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12. The soil is sandy in the south part, Samuel Conant. The settlement advanand the timber principally pine. In the ced very slowly for some years. In 1800, north part it is a gravelly loam, and the there were 38 persons in town. The printimber mostly hard wood. The rocks, in cipal religious societies are Congregationthe western part, are limestone, in the alists and Methodists. There is a pleaseastern part, slate. The soil is, in gen- ant and thriving little village, containing eral, rich and productive. There are some a handsome meeting house, a store, tap. tracts timbered with hemlock, and some ern, and several mechanics. The surface cedar swamps near the lake. Over what of the township is very uneven, consistis called Stone Bridge brook, in the south- ing of hills and vallies. In the south western part of the township, is a natural part is a small mountain called Black hill. bridge 12 or 14 feet wide, and the top of the town is watered principally by the it seven or eight feet above the surface of head branches of Barton river. Branches the water. The width of the arch is 40 of the Passumpsic, Lamoille, and Black or 50 feet, and its height but a few inches river, also rise here. There are four natabove the surface of the stream. A large ural ponds which lie within this townand elegant meeting house was completed ship, viz: Glover pond in the northern in this town in 1802, and around it is a part, Daniel's pond in the western part, small village, containg a number of dwel- Chamber's near the centre, and Mud ling houses, stores, shops, &c. There pond in the southeastern part, all of which are 2 grist mills, which are of stone, three discharge their waters into Black river. saw, and one oil mill, 3 stores, and two Long pond, now better known by the tanneries. Statistics of 1840. Horses, name of Runaway pond, was situated 366; cattle, 1,915; sheep, 10,935; swine, partly in this township and partly in 1,140 ; wheat, bus. 3,897; barley, 20; Greensborough. This pond was one and oats, 8,931; rye, 2,545; buckwheat, 1,072; a half mile long, and about half a mile Indian corn, 7,875; potatoes, 34,616; hay, wide, and discharged its waters to the tons, 4,476 ; sugar, lbs. 17,957; wool, south, forming one of the head branches 26,467. Population, 2,106.
of the river Lamoille. On the 6th of GLASTENBURY, a township in Benning- June, 1810, about 60 persons went to this ton county, is in lat. 42° 58' and long. 40 pond for the purpose of opening an outlet 1', and is bounded north by Sunderland, to the north into Barton river, that the east by Somerset, south by Woodford and mills, on that stream, might receive from west by Shaftsbury. It lies nine miles it an occasional supply of water. A small northeast from Bennington, and 25 north- channel was excavated, and the water west from Brattleborough, and was char- commenced running in a northerly direetered August 20, 1761, containing about tion. It happened that the northern bar40 square miles. A great part of this rier of the pond consisted entirely of township is high, broken and incapable of quicksand, except an encrusting of clay ever being settled. Settlements were next the water. The sand was immediearly commenced here, but the population ately removed by the current, and a large has never yet amounted to 100 persons. channel formed. The basin formed by The waters in the eastern part flow into the encrusting of clay was incapable of Deerfield river. From the other parts, sustaining the incumbent mass of waters, they pass off to the south and west into and it broke. The whole pond immedithe Walloomscoik. The streams are ately took a northerly course, and, in fifsmall. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 14; teen minutes from this time, its bed was cattle, 16; sheep, 62; swine, 32; wheat, left entirely bare. It was discharged so bus. 18; oats, 38; rye, 12; buckwheat, 6, suddenly that the country below was inIndian corn, 25; potatoes, 880; hay, tons, stantly inundated. The deluge advanced 162; sugar, lbs. 575; wool, 127. Popu- like a wall of waters, 60 or 70 feet in lation, 53.
height, and 20 rods in width, leveling the Glover, a post town, six miles square, forests and the hills, and filling up the in the southern part of Orleans county, is vallies, and sweeping off mills, houses, in lat. 44° 40' and long. 4° 45', and is barns, fences, cattle, horses and sheep as bounded north by Barton, east by Shef- it passed, for the distance of more than field, south by Greensborough, and west ten miles, and barely giving the inhabiby Albany. It lies 33 miles northeast tants sufficient notice of its approach to from Montpelier, was granted June 27, escape with their lives into the mountains. 1781, and chartered to Gen. John Glover A rock, supposed to weigh more than 100 and his associates, November 20, 1783. tons, was removed half a mile from its The settlement of this township was com- bed. The waters moved so rapidly as to menced about the year 1797, by Ralph reach Memphremagog lake, distant 27 Parker, James Vance, Samuel Cook and miles, in about six hours from the time
GOSH EN GORE.
