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15 northwest from Newbury. It was ted to Elisha Hall and his associates. granted November 7, 1780, and chartered The settlement was commenced in the to Thomas Butterfield and his associates, lower part of this town, which was then. October 20, 1789, containing 28,300 acres. thought to be a part of Lunenburgh, in The settlement of the township was com- 1764, by David Page, Timothy Nash and menced in 1787, by Messrs. James, Ab- George Wheeler. In 1775, Enoch Hall, bott, Morse and Osmore. John James Micah Amy and James Rosbrook joined was the first male child born in town. the settlement; Eleazer Røsbrook and The town was organized March 28, 1797, Samuel Page, in 1778, and David Hopkinand Nathaniel Knight was the first town son, and Reuben and Simeon Howe, in clerk. The wife of a Mr. Page, in this 1779. The first settlers suffered severe town, was, in 1819, delivered of four male privations and, hardships for a number of children at a birth. The religious denom- years. They brought their grain and proinations are Baptists and Methodists. visions, in canoes, from Northfield in The ministers are Elder Lyman Culver, Massachusetts, a distance of more than Baptist, and Elder James Smith, Metho- 150 miles. During the revolutionary war, dists. The surface of this township is they were in continual alarm, and fregenerally uneven, rough and stoney. quently annoyed by the Indians and toThere is, however, some very good land, ries, who killed their cattle, plundered both in the northeast and southwestern their houses, and carried a number of the parts. The timber is mostly spruce and inhabitants into captivity. The first town hemlock, interspersed with maple, beech meeting recorded was in March, 1785. and birth. This township is watered by But it appears from the records, that the Wells river and some of its branches, town had been previously organized. The which afford several good mill privileges. denominations of Christians are CongreThere are also several natural ponds. gationalists, Methodists and Baptists. Wells river pond, through which Wells The Congregational church was formed river passes, is in the north part, and is in 1799 ; settled the Rev. Caleb Burge, three miles long and three quarters of a August 3, 1808, who was dismissed in mile wide. Little pond, in the south- March, 1814. The Rev. James Tisdale eastern part, covers about 100 acres, and was settled September 20, 1830, and dislies in the course of Wells river. Kettle missed in May, 1836. The Rev. Francis pond, so called on account of Mr. Hos P. Smith, the present pastor, was settled mer, a hunter, having lost a small kettle in September, 1838. There have been in its vicinity, lies in the northwest cor- two county grammar school houses erecner, and covers about 40 acres. The ted in this town,
both of which were con. south branch rises in Harris' gore, and sumed by fire. The surface of this town, running nearly east through the south except on the river, is uneven, hard and part of the town, joins Wells river just rocky. The intervales and flats are easy balow Little pond. In the south part of and fertile. Burnside and Cow mountain the township is an extensive bank of are considerable elevations. Connecticut white clay or marl, which is a very good river washes the east side of this town. substitute for chalk, and which has been Its other waters are, Cutler's Mill brook, used instead of lime in plastering, and is on which mills have been erected, and said to answer a very good purpose. Burnside brook, on which also, are mill , There are here one grist, seven saw and privileges. There is a small village in one fulling mill, two stores and two tan- the northeast corner of the town, conneries. Statistics of 1840.--Horses, 169; taining the county buildings, several officattle, 1,138; sheep, 2,061; swine, 605; ces, stores, &c. At this village is a good wheat, bus. 2,185; barley, 306 oats, 13,- bridge across Connecticut river. There 618; Indian corn, 2,967 ; potatoes, 31,- is another bridge, connecting this town 095; bay, tons, 2,009; sugar, lbs. 20,530; with Lancaster, near the south east corwool, 4,001. Population, 928.
