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RED-POLL WARBLER.

CANADA WARBLER.

HEMLOCK WARBLER.

MOURNING WARBLER.

ash. Cheeks, collar round the neck, and ash, with central parts of the feathers on under parts generally, white, largely spot- the head, black, giving it a dark spotted ted with black on the breast and sides; line appearance. Wings and tail brown, edged of black spots from the chin towards the with grayish. Line under the eye descenshoulders. Two white bars on the wings. ding down the side of the throat towards Primaries brown, edged on their outer the shoulders, black. Spot in the forehead, webs with greenish yellow. Tail, wood a broad line towards the eye, and all bebrown, the two outer feathers on each side neath, bright lemon yellow. A broad having large white spots on their inner rounded band of black spots across the webs. Bill, dark horn color. Tail emar- breast, forming a sort of collar. Under ginate, reaching three-fourths of an inch tail coverts white, tinged with yellow. beyond the folded wings. Legs, flesh color. Upper mandible brownish; the lower manFemale and young dull yellowish olive, dible, the legs and feet, flesh color. Second streaked with black and gray. Length 5 and third primaries subequal, longest. inches; spread, 8.

Tail long, rounded, reaching 1.2 beyond HISTORY.-The Blackpoll Warbler is pret- the tips of the folded wings. The female is ty generally diffused over the United States, greenish above, and all its markings less and has been observed as far north as the distinct. Length, 5 inches; spread, 8.5. 54th parallel of latitude. Audubon found HISTORY—This is a rare species, being the nest of this species in Labrador, built only occasionally met with in Vermont. in the forked branches of a fir tree, about It breeds, according to Audubon, in Pennthree feet from the ground. It was formed sylvania, Maine, and the British Provinces, of mosses and lichens, lined first with coarse and if so, it doubtless breeds in Vermont, dried grass, then with fine moss, and lastly though I am not aware that its nest has with feathers. The nest contained 4 eggs, been found here. It is said to range as far but he has given no description of them. north as the 55th degree of latitude. The It probably breeds in Vermont, but I am nest is usually built in a low evergreen. not aware that its nest has ever been found The eggs, about five in number, are white, here.

with a few dots of brownish red.

est.

THE RED-POLL WARBLER.
Sylvia ruficapilla.LATHAM.

THE HEMLOCK WARBLER. DESCRIPTION.—General aspect brownish Sylvia parus.-Wilson. olive, streaked with dusky brown ; crown DESCRIPTION. - Color above greenish yeldark rufous. Line over the eye, and all low, striped with dusky ; bill, wings and beneath, yellow. The two lateral tail feath- tail brownish black; two white bars on the ers with large spots of white on their inner wings; quills edged with greenish. Line webs, extending to their tips. The yellow over the eye, throat and neck yellow; beon the breast streaked and spotted with neath, yellow, streaked with dusky on the bay. Legs and bill dusky brown. The breast and sides; under tail coverts white; first three quills nearly equal, second long- patches of white on the inner webs of the

Tail slightly notched, and reaches two outer tail feathers; legs and under one inch beyond the folded wings. Female mandible greenish yellow. First quill without the rufous crown, and having the longest; tail emarginate. Length, 5.25 ; spots on the breast brown instead of bay; spread, 8.5 In the young male the crown is spotted History.--This bird resides, for the most with bay, and the breast yellowish brown. part, in thick Hemlock forests, and hence Length, 4.75; spread, 7.5.

it has derived its name. Its nest, according HISTORY.- The history of this little war- to Audubon, is usually built in a hemlock hler appears to be very little known. I or spruce, at a considerable elevation from have two specimens, a male and a female, the ground, and is composed of slender from which the above description is drawn. twigs and lichens, and lined with hair and They were both shot by my frienri Paine, in feathers. The specimen above described Orange county, in 1848, one on the 20th of was shot in Randolph, and the bird, no April and the other in September. It has doubt, breeds here. been observed, according to DeKay, from Mexico to the 55th degree of north latitude. Whether it breeds or not in Vermont, I

THE MOURNING WARBLER. have not been able to ascertain.

Sylvia philadelphia.-Wilsox.

DESCRIPTION.—Head and sides of the THE CANADA WARBLER.

neck bluish slate; upper parts of the body, Sylvia pardalina.-BONAPARTE. wings and tail, dark yellowish olive-green; DESCRIPTION.—All the upper parts bluish Ispace before the eye, and frontlet, black.

