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IV. The chieks, cadis, and inans, example, the French officers and folMall continue to exercise their res- diers were in the habit of allifting pective functions: 'each inhabitant at the great festivals and ceremonies Thall remain in his house; and pray- in honour of the prophet. · The ers Ball continue as usual: every whole army took the tone of outone shall return thanks to God for ward respect for Ismaulism. the destruction of the Mammalukes. In a few days after the reduction Glory to the fultan; glory to the of Cairo, accompanied by several French army, his friend ! curses to of his principal officers and several the Mammalukes; and harpiness to members of the Egyptian institute, the people of Egypt !"

he went to see the grand pyramid, To the same effect, but with the called Cheops; in the interior of brevity of a conqueror, Buona parte, which he was attended by several after he was malier of Cairo, ad- muftis and imans. In a' curious dressed the bafhaw and the people aud interesting conversation, which of Cairo. He confirmed, when took place between himself and master of Egypt, by means of the those religious characters, on this signal victory which his army had occasion, Buonaparte fiftained his gained, his former declaration, to part so well as to impress on their preserve to the bashaw of the grand minds, at once, a respect for his feignior his revennies and appoint- own understanding and knowledge, ment; and begged of him to assure and an idea, at lealt for a time, that the Porte that it would suffer no he entertained a respect for the faith kind of loss, and that he would take of Musselmen. Having saluted the care that it ihould continue to re- ftrangers and sat down with them, ceive the tribute heretofore paid to in their manner, on the ground, he it.

faid, “ God is great, and his works Buonaparte not only declared are marvellous. Here is a great himself a disciple and friend to Ma- work accomplified by the hands of homct, but, by means of his

What end had he in view emillaries, az well as no obscure who construcied this pyramid ? hints in mellages and letters to dif- One of the priests answered, “ It is ferent parties of Muselmen, infi- the work of a great king of Egypt, nvaled, that he was acquainted called Cheops, who wished that his with their inward thoughts and de- alles might not be disturbed by fafigns, and en leavoured to propa-crilegious intrusions." "Cyrus, the gate a perfuafion that he had been Great,” replied Buonaparte, “gare actually and expresily com millioned, orders, that his inanimate body by the propiet, to rehst, repel, and should be exposed to the open air, overthrow, the tyranny of the on purpose that it might be the beys, to retorm certain errors and more easily and completely diffolabuses, and to promote justice, ved, and be re-united to the patuserey, and piety; the great ends ral elements. Dont you think that of the Mahometan and only reli- he did much better? V'hai think you? gion.

one of the muftis bowing his head He was careful to pay homage, taid, "Glory to God to whom all on every occasion, to the prophrt. glory is due.” Buonaparte added, Ry iris ciefire, and according to his " Horour to Allah,” (who was the


caliph that gave orders for the open- than as a devotee to the religion ing of this pyramid, and disturbing of Mahomet ; he told him, that the allies of the dead.* The mufti every thing was quiet at Cairo and and inans made answer, “ Accord- Suez, and between thole places, ing to fome, Mahomet, the com- and peace established among the mander of the faithful, who reign- inhabitants; not a single Mainmaed, many centuries ago, at Bagdad; luke oppressor, he said, remained but, according to others, Haroth in the country, and the inhabitants, al Reschid, who fancied, that he without dread or fear, employed hould find treasures in it; but when themselves in weaving, cultivating those whom he had sent had enter- the ground, and other trades, as ed this apartment, as the tradition formerly. The duties on merchanis, they found nothing but mum- dize were now the same as they mies, with the following infcription were prior to their being raised by on the wall, written in letters of the Mammalukes; the merchants gold, The impious commit ini. had every aililiance granted them; quity without fear, but not with ard the road between Suez and out remorse.” Buonaparte, applied Cairo was open and safe. He a proverb, well known to the per- therefore requested of the shereef to fons with whom he now converled, allure the merchants of his country, "The bread that is taken by vio- that they might bring their goods to lence fills the mouth of the robber Suez and tell them without dread with gravel.”

