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ings, the republic of letters would sink under its own weight. Classifications, results, conclusions, and max, ims, long perhaps the subjects of discussion, become the elements of new compofitions.

The necessity of compression, in our European campaigns, is not lessened by the co-incident movements of armies in Syria, Egypt, and India ; nor yet by the negociations at Rastadt and Seltz: a scene of political intrigue bearing some analogy to the wide and various field of action.

The time that was necessary for the arrangement of so many materials into a plan, not entirely disproportionate to our usual dimensions, and for the correction of errors, by recent and undoubted information, will, we trust, afford not only an apology for being somewhat later in the publication of this volume, than was promised in our last; but afford a new proof of our earnest desire, by all means, to render our work as complete and satisfactory as possible. On the whole, our engagements to the public, with regard to the time of bringing up this work, which had indeed fallen greatly behind, have been now fulfilled. It may be faid that we have now very nearly overtaken time. It shall be our care to keep an equal pace with this in future: though at a due distance. The Annual Regifter is not addressed to the same curiosity that thirsts after newspapers, but to curiosity of a higher order: that of secing plans and systems unfolded by events; and these events, from new relations and combinations, deriving not only a degree of novelty, but greater interest and importance.

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A general l’iew of the Year 1799.--Hazardous Situation of Buonaparte, in confequence of the Defiruciion of the Finch Ficet. ---Prelerit. Sicte of Egypt. Mammalukes.- Bezs.-Arr:b.s.-- Jeus: - Greeks.-Cophis.Ferce, Land and Marine, under the Commard e Buonapar!e.--Various Cures of Blowaparte.- Means of maintaining the Army.-ld of recruiting and preferring it.Buonaparte re pects himself, urd gites Orders to his Officers to respect, the Prejudices of cll the Egyptians - His Proclamation to the People of Frypt.-- At greut Pains to propa ale, in all Mahomtan Contries, a Belief of his Veneration for traumifin tind the Propret. - Treachery und Punishment of the principal Sheick, or Shereef, of Alexa Brıdria.-Eneatours of Buonaparte lo blerid and harmonize the French and the Egyptiuns.-Measures taken jor the Accomplishment of ihat Delin.Grand Beut at Cairo, on the Anniversary of the French Repullic. --Great Ceremony at the annual opening of the Grand Canal of Cairo. Liberality of Buonaparte to the Egyptians.--Useful Infi'utions.-Government of Egypt attempted to be affimilated to the new Government in France. Astenles.--Departments. And a general Assembly, or Divan, in Egypt. -Difficulty of operating and prodrcing any permanent Charge in the Minds of Barbarians,Jealoufies of the French. - Dijcontents.--Mure VoL, XLI.

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murs. And Insurre?ions.— Particularly at Cairo. This, with the others, fubdued.- A general Amnesty. Mourad Bey defeated, with great Lofs. And forced to retreat to the Mountains.The French, under the

Command of Delaix, in Pofefion of the best Part of Upper Egypt. THE 'HE year 1799 exhibited a former times, when war was less

firange picture of the world complicated than now, have volunturned uplide down: the fublime tarily precipitated themselves, by Porte at war with France, and in burving their own thips, in order to confederacy with Russia and Great thew their troops that there was no Britain ; the Turkish banners united retreat, and that they muit perish with those of Ruflia and Austria; a or conquer. In this new and trying nation of profetled philosophers fra- fituation, his conduct became an ternizing, or attempting to frater- object of more interest and curionize with the votaries of Mahomet; fity, with ingenious minds, than ever the Roman catholic religion, with it had been, in the most rapid carinstitutions therewith connected, reer of his success and victory. The persecuted by a power formerly one circumstances in which he was now of its main fupports, but, on the placed were universally admitted other hand, patronized by fovereign to be pregnant with danger. Atprinces, sons of churches heretofore tention was every where awake to its zealous adverfaries ; a great the measures and contrivances that and illustrious nation, once so highly would he suggested by genius and distinguished by a devotion to the science, or to the resolution that Romish faitli, as well as political might be prompted by despair. power, valour, and a sense of ho

But, in order that a tolerably just nour, in close alliance with infidels, idea may be formed of both the adand the murderers of a royal family, vantages and disadvantages under connected with their own, by ties which the invading army laboured of blood, by political treaties and in Egypt, the enemies they Irad to interests, and a long intercourse of encounter, and the means that premutual and courtly politeness. Nor sented themselves for encountering was the fituation of the Spaniards them, it may be neceflary to recali less whimsical than it was deplora- to the minds of some of our readers, ble. They dreaded the power of a view of the present state of that their ally; and their only lafety lay ancient and celebrated country. in the victories of their enemies. It was not with the Mammalukes

The defiruction of the French and Arabs alone, that the French feet, which cut off Buonaparte general had to contend, but with from any certain and effectual' lup- the climate, endemial distempers, port from France, or any of her and the usual perfidy of barbarians, conquered and dependent states, united with the malignity of a proud left him in such an isolated Nate, as and illiberal superstition. On the thole in which great commanders in other hand, as there were certain

*

* Tiedinike of the Greek church to the Pope's and the Western church, was formerly for great, wat one of their patriarchs declared publicly, to a Romilh legate, that he wowid 12thier lee a turban, than the pope's tiara, on the great altar of Constantinople.

common real.