PARTI-COLORED WARBLER.

MEALY REDPOLL. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. SCARLET TANAGER.

Chin, throat and sides of the neck bluish and posterior part of the rump, in the male, gray. Breast black, with numerous fine pale carmine. First primary longest, seccrescent-shaped blue-gray lines. Beneath ond and third nearly equal. Bill yellow, - bright lustrous yellow. Bill smoky horn brownish towards the point; very acute, color; legs flesh color. In the female and upper mandible longest. Hind nail long the young, the throat and breast are buff, as the toe. Length, 5.5 inches; spread, 9. the latter much the darkest, and all the HISTORY.--This species, though very upper parts are a greenish olive. Length, rare, is quite widely diffused, being found 5 inches; spread, 7.5.

in Maine, New Jersey and Oregon. The HISTORY.—The Mourning Warbler de specimen from which the above description rives its name from its peculiar melancholy was made, was shot in Randolph, in the notes. The specimen, from which the above winter of 1850. They appeared there in description is chiefly drawn, was shot by flocks, and fed upon the seeds of weeds, my friend, C. S. Paine, in Randolph, on which projected through the snow, in the the 4th of July. It was a male, had with open fields. They were not seen in the it a mate and a brood of young ones, just forests. Its notes were very much like able to fly. This warbler is a rare bird, those of the common yellow bird, F. tristis. and is of shy and solitary habits. Its In appearance it very closely resembles the range, so far as at present ascertained, is Lesser Redpoll, F. linaria ;-so closely between the 23d and 47th parallels of lati- that there is some difficulty in distinguishtude.

ing them. It is, however, somewhat larger,

and its colors a little lighter, particularly THE PARTI-COLORED WARBLER.

on the rump. Sylvia americana.—LATHAM.

THE ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. DESCRIPTION,—Color pale blue above, with a large golden umber spot on the Coccoborus ludovicianus.-LINXÆUS. back. Upper mandible black; lower, yel- DESCRIPTION.-Head, chin and upper lowish. Chin, throat and lower part of parts mostly black, varied with white on the breast, bright yellow. A blackish the wings and rump.

Tail and wings collar, bordered below with umber, mixed brownish, with a broad white bar across with yellow. Sides, under the edges of the the quills of the latter, and a narrower one folded wings, spotted with bay: Belly on the wing coverts. Breast and under bluish white. Two white bars on the wings; wing coverts carmine, or bright rose color. and outer tail feathers largely spotted with Beneath, yellowish white. Bill, cream white, on their inner webs. Wings and color; legs and feet grayish brown. Female tail brown, the quills and feathers edged brown above, spotted with dull white on the with light blue, on their outer webs. Legs wings; three yellowish white bands on the and feet fuliginous. Three first quills head, one passing from the bill over the nearly equal. Female without the dark crown to the occiput, and one passing along collar on the breast. Length, 4.5, spread, each side of the head, just over the eye. 6.4 inches.

Feathers on the breast yellowish, with a History.—This very beautiful little war- brown central streak; under wing coverts bler ranges from Mexico to the 46th parallel sulphur yellow; no rose color. Bill brown of latitude, and is very common in the horn color. Tail slightly emarginate. Bill western states. It arrives in New England notched near the point. Second quill longabout the beginning of May. Its nest, ac- est. Length, 8 inches; spread, 13. cording to Audubon, is built in the upright HISTORY.—The range of this bird is said forks of small trees, and is composed prin- to be from Texas to the 56th parallel of cipally of lichens, lined with downy sub- latitude. Though not numerous in Verstances. The eggs, about 4, are white, mont, they are frequently met with and with a few reddish dots near the larger end. rear their young here. Its nest is usually

built in thick forests, at a considerable

height from the ground, and composed of THE MEALY REDPOLL.

twigs and lined with grass. The eggs are Fringilla borealis.-Savi.

4 or 5, bluish and spotted with brown. DESCRIPTION.—Above dusky, streaked with yellowish white and rusty. Wings THE SCARLET TANAGER. and tail, hair-brown, the feathers edged and tipped with yellowish white. Rump

Tanagra subra.—LIXNECS. whitish. Crown dark rich crimson. Front- DESCRIPTION.—The bill robust, rather let, lores and throat black. Beneath, gray- short, compressed towards the point, and ish white, streaked with dusky. Legs, feet acute. The second quill longest. Tail and nails black. Cheeks, sides of the body slightly forked. In the male, the plumage

CRESTED WOODPECKER.