or apprehension, and might purIt was not only in Epypt that chase, in exchange for them, such Buonaparte laboured to propagate articles as they might wish. a belief of his attachment to Mur- It is impossible to ascertain the Telmen and the Sublime Porte. He degrees of faith that was repofed in Sent letters, to this end, to different different places, and by different agents of France, in different parts persons, in the religious profellions of ibe Turkith empire, and one of Buonaparte. Perhaps they were written, in Arabic, to the flereef wavering, and different at different of Vecca, to whom he entrusted times in the same persons. The another to their friend, Tippo Sul- prelence and authority of Bulonatan. This letter was received at parte, and his literary fait, if we Judia, early, sirit of July, 1799, may borrow a metaphor from arms and tience forwarded to the Holy to arts, as well as military, no doubt, City. But Euonaparte, who pol- detracted somewhat from the comleikd much discernment, was at pliments which were paid to him, great pains to study characters, and and them, by the multi and iman: who varied his tone according to with whom they met and converleri, Lint of the persons whom he ad- as he had done before, with the dre led, leemed to contider the priests at Rome, on fundry occaliers phant of Mecca rather as a lions : yet they might probably be political prince, concerneck for the impressed with a temporary conprofperity of his place and people, viction of his fincerity, until they

* The ancient Egyptians believed that the foul nerer wholly forlook the body, wliile any part of it ung, or was teld together.


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compared his professions with that able correspor:dence with the Mam. spirit of domination, and worldly malukes, and, on the sixth of Sepinterest and advantage, which ap- tember, condemned and executed. peared in the tenor of his conduct. is head, with a label of his crinie, A like observation may be made on is carried through the lireets. certain testimonials which were gi. This act of severity was fitted inren in favour of the French general, deed in inspire terror: but the perby Musselmen, and others, parti- fidy of Koram would easily he forcularly a letter from the notables of given by Mulle!men, while his Cairo, on the arrival of Buonaparie, death might be followed by the to the shereef of Mecca, giving an ulval concoquences of martyreom. accouut of his respect for the law of The talk undertaken by Bonathe prophet. There was more fin parte, to an algamate the prejudices cerity probably in a hynin, com- of the Mahometans with the preposed by the mufti of the Coples, tenfions of the French, was de cult and chaunted in the grand mosque aim oft beyond example, and even opCairo, on the twenty third of July, more arduous than that of Mabomet. in celebration of the arrival of Buo- The plan pursued by Mahomet was naparie in that city; who, at the great, but simple. The spirit of it command and under the proteáinn was terror: the instruments or of Allah, had come at the head of means of executing in, great and the brave warriors of the wilt, in fimple also; God, war, and fate. furcour the oppreflec!, and drive It was a more complicated, and a ont the bers with their Marana- nirer undertaking to mingle terror lukes. It is conceived in the most with reasoning, the rights of man beautiful style of eastern fimplicity, with the privileges or rather preand gives no mean idea of either rogatives of Mufemen, and the the sentiments of the mufti of the fubmifiion of the followers, to straile Cophts, or his talie in compoli- gers, at best only dubious friends to tion.

the prophet. Ofthe manner in which That the expressions of respect Buonaparte set about to accon:plish for the French general-in-chief that design, fome idea may be were not always voluntary and fin- formed, from a view of a French cere, were it a matter that needed feast at Cairo, on the twenty-third any proof, would be placed, bevond of September, the anniverlary of doubt, by the conduct and fate of the French republic. Koraim, ihereef of Alexandria, who, On the setting of the sun, Sepafier fwearing fidelity, with the tember twenty-lecond, the feast was mufti and principal feicks of the announced by three falutes of artilcity of Alexandria, * to the French lery. The commencement of the republic, was convicted of treafon- feast was proclaimed at fun rifing

* The ligna'ures of thele to the declaration of fidelity Tnew how natural it is for all religionisis (excopt, perheps, the ancient polythicills) to afiect heavenly-mindedness and an indifference to the things of this world: the peer Suleiman, multi of Maliki ; tbegoor İbrahim el Poarge, chief of the Sect Hamste; ibe foor Mikoned' si Mladira; the poor Almer, &c. The titles bestowed on Christian prelates did not arise immediately from fentiments of religion, but from the dignity and confequence accruing to them from fecuiar portrons.


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the next morning, by three dif- of each division, who fell in the act charges from the whole of the artil- of delivering Egypt from the yoko lery; that of all the different divi- of the Mammalukes. fions of the army; that of the park; As soon as all the troops had aland that of the marine, or flotilla, on sembled, and were drawn up on the the Nile. Immediately the generale place of L'becquier, the command. was beaten through the whole city, er-in-chiet, accompanied by his fiaft and all the troops, in the highest officers, the generals of divisions, order, appeared under arms, in the the commitary-general, the complace of Libecquier. In this place millaries of war, and of civil admia circle had been traced of two hun- nistrations, artists and men of sci. dred fathoms diameter, of which ence, the fjaya, or Turkish officer, the circumference was formed by next in anthosity to the bashaw, the one hundred and five columns, de- emir Hadji, and the members of the corated with three-coloured fags, divan, (of which we Orall prefently bearing the names of all the departo give foine account) both of Cairo tents. Thele pillars were united and the provinces. The commandby a double row of garlands, em- er-in-chief, with his fuite, leated hematical of the unity and indivisi- themselves on the plaiform that ran bility of all the parts of the French round the obelisk. Superb carpets republic .