ner. There are here two stores, one tav. GUILDHALL, a post and shire township ern, one grain mill, two saw mills, and in Essex county, situated in lat. 440 32 one fulling mill. Statistics of 1840.-and long. 5° 18', containing 19,477 acres, Horses, 126; cattle, 794 ; sheep, 1,285 ; or thirty square miles. It is 50 miles swine, 446; wheat, bu. 957 ; barley, 78; northeast from Montpelier, 25 from Dan. oats, 6,285 ; buck wheat, 1,774 ; In corn, ville, and 83 from Windsor. It is bound- 905 ; potatoes, 25,025 ; hay, tons, 1,415; ed north by Maidstone, east by Connec- sugar, lbs. 11,800 ; wool, 2,081. Populalicut river, south by Lunenburgh, and tion, 470. west by Granby, and lies opposite to Lan- GuilFORD, a post town in the south caster in New Hampshire. Guildhall part of Windham county, is in lat. 42° was chartered October 10, 1761, and gran- 47' and long. 4° 26', and is bounded north
by Brattleborough, east by Vernon, south (er the whole township was a village-all by Leyden, Massachusetts, and west by the hills and vallies were smoking with Halifax. It lies 50 miles south from huts. By the charter 350 acres Windsor, 31 east from Bennington. It called a share, and all the proprietors was chartered April 2, 1754, to fifty.four shared alike. The reservations in the proprietors, principally of Massachusetts, charter consisted of “one whole share to and contained 23,040 acres. When gran- the society in England for propagating ted the town was a perfect wilderness, the gospel in foreign parts-one to the yet by the charter, the grantees were to first settled minister of the gospel-and bold their first meeting for the choice of one whole share for a glebe, for the min. officers, &c. on the first of May, 1754, istry of the church of England, as by law and on the first Tuesday of March ever established.” The governor was not unafterwards. It seems the town was first mindful of his own interest. He reserved organized by and under the very grant 500 acres to be located by itself, for his itself. Power was given to the grant. own. The town was laid out into 50 and ees to transact the business of the town 100 acre lots. The public rights were as a majority should see fit, subject only fairly located, but that of the royal gorerto the control of the parliament of Eng- nor fell upon the only mountain in town, land. This little enterprising band, com- which still bears the name of authority posed of Samuel Hunt, John Chandler, upon the map_"Gov. Mountain." AlDavid Field, Elijah Williams, Micah though no reservation was made in the Rice, Ira Carpenter and others, having grant for the use of schools, yet one little to fear from the nominal power of whole share was located for that purpose. parliament, in the wilderness of Vermont, That was a just and generous act of the assumed the title, which was virtually proprietors, but it was not the same libercreated by their charter, of a little indepen- ality that governed them, when they lodent republic. By the records of their cated, sold and settled one whole tier of first meetings, they appear to have been hundred acre lots north beyond the ergoverned by certain committees, chosen tent of their charter. That was the case for the purpose of surveying the lands, and the same is held by the town to this laying roads, drawing the shares or lots, day. “All the pine trees suitable for taxing the rights, &c.; but their greatest masting the royal Navy" were reserved object was to procure and encourage set to his Majesty. This shews the attention tlers. Their meetings were held at Green- the English nation paid to the Navy. One field, Northfield, Hinsdale or Brattleboro', hundred miles from the ocean, where no until 1765, when their first meeting was such timber grew, was that reservation held at Guilford. There was a condition made. What has been related, with a which, if not performed, went to defeat little “proclamation money," was the the grant. The grantees were to settle, price of the charter. clear and cultivate, in five years, five The first land was cleared in 1758 by acres for every 50 in said township. Al- the Hon. Jona. Hunt and Elisha Hunt, though much time and money were spent on the farm now occupied by the Rev. in making roads and clearing lands, yet Asa Haynes. The first settlement was on thc 20th of March, 1764, the grantees made by Micah Rice and family, in Sepby a special committee chosen, petitioned tember, 1761, on the place now occupied the governor of N. H. for a confirmation by Jeremiah Greenleaf, Esq. Mr. R.'s of their grant, and an extention of the widow died in 1832, aged 95 years, and time, stating that the intervention of an his oldest son is now living here, aged 80. Indian war had made it impracticable for Soon after followed Jonathan Bigelow, them to fulfil the conditions of the char- John Barney, Daniel Lynds, Wm. Bigeter. Their prayer was granted and the low, Ebenezer Goodenough, Paul Chase, time for settling the town, extended to Thomas Cutler, John Shepardson, and the first of January, 1766. From the time others. They came into town by the way the charter was confirmed in 1764, the of Broad brook. Beginning at the mouth town began to be rapidly settled hy emi- of that stream on Connecticut river in grants from Massachusetts and other Vernon, and passing up on its banks, New-England states. Through the poli- they found their way into Guilford. cy of the original proprietors, the first That was then the only road, and even settlers began upon lots of 50 acres, in or- that was impassable with teams. The der to fulfil the condition of the grant. first settlers had either to boil or pound So rapid was the increase of population, their corn, or go 15 miles to mill with a that the town soon became the largest in grist upon their backs. It appears, by the state as to numbers. Yet there was not what records can be found, that the town a single village in the township, or rath- was wholly governed by a set of officers