CHIMNEY SWALLOW.

SWALLOW TREES.

is of a brilliant scarlet, excepting the wings reaching three inches beyond the tip of the and tail, which are black, and the under folded wing. wing coverts, which are yellow. Bill and HISTORY.-For the specimen here descrilegs brownish horn color. Female and bed I was indebted to Mr. Austin Isham, of young dull green, or brownish yellow. Williston, who shot it near Shelburne pond, Wings and tail, brown, with the feathers on the 10th of November, 1851. It was a edged with greenish. Color of the bill and female, and on skinning and dissecting it, legs lighter than in the male. Length, I found in its craw more than 100 flat, 6.6 inches; spread, 10.5.

jointed worms. They were, most of them, History. This bird, on account of the entire, about an inch long, and of a yellowbright red color of the male, is sometimes ish white color; such, in short, as are very called the Fire Bird. It is also known in common between the bark and wood of old many places as the Blackwinged Red Bird. trees. The gizzard contained parts of It rears its young in Vermont, but is said worms, and a large quantity of the fragto extend its summer migrations northward, ments of ants and coleopterous insects, but as far as the 69th parallel of latitude. Its no gravel. nest is usually built on the horizontal Though no where numerous, this Woodbranch of a forest tree, 10 or 15 feet from pecker is found in all parts of the United the ground. It is composed of sticks, States and as far north as the 63d parallel weeds and vines, nicely put together, and of latitude. In Vermont it has been very lined with finer materials. The eggs are generally called the Woodcock. It is a usually 4, of a dull blue color, spotted with very restless and retired bird, confining different shades of brown. It is a shy bird, himself chiefly to the depths of the forests, occupying retired places, and manifests and hence he is much more frequently great solicitude for the safety of its young. heard than seen. In the early part of One of the nests of this bird, found by my spring, as is well known to those employed indefatigable friend, Paine, in Randolph, at that season in the manufacture of maple was on the branch of a maple, in the skirt sugar, his loud cackle and the sound of his of a forest, was 10 feet from the ground, powerful blows upon the old trees, are and composed of hemlock twigs, laced and heard, reverberating through the naked bound together with fibrous weeds and forests, to a great distance. Like the other strings. It was 1.5 inch deep, and con- woodpeckers, it builds its nest in a cavity, tained three eggs. The male bird showed hollowed out of an old tree, and lays about much uneasiness when the discoverer 6 purely white eggs. approached the nest.

THE CRESTED WOODPECKER.

CHIMNEY SWALLOW,-(Part I--98.) Picus pileatus.---LINNÆUS.

Cypselus pelasgius.--TEM. DESCRIPTION.—General color black. Chin In our account of this bird, we spoke of white, with a rusty white stripe over the its habit, when the country was new, of eye, and another from the nostril extending resorting in immense numbers to hollow backward along the side of the neck to the trees, in spring and autumn, and that there base of the wings, which are, on the under were many trees in this state, which were, side, of a delicate straw color. Vanes of on that account, extensively known as the basal part of the wing feathers, white swallow trees. Many of these trees had, on the upper side, but nearly concealed by probably, been resorted to by thousands of the wing coverts, when the wing is closed. birds, year after year, for centuries. The Crest and mustachios, in the male, bright consequence would naturally be, that the yellowish carmine red; crown variegated hollow, in which they roosted, would be with black and golden yellow. Irides gradually filled up from the bottom, by the bright orange; bill and claws dark horn excrement, cast off feathers, exuvia of incolor, the bill a little lighter below, sharply sects, and rotten wood; and trees have been ridged above and on the sides ; with the often found in this condition, long after the mandibles, which are of equal length, swallows had ceased to resort to them; and brought to vertical cutting edges at their even after they had been blown down, and points. Tongue slender, protractile and had become rotten by lying. One of this barbed towards the point. Tail wedge- kind, in Ohio, is described in Harris' Jourshaped; feathers 12, stiff and pointed, cen- ual, and quoted in Wilson's Ornithology. tral ones longest. Length of the speciinen The tree was a sycamore, five feet in diamhere described, which was a female, 18 in- eter, which had been blown down, and ches; spread, 28; from the point of the bill whose immense hollow was found filled, to the feathers 2.4;to the top of the crest 4.5. for the space of 15 feet, with a “mass of Length of the folded wing, 9.5,-tail, 7, decayed feathers, with an admixture of

PASSENGER PIGEON.

