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of Watertown and Roxbury obtained leave to remove whither they would, so as they continued under this government; but Connecticut was their aim. The occasion of their desire, as well as of the others, was for that all the towns in the Bay began to be much straitened by their own nearness one to another, and their cattle being so much increased, together with the addition of many families, which every year came in great abundance flocking over thither. While the matter was thus in debate in the General Court, some of Watertown took the opportunity of seizing a brave piece of meadow, aimed at by those of New-Town, which, as was reported, proved a bone of contention between them, and had no small influence into the trouble that afterward happened in the Watertown Plantation, called Weathersfield, as shall be more particularly declared afterwards, when the affairs of Connecticut Colony are to be spoken to." In June” the same year, 1635, there arrived two Dutch ships, which brought divers Flanders mares, heisers, and sheep. They came from the Texel in five weeks and three days, and lost not one beast. The same day came in Mr. Graves in a ship” of three hundred tons, in the like space of time, with many passengers and much cattle : he had come every year, for seven years before. Within four days after" came in seven other ships, and one to Salem. and four more” soon after, on the like account. Besides these, four or five other great ships came that year, that arrived not till aster September; in some of which came many passengers, some of note, as Mr. Henry Vane and others. Mr. Harlakenden with Mr. Shepard, and many of his friends and hearers, came that year: also Mr. Winthrop, Jun., who, with Mr. H. Vane, had some power from the Lord Say, and the Lord Brook to begin a Plantation at Connecticut, who rather out of necessity than choice, (the most desirable places being taken up before hand,) settled their Plantation at the mouth of the said river. Mr. John Winthrop brought with him a Commission from the said Lords, with divers other great persons in England, to be Governor there. They sent also men and ammunition, with £2000 in money, to begin a fortification in that place. Mr. Vane had been * See page 305.—H. * June 3d. Sav. Win. i. 161.-H.

* The James, from Southampton. Ibid.—H. “On Sunday, June 7th. Ibid.—H. * “To the mouth of the Bay.” Ibid.—H.

employed by his father, (Sir Henry Vane, Comptroller of the King's household,) while he was Ambassador for the King in foreign parts. He was a gentleman of excellent parts, and religiously disposed : had he been well principled in the main points thereof, he might have been more beneficial to the country. His father was very averse to his coming this way, (as not favoring the religion of New England,) and would not have consented to his going thither, but that, acquainting the King with his son's disposition and desires, he commanded him to send him thither, and gave him license for three years stay there,

This gentleman, having order from the said Lords and others, treated both with the magistrates of the Massachusetts, and those who were going to settle townships at Connecticut,' and brought things to this issue, that either the three towns going thither should give place, upon full satisfaction, or else that sufficient room might be found for the Lords and their companies in some other place; otherwise they would divert their thoughts and preparations some other ways. But in conclusion, the first planters kept their possession, which gives the best title in things of that nature ; and possibly the Lords were given to understand, that if ever they should please to come over, their gleanings might prove better than the vintage of Abiezer. However, the foresaid gentlemen, agents for the Lords, being courteous and peaceably disposed, were not willing to give the inhabitants any further disturbance, but permitted them quietly to go on with the design of their Plantations. Yet Mr. Winthrop (appointed by the Lords to be their Governor’ at Connecticut) sent a bark of thirty tons, with twenty men, and all needful provisions, to take possession of the mouth of the river, and begin some fortification there, the next month after he arrived at Boston ;3 which was a good providence for lithose|| that intended to plant there, for otherwise they would have found it much more difficult to have passed up the river, if the Indians had not been something awed with the noise of the fort there erected.

these See their proposals in Savage's Winthrop, i. 397-8.-H. · See his Commission in Trumbull's History of Connecticut, (New Haven, 1818,) i. 497.-H. 3 He arrived in October, and sent the bark about Nov, 3d.-H.

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In the same year, likewise, Sir Richard Saltonstall sent over a bark of forty tons, to begin some Plantation up the River of Connecticut. But not being there in person, it never arose to any considerable issue although his right to a considerable quantity of land thereabouts could not be denied.

About four days after the bark was sent away for Connecticut, arrived a vessel of twenty-five ton, sent by the Lords with one Gardiner, an expert engineer, to carry on the fortification at the river's mouth, besides twelve other men, and two women. sengers and goods, notwithstanding the tempestuousness and danger of the seas, were landed safe the 28th of November, the same year, 1635, through the good providence of God, so as by their addition the work of fortification at the river's mouth was both more speedily and effectually carried on.