chosen annually by the people under their person who shall, for the future, pretend charter, until the 19th May, 1772, when to hold lands by bush fence possession, the inhabitants, at a “district meeting as shall be dealt with by the town, as a sembled" in the district of Guilford, vo- breaker of the peace of the town, and a ted, that Guilford was in the county of riotous person, &c. AttestCumberland and province of New York,
“ Elijah Welch, T. Clerk. and chose officers of the town, agreeably
They further chose a committee to esto the laws of that province. At that tablish the price of labor, all kinds of promeeting a record was first made in a reg. duce, goods, wares and merchandise. The ular town book, which was purchased by report of the committee was adopted as the original proprietors some years before the law of the town. All the articles By that record it appears, John Shepard- mentioned were a legal tender for debts, son was chosen“ district clerk, John Bar. with a penalty of the article sold, or the ney supervisor," &c., and the meeting value thereof, with costs. The punishwas then adjourned to a day after the an- inent of offenders was various, such as nual meeting by the charter. Having re. “ beech seal," fines, &c., but the most disnounced their charter, and there being no graceful of all was to be compelled to emgovernment which really exercised au- brace the Liberty Pole, with both arms, thority over them, they continued to leg. the time specified by the committee of in. islate for themselves, and tradition says spection, or judges. There was again an that good justice was done, yet one prin entire change of politics in 1778. It ap; ciple of the charter was still adhered to; pears by the records, that a warrant and none but proprietors, or those who held 'notification for a town meeting was sent under them, had a right to rule, or vote from the « Council of Bennington," and in their meetings. Thus was this little a meeting held upon the same, when it republic regulated by a town meeting, was “ Voted, not to act agreeable to said which was adjourned from time to time, warrant,” and the meeting was dissolved. without interruption from abroad, or con. In 1779, after doing the customary town tentions at home, until the year 1776. business, “ Voted, Lovell Bullock, TimoThen the town was beset with violent to. thy Root, and Henry Sherburn, a comries and Yorkers on the one side, and mittee to defend the town against the prebrave whigs and New-states-inen on the tended state of Vermont, and to represent other. The whigs, united with those op- the town in County Committee."'* " Hen. posed to the claims of the state of New- ry Sherburn, Elliot and Hezekiah StowYork, that and the succeeding year, out e1l," all violent “ Yorkers, were cho. voted the tories and the Yorkers. In 1776 sen to take special care of the powder and the town voted to pay the expenses of lead, and other town stores”-and the meetBenjamin Carpenter, their delegate to the ing adjourned to the next year. In 1780, a Westminster Convention in 1775. They like meeting was held. There is the voted to raise nine soldiers for the conti: following record for 1781. “Then all the nental army, equip them with arms and people met together that means to stand - powder, give them a bounty of £A “bay. in opposition against the pretended state money,” by a tax upon the inhabitants of of Vermont, and acted on the following the town, and it was done. They also articles, viz.” Among others see the fol. resolved, that "no man should vote for lowing“ Voted, to defend themselves town officers, who was not qualified ac against the insults of the pretended state cording to the direction of the Continen- of Vermont. Voted, Peter Briggs and tal Congress.” Under that resolution, William Bullock for a Committee to send their committee, chosen for the purpose, to Charlestown Convention. Voted, that excluded tories from the polls, vi et armis, Hezekiah Stowell keep the names of those and the poor, if qualified, participated in that are against said pretended state," the government. The title of the town &c. Also, May, 1782. “ Then the peo, as belonging to the state of New York, ple met in general, and voted to stand was left out of the records. To give some against the pretended state of Vermont, idea of the laws passed by the old repub- until the decision of Congress be known, lic of Guilford, we will quote the follow with lives and fortunes. Voted, to receive ing, passed the next year, 1777: “Voted, the instructions which came from New not to let any person vote in this meeting, York, &c. Voted, and chose Henry Evbut such as have 40 pounds real or per: ens, Daniel Ashcraft and Nathan Fitch, sonal estate. Voled, John Barney and to forbid the constable acting.” These Benjamin Carpenter be a committee to go to Windsor, in June next, to hear the appear not to be regular meetings of the report of the agent sent to Congress *See Slade's Vermont State Papers, p. 106. concerning a new state. Voted, that any | State Papers, p. 128 ; also Part 2., p. 60,