they left the pond. Nothing now remains wheat, 160 ; Indian corn, 516; potatoes, of the pond but its bed, a part of which is 18,600; hay, tons, 1,360; sugar, Ibs.5,230; cultivated, and a part overgrown with wool, 5,116. Population, 621. trees, bushes and wild grass, with a small GOSHEN GORE. There are two gores brook running through it, which is now of this name, and both in Caledonia counthe head branch of Barton river. The ty. The largest contains 7,339 and is channel, through which the waters es- bounded north by Wheelock, east by Dan. caped, is 127 feet in depth and several ville, south by Walden, and west by rods in width. A pond, some distance Greensborough. The first permanent setbelow, was, at first, entirely filled with tlement was made here in 1802, by Elihu sand, which has since settled down, and Sabin, and his daughter Mary was the it is now about one half its former dimen- first child born. In the northeast corner sions. Marks of the ravages are still to of the gore is a pond covering about 80 be seen through nearly the whole course acres. It is watered by a branch of the of Barton river. The soil, in the middle Lamoille river. Statistics of 1840.- Horses, and western part of Glover, is, in general, 27; cattle, 180; sheep, 429; swine, 100; wet and cold, but very good for grazing. wheat, bus. 265; barley, 100; oats, 1,420; On the river it is dry and warm, and bet. Indian corn, 56 ; potatoes, 7,920 ; hay, ter adapted to the production of grain and tons, 559; sugar, Ibs. 7,760 ; wool, 912. Indian corn. There were in the township Population, 143. The other gore of this about 1000 acres of land belonging to the name is situated in the southwest corner old Vermont State Bank. Some iron ore of Caledonia county, and contains 2,828 has been discovered, and sulphur springs acres. It is bounded north by Marshfield are common; also several beds of marl, and a part of Harris' gore, east by Harris' which makes excellent lime. Considera- gore, south by Orange, and west by Plainble quantities of pot and pearl ashes, beef, field. Gunner's branch passes through pork, butter and cheese are produced for the south part of this gore. Population, market. There are, in town, three grist, 44. and six saw mills, one fulling mill and Grafton, a post town in the north one tannery. Statistics of 1840.--Horses, part of Windham county, is in lat. 43 276; cattle, 1,507; sheep, 4,797; swine, 11' and long. 4° 25', and is bounded north 944; wheat, bus. 3,129; barley, 1,163; by Chester, east by Rockingham, south oats, 9,323; rye, 136 ; buckwheat, 515; by Athens and Acton, and west by WindIndian corn, 1,947; potatoes, 54,708 ; hay, ham. It lies 36 miles northeast from tons, 3,448; sugar, lbs. 61,430; wool, Bennington, and 22 southwest from Wind15,718. Population, 1,119.