CHIMNEY SWALLOW.

AMERICAN BITTEEN. brownish dust and the exuvia of various ing the feathers. But, if done quietly, insects."

what did it? What insect would devour The remains of a tree of this description the bones, and beaks, and claws, and not were found in this state, in Middlebury, so meddle with the quills ? Or would the lately as the spring of 1852. The tree had formic, or any other acid, which might be been blown down, and had, nearly all, generated within the mass, dissolve the rotted away, leaving little besides the cyl- former without affecting the latter? These indrical mass, which had filled its hollow. are questions, to which the sarans have The length of this mass was about seven not yet returned any satisfactory response. feet, and its diameter 15 inches. Of the A specimen, from the above mentioned materials, which composed it, about one feathery mass, was obtained, in May, 1852, half consisted of the feathers of the Chim- by Mr. J. A. Jameson, Tutor in the Uniney Swallow, being, for the most part, versity of Vermont, and presented, by him, wing and tail-feathers. The other half to the Museum of that Institution, to be was made up of exuvia of insects, mostly preserved as a relic of primeval Vermont. fragments and eggs of the large wood-ant, and a brown substance, probably derived from the decayed wood of the interior of the PASSENGER PIGEON.— (Part I, p. 100.) tree.

Columba migratoria.-Lixy. This discovery at Middlebury, though interesting, would not have been regarded

Having learned that Pigeons had appearas very remarkable, if the materials, which ed and reared their young in large numbers, had filled the hollow of the tree, had been in the spring of 1819, in several towns on promiscuously and disorderly mingled to

the Green Mountains, particularly in Faysgether. Such a jumbled mass would be ton and Warren, in Washington county, what we should expect to find in a hollow and being desirous in case they should retree which had been, for centuries, per

turn there the next spring, to visit the haps, the roosting place of myriads of Swal- localities, for the purpose of observing the lows. But this is not the case. In their habits of the Pigeons, and securing some of general arrangement, the larger feathers their eggs for specimens, I addressed a note have nearly all their quills pointing out- of inquiry to Jacob Boyce, Esq., of Fayston. ward, while their plumes, or ends on which To this note I received the following reply: their webs are arranged, point 'inward.

FAYSTON, June 28, 1850. This arrangement might perhaps have Mr. THOMPSON : arisen from the nesting of small quadru- Sir, -I have received yours of the 10th peds in the hollow, making the feathers inst., requesting information about Pigeons. their bed. But this is not the most remark- They are not here the present season. Last able circumstance connected with the sub- year they came here early in April, and ject. In various parts of the mass, are commenced building their nests by the found, in some cases, all the primary middle of that month ; and they left here feathers of the wing; in others, all the with their young, about the middle of June. feathers of the tail, lying together in con- Their nests extended over a territory of, at tact, and in precisely the same order and least, 2,000 acres. Above the height of 25 position, in which they are found in the feet from the ground, the tops of the trees living swallow. In a lump of the materials, were covered with nests. Some large measuring not more than 7 inches by 5, birches had from 100 to 125 nests on a and less than 3 inches thick, five wings and tree. The nests consisted of bunches of two tails were plainly seen, with their sticks, placed in the crotches of the limbs. feathers arranged as above mentioned, and, They laid only two eggs in a nest, and in one of the wings, all the secondary quills raised only one brood. There might have were also arranged in their true position been any quantity of eggs obtained from with regard to the primaries,

the nests; and great numbers of eggs rolled Now, we canaot conceive it possible that out of the nests and lay scattered on the these feathers could be shed by living birds, ground, but I do not know that any of the and be thus deposited. We may suppose eggs were preserved. that the birds died there, and that their

Respectfully yours, flesh had been removed by decay, or by in

JACOB BOYCE. sects, without deranging the feathers. But in that case, what has become of the skeletons? I do not learn that a bone, beak, or

AMERICAN BITTERN. claw, has been found in any part of the whole mass. What, then, has become of

Ardea minor.--WILSON. these? They could hardly have been re- DESCRIPTION.-General color yellowish moved by violent means, without disturb- ferruginous, mottled and sprinkled with

AMERICAN BITTERN.

GREATER YELLOW-SHANKS.