town, but of the Yorkers, who had gotten | records of the proceedings of the town possession of the town books and stores are preserved. In March of the year last by a majority of votes in 1778. They in mentioned, the town was, for the first turn excluded the other party from the time, duly organized under the constitupolls, by force of arms. Frequently a com- tion and laws of Vermont. William Bigepany of armed Yorkers came from Brat- low was chosen town clerk, who came ileboro', to stand sentry at their meetings, peaceably into possession of the pawhen skirmishes ensued and hostile shots pers and records of the town, that were exchanged. The whigs and Ver. were to be found. Tradition says, that monters also kept up their system of gov- during the seven years in which no reernment by regular and stated meetings, cords were kept, bath parties held public but their records were lost, as will be re- and private meetings, but that it was a lated hereafter. In their turn they sent perfect rule of anarchy. The Yorkers, hostile scouting parties to Brattleboro', to although they had the town books, dared the assistance of their friends in that not record their proceedings in them, town.* The Vermonters had a sheriff, and both parties kept secret their own rein Guilford, and their party, also, had a cords. During this confusion and jeal. constable, who continued to collect taxes ousy, one party stole the records of the for the support of their cause. Those other, and hid them, together with their friendly to the new state paid without own, many deeds and proprietors' papers, compulsion, while the property of the under the earth in the pound, in order to Yorkers, both real and personal, was sold conceal them from the other. There at the post for taxes. For that reason the they lay, through some sad misfortune, committee before mentioned was chosen until they were totally spoiled. When "to forbid the constable acting”, and discovered and dug up, they could not be their doings were spread upon the records read. During that time, the Yorkers, of the town, by proclamation, as follows. having been so closely pursued by the "To all the officers of the civil authority military and civil authority of Vermont, under the pretended state of Vermont. and their property mostly confiscated, fled You are hereby forbid to proceed against to the state of New York, and settled apany person, or persons, that owns the ju- on the grants made by that state to the risdiction of the state of New York, ac. New York sufferers. Almost a whole cording to what is recommended in a township, now called Bainbridge, was first handbill, by Congress, bearing date June settled by emigrants from Guilford. This 2, 1780, and we do hereby forbid the con accounts for the so rapid decrease of the stable venduing those numbers hereby population from 1784. While the town given him," (referring to certain lots on was independent of any power superior the plan of the town)" and we hereby to the town meeting assembled, refagees forbid you on your apparel.
from the neighboring states flocked into “ HENRY Evens,
it, but when the law came, they fled. “ Dan ASHCRAFT,
The violent Yorkers found but little peace “ Nathan Fitch,
under the energetic and persevering meas“ A true record, -Attest,
ures of the states' attorney of Windham “ SAMUEL BISBY, Town Clerk.” county. To him the people of Guilford The Yorkers, held a like meeting in are indebted for the establishment of law 1783, April 29, and adjourned to their and order, without the effusion of blood, annual meeting in 1784. From 1778 to and the dispersion of the riotous. Migra1783 the town was governed, principally, tions have not only been westward, but by their former laws. Both parties had northward and eastward. Most of the their committees, and the Yorkers, al- towns, in the northern and middle parts though in authority, could not govern the of this state, contain inhabitants from old town, yet, in connection with the tories, Guilford. Although the town has deprevented any thing being done under creased in population, it has increased in the direction and government of the new opulence. Where one farmer now occustate. In this state of things, Ethan Al- pies and improves, formerly lived half a len arrived in town, at the head of 100 dozen, or more, and you now see one reGreen Mountain Boys; but, as we have spectable dwelling instead of as many log already given an account of his procla buts. Since 1791, there has been nothmation and proceedings, we shall not re-ing remarkable in the history of the town. peat them here. $From 1784 to 1791 no From that time the inhabitants have sup