It was chartered April 6, 1754, and Goshen, a township in the southeast- rechartered September 1, 1763, by the ern part of Addison county, is in lat. 430 name of Tomlinson, and contains about 56' and long. 4° 4', and is bounded north 40 square miles. A Mr. Hinkley and by Ripton and Hancock, southeast by two other families came into this town. Pittsfield and Chittenden, southwest by ship about the year 1768, and began a setBrandon and Leicester, and north west by tlement on what is called Hinkley brook. Salisbury. It lies 31 miles southwest They, however, soon abandoned it, and from Montpelier, and 43 northwest from no permanent settlement was made till Windsor ; was granted February 23, 1782, 1780. In the spring of this year, Amos chartered to John Rowell, William Doug: Fisher, Samuel Spring, Benjamin Lathlass and others, February 2, 1792, and re- erbee and Edward Putnam moved into ceived a new charter November 1, 1798. the township from Winchester, MassaNovember 9, 1814, the northern half of chusetts. Aaron Putnam was appointPhiladelphia was annexed to this town-ed town clerk at the time the town was ship. No permanent settlement was com- organized, and Thomas Kenney was the menced here until about the year 1800. first representative. The religious de. Considerable part of it is mountainous, nominations are Congregationalists and but there is some very good land, and the Baptists. The Congregational church, settlement has advanced considerably was organized June 28, 1785; settled the within a few years. Leicester river rises Rev. Wm. Hall, Nov. 7, 1788, who was in Hancock, and runs through the town- dismissed in 1810. The Rev. Wm. Goodship in a westerly direction. Philadel. ell was settled Aug. 29, 1814, and dispbia river originates in the sonth part. missed April 11, 1822; the Rev. Selah R. Iron ore and the oxyde of manganese are Arms was settled June 5, 1825, and disfound here. It contains six saw mills. missed Oct. 30, 1831. The Rev. Moses Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 132; cattle, Bradford, the present minister, was set516; sheep, 1,960 ; swine, 250 ; wheat, tled Oct. 30, 1832. Elder Shumway was bus. 1,040; oats, 4,800; rye, 350; buck ordained April 26, 1810, and preached to
the Baptist church about two years. Ju- three miles west from the meeting house, ly 7, 1819, Elder John R. Dodge was or- in quartz and mica slate. It is in triangu. dained over the Baptist church, and was lar prisms, bevelled at their lateral, edges, dismissed Sept. 26, 1822. The Congre- and striated longitudinally, having triedral gationalists have a meeting house, erect- terminations. The serpentine is all in ed in 1792, and the Baptists, one, built one mass, of 30 or 40 tons weight, lying in 1814. The township is watered prin- on the western declivity of a small hill, cipally by Saxton's River, which is form- and in full view from the meeting house. ed here by the union of several branches. Its interior is of a uniform dark green colA branch of William's river runs through or. It is hard to break, and its fracture the north part nearly parallel to the north splintery. There are two small villages; line. These streams afford several very one at the centre and the other at the good mill privileges. The township is junction of the two branches which form considerably uneven, and it abounds in a Saxton's river. There are 2 grist, 6 saw great variety of minerals. About two and 3 fulling mills, 3 carding machines, miles south from the Congregational and 3 stores. Statistics of 1840.- Horses, meeting house is an immense quantity of 273; cattle, 1,728; sheep, 10,114; swine, excellent steatite, or soap stone, which is 1,166; wheat, bush. 1,386; barley, 146; quarried to a great extent. Large blocks oats, 5,229; rye, 1,233 ; buckwheat, 618; of it are removed from the ledge by saws, Ind. corn, 4,859'; potatoes, 31,646; hay, wedges, and bars, and transported about tons, 3,363 ; sugar, lbs. 16,185; wool, a mile to a mill, whose machinery is mov. 20,164. Population, 1,326. ed by water, where it is sawn. It is then GRANBY, a township in Essex county, manufactured into aqueducts, pumps, situated in lat. 44° 35' and long. 5° 9, jambs, ovens, mantle pieces, stoves, &c. contains 36 square miles. It lies 47 miles The blocks sawn and bored for the aque- northeast from Montpelier, and is boundducts are two or three feet long, and three ed northeast by Ferdinand and Maidstone, or four inches square. They are sold at southeast by Guildhall, southwest by Victhe manufactory, completely prepared to tory, and northwest by East Haven. be put down, at the astonishing low price Chartered October 10, 1761. A considof $1,00 per rod. They are found to be erable settlement had been formed in this much more durable and less liable to get town previously to the year 1800, and the out of repair than wood, and impart no numbers continued to inorease with con. unpleasant taste to the water. În con- siderable rapidity till after the year 1810. nexion with the steatite are found fine But when the cold seasons commenced green laminated talc, chlorile, potstone the people began to abandon their settleand crystals of actynolite, and bitter spar. ments, and continued to leave the town The potstone is of a greenish gray color, till 1816, when there were only three and is less frangible than the steatite families left, and the town lost its organiThe crystals of actynolite are large, and zation. After this period the numbers of a light green color. Those of bitter began to increase, and the town was respar are of different sizes, presenting organized in December, 1821. A branch rhomboidal surfaces, and are embedded in of Paul's stream, one of the head branches the steatite. They are usually perfect, of Moose river, and some other small but not transparent. Their color is a streams rise in this town. Statistics of light gray, and their lustre more pearly 1840.