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lands, which consist of a dark, deep and the farmer who is saving and industrious fertile alluvial deposit. These intervales seldom fails of having his barn filled with are level tracts lying but little higher than fodder for his horses, cattle and sheep, the ordinary height of the water in the his granary with corn, wheat, rye, oats, streams, and are in most cases subject to peas and beans, and his cellar with potabeing flooded, when the water is very toes, apples, and other esculent vegetahigh. They were, while in a state of na- bles. A sufficient quantity of grain for ture, covered with a heavy growth of for- the supply of the inhabitants might easily est trees, such as oak, hatternut, elm, be raised in all parts of the state, yet the buttonwood, walnut, ash, and some other greater part of the lands are better adaptkinds. Back of these flats were frequent. ed for grazing than for tillage. The hills ly others, elevated a few feet higher, and and mountains, which are not arable on covered with white pine. Stili further account of their steepness, or rocks, afford back, the land rises, in most cases very the best of pasturage for cattle and sheep. gradually, into hills and upland plains, of the fruits, nuts, berries, &c., which and the soil becomes harder and more grow in Vermont, both wild and cultivagravelly, but very little diminished in ted, a more particular account will be richness and fertility. The timber upon given in a subsequent chapter on the botathese lands, which constitute the greater ny of the state. part of the state, was principally sugar Medicinal Springs.-There are in Ver. maple, beech and birch, interspersed with mont springs which are more or less imbass, ash, elm, butternut, cherry, horn-pregnated with mineral, or gaseous subbeam, spruce and hemlock. And still fur- stances, but none which have yet acther back the lands rise into mountains, quired a very general or permanent celebwhich are in general timbered with ever- rity for their curative properties. Along greens, such as spruce, hemlock and fir. the shore of Lake Champlain, in the The loftiest mountains are generally rocky counties of Addison and Rutland, the waand the summits of some few of them ters generally are impregnated with Epconsist of naked rock, with no other traces som salts, (sulphate of magnesia). Some of vegetation than a few stinted shrubs of the springs are so highly charged with and mosses; but they are, in general, these salts, in the dryer parts of the year, thickly covered with timber to their very that a pail full of the water will produce tops. Along the western part of the a pound of the salts. They have been state, and bordering upon Lake Cham- manufactured, for medicinal purposes, in plain, are extensive tracts of light sandy some quantities, and, did the price of the soil, which were originally covered with article make it an object, they might be white, pitch and Norway pine, and in the made here to almost any extent. northern part of the state, swamps are The medicinal properties of most of the numerous, which were well stored with waters in this state, which have acquired tamarack and white cedar. A more full any notoriety, are derived from gaseous account of the native vegetables found in and not from mineral substances. In difthis state will be given in a subsequent ferent towns in the northeastern part of chapter. Since the country has been the state, are springs of cold, soft and cleared, the soil has, in general, been clear water, which are strongly impreg. found sufficiently free from stone to ad- nated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas,and mit of easy cultivation, and to be very said to resemble the Harrow.Gate waters productive in corn, grain and grass. With. in England, and those of Ballcastle and out manuring the intervales usually pro- Castlemain in Ireland. These waters are duce large crops, and are easily cultiva- found to be efficacious in scrofulous and ted, but these crops are liable, occasion- many other cutaneous complaints, and the ally, to be destroyed by floods--the same springs at Newbury, Tunbridge, Hardagency which produces the fertility of the wick, &c., have been much resorted to by soil on which they grow. All parts are, valetudinarians in their vicinity. however, sufficiently fertile amply to re- Of medicinal springs on the west side ward the labors of the husbandman, and of the Green Mountains, those of Claren

don and Alburgh have acquired the greating, because it will express our meaning more briefly est notoriety. It is now about 16 years than any other we could employ: le may be derived since the springs at Clarendon began to from inter-within, and vallis-a vale, or valley; be known beyond their immediate neighand in its specific signification, it denotes those allo: borhood. Since that time their reputahave been, or occasionally are overflowed in conse- tion has been annually extending, and the quence of ihe rising of the water. For the use of the number of visiters increasing, till they word in this sense, we have the authority of Dr. have at length become a place of considerBelknap and Dr. Williams, the historians of New Hampshire and Vermont, and other good writers.

able resort for the afflicted from various




2.74 grs.