covered the mount on which it One of the entries into the circle fiood. The inusic of the different was decorated by a triumphal arch, demigrades

warlike on which was pourtrayed the battle marches, and patriotic airs, and of the Pyramids: the other by a forgs of victory. portico, above which were placed The troops, after going through sereral Arabic imtriptions. Of their exercises with great readine's these there was one as follows ? and precision, came and arranged " There is no God but one God, and themselves around the obelisk ; Mahomet is his prophet..

when a proclamation, by the com In the middle of the circle, there mander-in-chief, for the discipline was railed an obelisk of granite, of of the army, and the good governthe height of seventy feet. On one ment and well being of Egypt was of its faces was engraven, in letters read aloud, by the adjutant-general. of gold, To the French republic, ann.7: It was liftened to with the most on that opposite to it, To the expula profound silence, and followed by hon of the Manmalukes, ann. 6. On repeated cries of vive la republique. the collaterial fides, thele two in- A hymn was performed at the or fcriptions were trandated into Ara- chestra, and the troops filed off, in bic. The pedestal of the obelisk perfect order, before the general-inwas embellished with bas reliefs; on chief, who returned with his com, the adjoining ground, feven altars pany to his quarters. The whole in the ancient fivle, intermixed with of this company, with several candlesticks, fupported trophies of Turkish officers and Arabian chiefs, arms, surmounied with three-co- who had come up during the exhi. loured flags, and civic crowns. In bition, were invited to dinner at the centre of each of these trophies, the general's house ; where a fumpthere was a list of those brave men, tuous table was provided, of one


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The surrounded the place of Elbecquier. French colours were united with The intent of this entertainment, it the Turkish, the cap of liberty was will readily be perceived, was, to placed by the side of the crescent, impress the minds of the Egyptians and the rights of man by the Koran. with a sense of the power, art, and The gaiety of the French was tem- magnificence of the French nation, pered with the gravity of the Turks and of their respect for Musselmen, The Mufielmen were left to their and good-will towards all the Egypown choice of meats and drinks, and tians. Nor was it by professions expreffed grcat fatisfaction with the alone, that Buonaparte studied to attentions that were shewn them. gain the aitachment and confidence After dinner, several toasts were of the people among whom, accorddrank. The commander-in-chief ing to his own phrase, the French gave, for a toast, To the three hun- had come to dwell, but by actions. dredth year of the French republic. In order to please the people, and One of his aides-de-camp, To the dispel their apprehensions of some legislative bodies, and the executire unknown impending calamities; directory. Niongé, president of the the opening of the canal of Cairo, Egyptian institute, To the perfection was this year accompanied by even of the human understanding, and the greater ceremony and pomp than advancement of knowledge. General usual. On this occasion the general Berthier, To the expulsion of the distributed considerable sums, in Mammalukes, and the prosperity of alms, among the poor, and gave the people of Egypt. Other toalis an entertainment to the notables of were given, but these were the Cairo. In like manner he gave a chief. Each toast was received considerable sum for defraying the with unanimous plaudits, and suit- expense of a magnificent feast, in able airs of music. Patriotic cou- honour of the birth-day of the proplets, fung by the foldiery, concluded phet. Having, on that occafion, this civic feast.

declared himself the protector of all At four o'clock, foot and horse religions, he received, from the races began, and the prizes were Muslelmen, the name of Ali Buonaadjudged to the victors, who were parte. But the overt-act, by which borne in triumph around the circus. he most signally displayed regard to At the close of the day, the whole the grand leignior, the head of of the circumference of this was il- Mullelmen on earth, was his perluminated in the most brilliant man- mitting all the Turkish vessels in pier. The pillars, the intermediate Alexandria, as well as all neutral garlands, and the triumphal arches vesiels, either to remain or set sail were hung with chryilal lamps, for their respective destinations, at which produced the happiest eifect. their pleasure, and setting free and At eight o'clock, there was a beau- fending to Conftantinople, on board tiful display of fire-works, accom- those veílels, with a letter to the panied, at different intervals, by dif- grand vizier, fraught with many charges of musquetry and artillery. professions of regard and even A considerable number of Turkish lubordination to the Porte, the ladies enjoyed the spectacle from the Turkish flaves, in number of three windows and tops of the houses that hundred, whom he had found at


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