ported the character of free and indepen* See part 2d, p. 78. H. Evens was one of the five dent farmers, very jealous of their rights, See Gov. Chittenden's remonstrance, &c. same and for many years noted for their strong page 183. See part second, page 77,
prepossessions in favor of the politica)
school of Jefferson. The Hon. Benjamins and many others of less note, who are Carpenter was a member of the first con- mostly identified with the history of the vention in Vermont, held at Dorset in state, but who have since removed from 1776. In those trying times with the the town. Guilford was the birth place brave sons of the Green Mountains, when of Henry Denison, Esq., the late poet of they had not only to oppose the powerful Georgia, and also of the Rev. Wilbur state of New York, the claims of New Fisk, late president of the Wesleyan UniHampshire and Masschusetts, the tories versity at Middletown, Ct. The Rev. and Yorkers at home, and the menacing Royal Girley was the first settled ministhreats of Congress abroad, but the power ter in Guilford. He was of the Congreof his majesty's legions in war, that brave tional order, and received the right of patriot, with an allowance of three days' land reserved and located for that purprovisions upon his back, would cross the pose. He was settled in the year 1775, Green Mountains on foot by marked trees, and died soon after. He was a young to attend the legislature at Bennington, man of science, and much respected for for the purpose of devising ways and his pious and amiable deportment. The means of defence against all the enemies second of the same order was the Rev. of the state. As delegate to the assem- Henry Williams, who was settled in 1779. bly, as a member of the council, and lieu- Rev. Bunker Gay, of Hinsdale, preached tenant governor of the state, he deserved his ordination sermon. His text was ly holds a conspicuous place in the early “Death in the pot.” He was a violent history of the same. Hon. John Shep- | Yorker, and when the town submitted to ardson, born in 1718, was a firm patriot the state authority he left with his politiof the revolution, and held, the offices of cal brethren. The third, the Rev. Elijah judge of the supreme court and member Wollage, was settled in 1794, and disof the council for several years: Died, in missed in 1799. The next of that order 1798. Hon. Samuel Shepardson, born in was the Rev. Jason Chamberlain. He 1757, was a useful member of society, and was settled in 1807, and in 1811, being had the honor of sitting as a member of elected professor of languages in the Unithe council for several years. Died, in versity of Vermont, by bis own request, 1813. Hon. William Bigelow, one of the was dismissed. Afterwards the Rev. Elifirst settlers of the town, and always a jah Wollage returned, and was received father to the people, born in 1751, was a for a time, but dismissed in 1818. An judge of the county court, which office Episcopal church was formed in the east he held with good reputation to himself, parish, November 8, 1818, by the name and died in 1814. Among the early set- of Christ's Church, and on the 8th of tlers of the the town, since 1796, might May, 1819, the Congregational society be mentioned the names of the Hon. Royal voted to unite with the Episcopal society, Tyler, Hon. James Elliot, Hon. Richard and invited their minister, the Rev. A. L. Whitney, Hon. Micah Townshend, Hon. Baury, to perform divine service at their Henry Seymour, Hon. Gilbert Denison, meeting house, in the centre of the town, Hon. Samnel Elliot, Hon. John Noyes, half of the time. An Episcopal society
was formed for that purpose, and a union * Upon a large white marble tomb stone, in the of the two societies was effected, and so west part of Guilford, is the following inscription, has continued to this time. The Episcoinserted here for its curiosity,
pal ministers who have officiated here are SACRED TO THE MEMORY
the Rev. Alfred A. Baury from SeptemHon. BENJ. CARPENTER, Esq.
ber, 1820 to May, 1822, the Rev. Samuel Born in Rehoboth, Mass. A. D. 1726, B. Shaw from 1822 to 1831 ; the Rev. JaA magistrate in Rhode Island in A. D 1764.
cob Pearson from 1832 to 1836 ; the Rev. A public teacher of righteousness, An able advocate to his last for Democracy,
Luman Foote from 1837 to 1838; and the And the equal rights of man.
Rev. John B. Pratt from 1838 to 1841, Removed to this town, A. D. 1770,
The present minister is the Rev. FrederWas a field officer in the Revolutionary war, A founder of the first constitution and government of
ick A. Wadleigh. This church consists Vermont.
of about 50 communicants. The Baptists A Councillor of Censors, in A. D. 1783, are the most numerous sect. Among the A member of the Council, and Lieut Governor of Elders who have had the care of churches
the State in A. D. 1779, A firm professor of Christiansty in the Babtist church in this town, may be mentioned the names 50 years. Left this world
of Willis, Hicks, Snowe, Allen, Packard, And 146 persons of lineal posterity, March 29th 1804, Leland, Bucklin, Wilson, Lamb, and Aged 73 years 10 months and 12 days, with a strong
Bruce. Their present minister is Elder Mind and full faith of a more
Milo Frarey. The Methodisis have sevGlorious state hereafter.
eral classes and there are two ministers Stature about six feet--weight 200. Death had no terror.
of this order in town, the Rev. Asa