parts of the country. They are situated in a of the year, and water stands in the lowpicturesque and beautiful region, 7 miles est parts of it at all seasons. southwest from Rutland, and have, in The Plymouth caves are situated at the their immediate vicinity, good accommo- base of a considerable mountain, on the dations for 500 visiters. The waters are southwest side of Black river, and about found to be highly efficacious in affections 50 rods from that stream. They are ex. of the liver, dispepsia, urinary and all cu- cavations among the lime rock, which taneous complaints, rheumatism, invete- have evidently been made by running rate sore eyes, and many others, and they water. The principal cave was discov. promise fair to go on increasing in noto- ered about the first of July, 1818, and on riety and usefulness. These waters differ the 10th of that month was thoroughly in their composition from any heretofore explored by the Author, who furnished known, but resemble most nearly the the first description of it, which was German Spa water. For their curative published shortly after in the Vermont properties they are believed to be indebted Journal at Windsor. The passage into wholly to the gases they contain. They this

is nearly perpendicular, have been analyzed by Mr. Augustus A about the size of a common well, and Hayes, of Roxbury, Mass., with the fol. 10 feet in depth. This leads into the first lowing results. One gallon, or 235 cubic room which is of an oval form, 30 feet inches of the water contained,

long, 20 wide, and its greatest height Carbonic acid gas

46.16 cubic inch. about 15 feet. It appears as if partly filled Nitrogen gas


up with loose stones, which had been Carbonate of Lime

3.02 grains.

thrown in at the mouth of the caye. Murate of Lime

From this to the second room is a broad Sulphate of Soda

sloping passage. This room is a little Sulphate of Magnesia

more than half as large as the first. The One hundred cubic inches of the gas bottom of it is the lowest part of the cave, which was evolved from the water, con. being about 25 feet below the surface of sisted of

the ground, and is composed principally Carbonic acid gas 0.05 cubic inches.

of loose sand, while the bottoms of all the Oxygen gas 1.50

other rooms are chiefly rocks and stones. Nitrogen gas 98.45

The passage into the third room is 4 feet

wide and 5 high, and the room is 14 feet The Alburgh springs do not differ ma-long, 8 wide, and 7 high. The fourth terially from the springs at Newbury, room is 30 feet long, 12 wide, and 18 high, Tunbridge, and other places in the north- and the rocks, which form the sides, ineastern part of the state, owing their med cline towards each other and meet at the icinal properties principally to the sul- top like the ridge of a house. The fifth phuretted hydrogen gas, which they con- room, very much resembling an oven in tajn.

shape, is 10 feet long, 7 wide, and 4 high, Caves. There are no caves in Vermont and the passage into it from the third which will bear comparison with some of room is barely sufficient to admit a person the caverns found in other parts of the to crawl in. At the top of this room is a world, and yet we have several, which conical hole, 10 inches across at the base are deserving the attention of the curi- and extending 2 feet into the rock. From

Those at Clarendon, Plymouth and the north side of the second room are two Danby are the most interesting. The openings leading to the sixth and seventh, Clarendon cave is situated on the south- which are connected together, and each easterly side of a mountain in the wester- about 15 feet long, 7 wide, and 5 high. ly part of that town. The descent into it From the seventh room is a narrow pasis through a passage 2 feet in diameter sage which extends northerly 15 or 16 and 31 feet in length, and which makes feet into the rocks, and there appears to an angle of 35 or 40° with the horizon. terminate. When discovered, the roof It then opens into a room 20 feet long, and sides of this cavern were beautifully 124 wide, and 18 or 20 feet high. The ornamented with stalactites, and the botfloor, sides and roof of this room are all of tom with corresponding stalagmites, but solid rock, but very rough and uneven. most of these have been rudely broken off From the north part of this room is a pas- and carried away by the numerous visitsage about 3 feet in diameter and 24 feet ers. The temperature, both winter in length, but very rough and irregular, and summer, varies little from 444°, which which leads to another room 20 feet wide, is about the mean temperature of the cli30 feet long and 18 feet high. This room, mate of Vermont in that latitude. A few being situated much lower than the first, is usually filled with water in the spring • Williams' History of Vermont, vol. I, p. 29.




rods to the westward of this cavern there places in this state, was as follows: Mont-
is said to be another which is about two pelier -40°, White River —409, Bradford
thirds as large.

