas embellished with bas reliefs; on chief, who returned with his com, the adjoining ground, seven altars pany to his quarters, The whole in the ancient ftvle, intermixed with of this company,

with several candlesticks, fupported trophies of Turkish oficers and Arabian chiefs, arms, furmounied with three-co- who had come up during the exhi. loured flags, and civic crowns. In bition, were invited to dinner at the centre of each of these trophies, the general's house ; where a fumpthere was a list of those brave men, tuous table was provided, of orie hundred and fifty covers. The surrounded the place of Elbecquier. French colours. were united with The intent of this entertainment, it the Turkish, the cap of liberty was will readily be perceived, was, to placed by the side of the crescent, impress the minds of the Egyptians and the rights of man by the Koran. with a sense of the power, art, and The gaiety of the French was tem- magnificence of the French nation, pered with the gravity of the Turks. and of their respect for Musselmen, The Mufelmen were left to their and good will towards all the Egypown choice of meats and drinks, and tians. Nor was it by profeflions expreffed great fatisfaction with the alone, that Buonaparte studied to attentions that were shewn them. gain the aitachment and confidence After dinner, several toasts were of the people among whom, accorddrank. The commander-in-chief ing to his own phrase, the French gave, for a toast, To the three hun had come to dwell, but by actions. dredth year of the French republic. In order to please the people, and One of his aides-de-camp, To the dispel their apprehensions of some legislative bodies, and the executive unknown impending calamities; directory. Miongé, prelident of the the opening of the canal of Cairo, Egyptian institute, To the perfection was this year accompanied by even of the human understanding, and the greater ceremony and pomp than advancement of knowledge. General usual. On this occasion the general Berthier, To the expulsion of the distributed considerable sums, in Mammalukes, and the prosperity of alms, among the poor, and gave the people of Egypt. Other toalts an entertainment to the notables of were given, but these were the Cairo. In like manner he gave a chief. Each toast was received considerable fum for defraying the with unanimous plaudits, and fuit- expense of a magnificent feast, in able airs of music. Patriotic cou- honour of the birth-day of the proplets, lung by the foldiery, concluded phet. Having, on that occafion, this civic feast.


declared himself the protector of all At four o'clock, foot and horse religions, he received, from the races began, and the prizes were Muslelmen, the name of Ali Buoniaadjudged to the victors, who were parle. But the overt-act, by which borne in triumph around the circus. he most signally displayed regard to At the close of the day, the whole the grand leignior, the head of of the circumference of this was il- „Muffelmen on earth, was his perluminated in the most brilliant man- mitting all the Turkish vessels in ner. The pillars, the intermediate Alexandria, as well as all neutral garlands, and the triumphal arches vellels, either to remain or set fail were hung with chryiial lamps, for their respective destinations, at which produced the happiest eifect their pleasure, and setting free and At cight o'clock, there was a beau- fending to Conftantinople, on board tiful display of fire-works, accom- those vesels, with a letter to the panied, at different intervals, by dif- grand vizier, fraught with many charges of musquetry and artillery. profeflions of regard and even A considerable number of Turkish subordination to the Porte, the ladies enjoyed the spectacle from the Turkin faves, in number of three windows and tops of the houles that hundred, whom he had found at


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