SEMI-PALMATED SANDPIPER.

dark brown. Crown dusky reddish brown. THE GREATER YELLOW-SHANKS. Chin and throat white, with reddish brown

Totanus melanoleucas.-GEMLIN. stripe. From the angle of the mouth a brownish black stripe proceeds downward,

DESCRIPTION.—Color of the upper parts becoming broader on the side of the neck, brown, spotted with black and white. Bill, and turning upwards towards the back black; rump and tail dusky white, barred side, where it is lost. The quills are also with brown. Throat, belly, and under brownish black. Feathers of the neck and tail coverts, white. Legs and feet yellow. breast have their central part along the A small black spot before the angle of the shaft dark yellow, sprinkled thickly with eye.

Shaft of the first primary white. brown, broadly margined with tawny cream Length, 13 inches ; folded wing, 7:25; bill, color. Dorsal plumage dark umber brown, along the ridge, 2.1; under mandible shortwith the feathers edged and spotted with er, and both cylindrical towards the point. yellowish brown and tawny white. Plu- Tarsus 2.5 inches long; middle toe to the mage about the vent and inside of the nail 1.5. A short web between the inner thighs, ochre-yellow. Legs, feet and nails and middle toes. greenish olive-brown.

Bill dark greenish

HISTORY.--This bird appears in Vermont horn color, longer than the head, straight in the latter part of May, proceeding northbeneath, moderately arched above, stout, ward, where it is found in the summer up pointed, serrated on both mandibles, and, to the 60th degree of latitude. Some of on the upper, notched towards the point them, however, remain in Vermont through Tibia bare nearly an inch above the joint. the summer, and breed here. It builds Middle toe longest, pectinated. Hind nail its nest, according to Nuttall, in a tuft of longest. Feathers on the back of the head rank grass, on the border of a creek or bog, and neck loose and elongated. Tail small, and lays 4 eggs of a dingy white color, rounded, and of 10 feathers. Length of marked with spots of dark brown. The the specimen before me, which is a female, eggs are said to be remarkably large for 25 inches. Bill, along the gape, 4, along the size of the bird. Perhaps its most the ridge, 2.6 ; neck 11 ; folded wing 10; common vulgar name is that of Tell-Tale. tail 3 ; tarsus 3 ; longest toe 3; longest nail 1.2.

THE SEMI-PALMATED SANDPIPER. HISTORY.- The specimen of American Bittern described above, was presented to

Tringa semipalmata.-Wilson. me by my friend, N. A. Tucker, Esq. It

DESCRIPTION. - The bill is shorter than was shot by him in his garden, in Burling-Ithe head, straight, enlarged and Aattened ton village, where it had alighted, on the towards the end, and acutely pointed at the 30th of April, 1845. It was a female, and tip. Tibia one-fonrth naked; tarsus comcontained several eggs, which were some

pressed and of the length of the bill. Hind what enlarged. About the first of June, toe short and small. First quill longest. Prof. J. Torrey found the nest of one of Tail pointed, reaching beyond the folded these birds in a swamp, in the east part of wings; middle feathers longest. The color Burlington. It was made on the ground, olive. General color above grayish ash,

of the bill is black; the legs dark dusky of sticks and grass, was very shallow, and contained 6 eggs. The eggs were of a dark thickly streaked and spotted with dusky bluish brown clay color, and contained brown, while the feathers are edged with young, which were considerably advanced. light gray and rufous. Frontlet and line

This bird is called by a great variety of over the eye, light gray. All beneath, names, but is most generally known in white, excepting the breast and lower front Vermont by the name of Stake Driver. of the neck, which are gray, with brownish This name is given it, on account of the ed wing, 3.7; bill and tarsus each 0.8; mid

spots and streaks. Length, 6 inches; foldresemblance of the sound, it makes in the dle toe, which is longest, including the breeding season, to that made by a smart blow and its echo, in driving a stake into nail, 0 8. the ground, resembling somewhat the un

HISTORY.—This little Sandpiper ranges couth syllables of 'pump-au-gah. It is a through all parts of the United States. "It sly, solitary bird, and feeds on mice, appears in Vermont in May, and remains aquatic reptiles and the larger insects, and here, although I have not seen its nest.

here till autumn, and undoubtedly breeds though not often seen, its sound is not unfrequently heard during the summer, pro

According to Nuttall, it makes its nest, ceeding from the depths of the swamps, in early in June, of withered grass, and lays various parts of the state. Its range, ac- brown. For the specimen above described

4 or 5 eggs, which are white, spotted with cording to DeKay, is between the 38th and 58th parallels of latitude.

I am indebted to Mr. C. S. Paine, of Randolph, who shot it in the fall of 1850.

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