-38°, Newbury -36o, Norwich 36o,
Windsor-340, Hydepark -36°, Rutland

-30°, and Burlington -26°; and the
Section III.

temperature varied but little from the
Climate and Meteorology.

above at those places on the 18th of De-

cember. For some time after the first
Temperature. Though situated in the settlement of Vermont the thermometer
middle of the north temperate zone, the was hardly known in this part of the
climate of Vermont is subject to very country; and since that instrument has
considerable extremes both of heat and become common, very few meteorological
cold, and the changes of temperature are journals have been kept, and those few
often very sudden. The usual annual have not, in general, been kept with suffi-
range of the thermometer, in the shade, is cient care to render them of much value,
from about 92° above to 22° below zero nor have many of them been preserved in
on Farenheit's scale, though it is some- a condition to be accessible to those who
times known to rise as high as 100°, and may wish to consult them. And hence
at other times to sink as low as 36°, and we possess few accurate data, either for
even to 390 or 40° below zero. But so determining the mean annual teinpera-
great a degree of cold as that last men- ture of the different sections of the state,
tioned, which is the freezing point of or for settling the mooted question with
mercury, has not, to our knowledge, been regard to a change of climate correspond-
experienced but twice since the means of ing to the clearing and cultivating of the
measuring temperature have been in use country. The results of the principal ob-
in the state, and these were both in the servations, to which we have access, and
year 1835; the first on the 4th of January, which have been made in this state, to
and the second on the morning of the ascertain the temperature of the months
18th of December. The temperature of and the mean annual temperature, are
the 4th of January, as noted at severall contained in the following tables :
Rutland. Burlington. Windsor.

Williams Sanders. Fowler


1789. 1803-8. 1806. 1828. 1832. 1833. 1838. 1839. 1840. 1841

January, 18.00 14 4° 22,00 25.0° 19.7 22.8 26.1 | 18.6 12.2 25.3


18.5 18.9 26.5 31.1 19.3 15.3 12.3 24.2 28.4 19.6

March, 32.0 28.5 30.3 32.4 30.8 28.232.6 36.6 31.4 25.3

April, 41.0 39.5

38.1 39.2 39.4 46.1 35.8 46.3 47.0 39.1


50.0 56.3 57.1 57.6 52.4 57.0 51.7 53.3 57.2 52.8


64.0 66.6 66.4 69.7 61.3 59.668.1 60.7 65.6 67.1


67.5 68.2 68.5 70.1 68.5 66.2 71.8 71.5 71.6 68.9

Aygust, 67.5 67.6 64.3 70.2 68.3 63.3 67.5 68.3 72.5 70.5

September 57.0 57.1 62.1 60.8 58.7 57.2 60.5 60.6 58.3 61.9

October, 41.0 45.2 49.5 46.7 47.7 44.9 | 46.850.8 48.0 45.0

November, 37.0 33.5 36.2 38.935.6 34.5 31.3 / 34.0 35.6 35.3


30.0 24.7 24.6 29.3 23.6 24.7 | 19.1 26.2 21.1 26.4

43.6 43.4 45.6 47.643.8 43.3 43.6 | 45.5 1 45.7 | 44.8

Meteorological obserdations at Williamstown by Hon. Elijah Paine.

1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836,1837 1838 1839 1840 1841