Plymouth men, understanding that those of the Massachusetts had prevented them by so speedy possession of Connecticut, sent first by letter, then by their agent, Mr. Winslow, in September 1635, and in the spring“ following, to complain of the injury done them in possessing the place, which they had formerly purchased of the Indians, and where they had erected an house. Their agent demanded either a sixteenth part of the land, or an £100 from the Dorchester men, ihat intended to plant at Windsor, where the said house was built. They not consenting thereunto, the treaty brake off; those of Plymouth expecting to have due recompense after by course of justice, seeing they could not by treaty, if they went on with their Plantation. But at last they that were to plant, not willing to be injurious, agreed with them upon other more equal terms.5 The Dutch also sent home into Holland for commission to deal with those of the Massachusetis, that were settling on the place, where they had taken possession. But upon after treaties, in the time of the Commissioners of the United Colonies, they were prevailed withal to quit their claim to the whole river, and resigned it up to the English. In the mean time the Massachu

See page 162.-H. 2 Lieut. Lion Gardiner. See Mass. Hist. Coll. xxiii. 136–7; Sparks's Am. Biog. xiii. 337.-H. * In August. Sav. Win. i. 166.-H. • Feb. 24, 1635-6. Ibid. 181.-H. Trumbull, i. 66.-H.

setts men, taking hold of such opportunities as Providence presented to them, began to spread themselves into many Plantations all over the country, so far as it was discovered fit for such purposes. And though they met with much opposition, both at home and abroad, yet they prevailed to effect their design at the last, taking notice of sundry special Providences that furthered them therein. For by letters from the Lord Say, received in June 1635, as well as by the report of sundry passengers, it was certified that *Captain Mason and other* 1 adversaries of the Colony of the Massachusetts were building a great ship to bring over a General Governor, and to command upon the coast : but it miscarried in the launching, falling asunder in the midst; by which means their design fell to the ground. It was reported also, that they had a contrivance to divide the whole country of New England into twelve provinces : viz. between St. Croix in the east, and the Lord Baltimore's Province about Maryland in Virginia, as is mentioned in chap. xxxi. But though the lot was cast into the lap, the matter was otherwise disposed by the Lord.

Some have taken special notice of the providence of God in the beginning of that, and the latter end of the former year, concerning Captain John Winthrop, Jun. and Mr. Wilson, the pastor of Boston church, whose occasions calling them both to England, they took ship in a vessel bound for Barnstable, but were by foul weather driven upon the coast of Ireland, not known to any in the ship, and yet were brought safe into Galloway, where they parted company. Mr. Winthrop, passing through Ireland, was occasionally carried to the house of Sir John Clotwathy, where he met accidentally with many considerable persons which came thither the next day to confer about their voyage to New England. In like manner Mr. Wilson, keeping in the ship, had opportunity to meet with many in that place, that desired to be informed about the state of New England. Many such like Providences

Thus originally written ; subsequently a pen was drawn through these words, and the inserted.-H. • Clotworthy. Sav. Win. i. 172.-H.

have been observed in carrying on the affairs of || that|| Plantation of New England.

CHAP. XXVIII.

Ecclesiastical affairs of the Massachusetts, during the first

lustre of years after the transferring of the Patent and Government thither, from Anno 1631 to 1636.

WHATEVER sinister apprehensions are, or were, ever taken up about the religion of the Colony of New England, they aimed only at the primitive pattern described in the Word of God, and practice of the Apostolical Churches. If they have missed of their aim they are not to şbeş blamed for levelling at the right mark, having a fairer opportunity thereunto than ever men had in many ages past.

It must not be denied that they were the offspring of the old Nonconformists, who yet always walked in a distinct path from the rigid Separatists, nor did they ever disown the Church of England to be a true church, as retaining the essentials of faith and order. And although they could not persuade themselves to live contentedly under the wing of Episcopal government, yet their offence was rather at the ceremonies than the discipline and government thereof. But intending not to write an apology but an history of their practice, nothing shall here be interposed by way of defence of their way, only to give a clear discovery of the truth, as to matter of fact, both what it was at first and still continues to be.

Those that came over soon after Mr. Endicot, l’namely|| Mr. Higginson and Mr. Skelton, Anno 1629, walked something in an untrodden path; therefore it is the less to be wondered at, if they went but in and out, in some things complying too much, in some things too little, with those of the Separation, and it may be in some things not sufficiently attending to the order of the Gospel, as themselves thought they understood afterwards. For in the beginning of things they only accepted of one another, according to some general pro

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