common principles and passions kept by its ancient kings of three which united great numbers of the hundred thousand men, executing natives and others in hostility to the pyramids, the labyrinths, the Buonaparte, fo there were circum- grottos of Thebes, the lake Moeris, stances also which dividert them vast canals, obelisks, temples, and against one another ; while the pompous palaces. But although common weakness of human nature, the reports by travellers, of Egypt, prevailing over sentiments of reli- being even at this day a most deligion and duty, subjected them to cious garden be unanimonly reprovarious arts of corruption, and thus bated, by all the French who have tended naturally to draw them over spoken or written on the subject, to the side of the most powerful fince their late expedition thither, party.

the most intelligent and obfervant Egypt is commonly reckoned to admit, that the extent to which the be about 500 miles in length, and happy influence* and dominion of 160 in breadth. The borders of the Nile, by means of industry and the Nile, from Abyssinia to Grand art, may have been carried in times Cairo, form a narrow valley, which, past, and yet carried in times to with lefler vallies or openings into come, very much farther than at the hilly country, and the deseris prelent, from the banks of the river on either side, is called the Upper, over the arid desart. As a heavy and the whole country watered by counter-balance to these natural authe Nile from thence downward, vantages, except in our winter, and the Lower Egypt. The two grand the latter part of the autumnal branches of the Nile, which part at months, the heat of the climale is Grand Cairo, together with the oppreslive to all who are not acMediterranean, into which they fall, customed to it. The winds are form a triangle, called the Delia, of fometimes of fuch extreme heat and which the ocean is the bale, the aridity, that their influence prores two branches of the Nile the fides, mortal. During the time thele last, and Cairo the apex, or head. A the streets are deserted, and the ingreat portion of this part of Egypt, habitants almost blinded by drifts of being enriched by the overflowing fand, fo fubtle, that they insinuate of the Nile, is extremely fertile. themselves into the cloleft apartNo country in the world is more ments: 1o, that from this enemy plenteously stored than Egypt with there is no fuch thing as a perfectly corn, rice, flesh, fish, sugar, fruits, secure retreat. The vermin that vegetables, and oil. The Delta infest this land, to itrangers partiproduces oranges, lemons, figs, dates, cularly, is intolerable. And, in adalmonds, and plantains in the great dition to all these evils, it is fren efi abundance. The extent of this quently visited by the plngae. famous country, that is, of the part Since Egypt fell under the domi. of it now inhabited, does not leem, nion of the Turks, it has been at first fight, to correspond with ostensibly governed by a pacha, or, the descriptions which have been as we pronounce the word, basaw, leti by the ancients of its twenty who refided at Grand Cairo: buc thocland towns and cities, several whole authority, for a long time millions of inhabitants, and aniies past, has been more nominal than

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real. The bathal was, in fact, little fuch: nor did the circumstance of their more than a sign and memorial of having ever been in a state of Navery the respect formerly paid, and fill preclude them from any degree of professed, by all Mürelmen, to the prefermeni, even that of bey, which eldest son of the prophet. Under was the chief; who was cholen freely the bashaw there were inferior go by plurality of voices in a full vernors, under various designations, council of officers: so that the beys, in the different provinces, but the elevated to power, neither by the power of the sword was in the accident of birth, nor the particular hands of the Mammalukes. A fmall farour of any sovereign prince, but number of Janiflaries indeed was re- in some degree at lealt, if not chieftained at Cairo, and a few other ly, by their own merit, were, for places in the service of the Porte, of the most part, men of fuperior tawhich they held landed poffettions, lents and unquestionable courage. in return for their service. In Up. The Manmalıkes were all of them per Egypt, there were some Arabs brave, even to excess. In the batwho paid tribute to the grand fignior, tle of the Pyramids, the illue of or made presents to the balbaw: which gave the French a footing and in the Lower Egypt, there in Egypt, and of which some notice were some villages in the poleilion lias been taken in the last volume of theicks. But the real govern- of this work, they had the temement or sovereignty of Egypt was rity to rush in between the compofleffed by the Mammalukes, ori- pacted and square battalions of the ginally foldiers of fortune, but who' French army ;

and there meet little regard to the con

Prir fate. Thiey, to a man, reditions on which they held their fied quarter, and fought to the power and property. They ame lait, loinetimes when desperately priginally from the mountainous and mortally wounded. They were countries, between the Black Sea accustomed, from their earliest and Caucasus, and their armies years, to a dextrous management of were still recruited by boys from the finest and most spirited borles in thole countries, and other youth, the world. They were armed with the children of Christian llaves swords and pitiols, muskets, and brought for sale io Grand Cairo. lances. Their wealth and state The laws of Mahoinet enjoin great displayed in their arms, dress, and compassion and tenderness for Naves, equipage. Their habitations and and nothing is considered as more boutehold furniture were wretched. pleasing and meritorious in the It was their manner incessantly to siglat of God than their total eman- wheel round about an enemy in his cipation. The condition of the front, flank, and rear, and to reyoung Naves, who fell into the treat as he' advanced, unless they, hands of the Mammalukes, was perceived an advantage, or were certainly among the gentlelt lots of under a neceility of coining to Navery. It was the road to furo clofe aliiou, while another division tune. They were bronght up by of them hung upon his rear, and the Mammalukes in the same man- endeavoured to surround and cut off rer as their own children, and came, detoched parties, wherever they in t me, to he almost connuered as could tind an opening. The gene

ral

paid very

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