11.4 10.9 17.1 19.3 12.5 17.9 17.3 9.7 23.9 (15.3 9.0 21.6

February, 10.9 14.3 14.6 14.6 13.5 26.5 12.6 10.5 16.7 9.9 20.8 23.7 15.8

March, 23.5 26.4 26.4 25.4 23.5 27.2 25.1 22.9 23.6 30.9 25 8 26.0 24.1


36.6 44.6 39.8 41.2 41.7 36.1 34.5 36.5 31.2 41.2 40.7 | 34 7

154.8 49.6 53.2 54.7 48.9 48.0 51.6 45.9 48.5 48.7 51.7 47.7

58.7 58.9 64.8 59.3 55.4 57.4 59.4 58.8 60.6 63.0 54.9 58.5 63.1


60.2 64.1 64.4 63.3 62.3 68.2 64.6 65.4 61.2 66.2 65.2 64.8 62.6

August, 60.7 60.7 163.6 63.5 59.5 60.5 60.9 57.0 159.8 61.6 61.4 64.6 63.9

September, 47.9 51.4 53.0 53.9 52.7 55.4 50.0 53.3 52.0 54.6 54.2 52.5 57.9

October, 42.6 44.4 44.6 43.9 41.2 39.7 47.8 34.5 39.0 39.7 45.4 41.9 38.5

November, 29.7 38.2 30.9 31.7 29.5 28.9 29.8 28.7 30.6 25.3 28.1 30.2 29.4

December, 27.3 24.9 7.1 19.7 21.1 16.0 13.1 17.8 14.4 14.1 21.4 16.2 21.7

40.7 139.4 39.5 40.2 38.8 37.7 37.5 39.1 40.2 39.9 40.0





With the exception of the first three by the changes of temperature which are columns in the first of the two preceding constantly going on at the surface of the tables, the particulars of which are not earth ; the temperature of these may, known, all the means for the months therefore, be regarded as a pretty fair inhave been deduced from three daily obser- dication of the mean annual temperature vations, taken at sun-rise, 1 o'clock, P. of the climate. The temperature of a M. and 9 in the evening. Now, as the well 40 feet deep, belonging to Mr. Samthree daily observations at Burlington uel Reed, in Burlington, has been obsynchronize for several years with those served and noted during the year 1841 as at Williamstown, the two tables enable follows, the first number after the day of us to make a very accurate comparison of the month being the depth in feet to the the mean temperature of the two places; surface of the water at the time of the and the comparison shows that the mean observation : Jan. 1, 14—46°, Feb. 12, temperature of Burlington, although sit. 18—441, April 14, 16—44°, June 1, 10– uated 22' farthest north, is about 50 warm- 440, July 20, 10_4649, and Dec. 8, 20– er than that of Williamstown, that of the 451°, giving a mean of 45.1°, or .3° higher former being 44.6: and the latter 39.4o. than that deduced from the daily obserBut the cause of this difference is obvi- vations. ous in the location of the two places, Bur. Winds.-For small sections of country lington being situated on the margin of the prevailing winds usually take their Jake Champlain, and the place of obser- direction from the position of the mounvation elevated only 250 feet above it, tains and valleys. That is very much the while Williamstown lies among the Green case in Vermont. Through the valley of Mountains near the geographical centre the Connecticut and of lake Champlain of the state, and, the place of Judge the winds usually blow in a northerly or Paine's observation, elevated 1500 feet southerly direction, while easterly and above the lake.*

westerly winds are comparatively of rare The mean annual temperature of Bur- occurrence. In the valley of lake Chamlington, deduced from all of the 12 years plain east winds are exceedingly rare, as observations in the preceding table, is will be seen by the following tables. * 44.1°, and from the seven years observa. Along our smaller rivers, particularly the tions by the author 44.9e, but, as the year Winooski and the Lamoille, the prevail1828 was very remarkably warm, that ing winds are from the northwest. The should, perhaps, be set aside, and the following tables contain the result of mean of the other six, 44.4o, taken as prob- observations made at Burlington, for ably a fair statement of the mean annual eleven years, and at Rutland for one temperature of Burlington. The mean year. In the journal kept by the author annual temperature of Williamstown, de- at Burlington, and from which the taduced from the whole of Judge Paine's bles on the following page were copied, observations, is 40.39.

three observations of wind and weather Many perennial springs, and deep were entered each day, which synchrowells are found to continue nearly of the nize with the observations of temperasame temperature, both in summer and ture for the same years in the preceding winter, and to be but very little affected table, on the ninth page.

The following table contains the results of five years observation at Burlington, by Dr. Saunders, and one year at Rutland, by Dr. Williams. Place. Time. (No.Obs. N NE E SE

fair. Iclody rainfanw fogsthun au Burlington 1803–8 1682739 11 19 1826 25 43| 18|1025! 676289 127 19 45 27 Rutland 1789 1095|15313|16|76|272|182|125/258|| 452 6431 89| 4137| 1521





* The anthor has in his possession a meteorologi- * Although, at Burlington, we seldom have a cal journal kept at Hydepark by Dr. Ariel Huntoon, wind from the east sufficiently strong to turn the for a period of 9 years, of which he had intended to vanes upon our churches, it is not uncommon, durinsert an abstract; but, findiog tho three daily ob- ing the latter part of the night and early in the servations to bave been made too near the warmest morning, when the weather is fair, to have a light part of the day to furnish the true mean tempera- breeze from the east, which is doubtless oecasioned ture of the 24 hours, and consoquently unsuitable by the rolling down of the cold air from the mounfor comparison with the other tables, he concluded tains to supply the rarefaction over the lake. In not to insert it. In order to render meteorological other words, it is strictly a land breeze, similar to observations of service in determining the relative what occurs between the tropics. That there breczes temperature of places, uniformity in the method of are local and limited is evident from the fact, that, making them seems to be indispensable, and a want at the same time, the general motion of the air is in of this renders a great part of the journals which a different direction, as indicated by the motion of have been kept nearly useless.

clouds in higher regions of the atmosphere,

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