--Horses, 29; cattle, 122; sheep, than that of calcareous spar. Their struc- 257 ; swine, 63; wheat, bu. 191 ; barley, ture is distinctly laminated, and they dis- 78; oats, 378; rye, 27; buck wheat, 94; solve without effervescence in diluted ni. In.corn,14; potatoes,3,680 ; hay,tons,257; tric acid. Cyanite, or sappare, is found sugar, lbs. 1,925 ; wool, 325. Popa. 105. about one mile southwest from the meet. GRAND ISLE, a post town in Grand Isle ing house, on the farm of a Mr.Spaulding. county, is in lat. 44° 43' and long. 3° 42' It is of a light blue color, and is in com. and has the lake on all sides, except the pressed hexagonal prisms in mica slate south, where it is bounded by South Heand in massive garnet. There is another ro. It lies 50 miles northwest from Montlocality of it about one mile east from the pelier, and 18 from Burlington. It was centre of the township, where it is embed- granted, in connexion with South Hero, ded in quartz. Garnets abound both in October 27, 1779. The settlement of the talcose and mica slate, and hornblende is township was commenced about the year very common. Also the sulphuret of iron 1783, by Alexander Gordon, William Hain small brown cubes, plumose mica on zen and Lamberton Allen, emigrants from mica slate, limpid quartz in transparent New Hampshire, and the southern parts of crystals, greasy and milky quartz, schorl this state.' For some years after the setand precious serpentine.' The schorl is tlement commenced, many circumstances
GRAND ISLE COUNTY.
tended to prevent its progress. Sickness, the close of the revolutionary war. The with its concomitant miseries, presented streams here are all small, and there can the most formidable obstacle. Fever and hardly be said to be a good mill privilege ague and bilious fevers, engendered by in the county. There has, however been the noxious vapours from the surroun- one water grist mill, which did considerding waters and the low and marshy able business, and one or two windmills. grounds, were very prevalent, and were The surface of the county is generally fatal in their ravages. No age, or sex, level, and the soil very rich and produc. was exempt from their attack. In addi. tive. The first settlers of this county tion to this, the settlers often suffered were subject to fevers and other diseases, from extreme scarcity of provisions. Hunt- induced by the noxious exhalations from ing and fishing were, for some time, their the stagnant waters, but, since the lands only means of gaining a subsistence. These have become generally cleared and cultiobstacles cooled their ardor and damped vated, the inhabitants have become more their ambition. Previous to the year healthy. North Hero is the shire town. 1809, this township constituted a part of The supreme court sits here on the 3d South Hero. This year, it was erected Tuesday in January, and the county court into a separate township by the name of on the 1st after the 4th Tuesday in April, Middle Hero, and was organized. The and the 4th Tuesday in September. Stafirst town clerk was James Brown, and tistics of 1840.—Horses, 1,161; cattle, the first representative Asa Lyon. No.15,463; sheep, 27,451; swine, 3,179; wheat, vember 5, 1810, the name was altered to bus. 21,430; barley, 1,655 ; oats, 43,430; Grand Isle. The principal religious de- rye, 9,504 ; buckwheat, 9,216 ; Ind. corn, nominations are Congregationalists and 13,816; potatoes, 76,408; hay, tons, 8,593; Methodists. The Rev. Asa Lyon, a Con- sugar, lbs. 34,478; wool, 57,546. Popugregationalist, preached here many years lation, 3,883. previous to his death, which occurred in GRANVILLE, a post town in the eastern 1840: The Methodist society is supplied part of Addison county, and is bounded hy itinerant preachers. The public buil- northerly by Warren and a part of Rox. dings are a meeting house and a town bury, easterly by Braintree, southerly by house. There are several small streams Hancock and a part of Rochester and west in this township. There are some con- by Ripton. It lies 22 miles south west siderable hills, but nothing which de- from Montpelier, and 42 north west from serves the name of a mountain. The soil Windsor, in lat. 43° 59' and long. 4° 10'. is rich, and is not surpassed in fertility It was granted November 7, 1780, and by any part of the state. It produces chartered, to Reuben King, August 2, corn and grain in abundance. Fifty 1781, by the name of Kingston. The bushels of corn per acre, and 25 of rye name was altered to Granville, Nov. 6, and wheat are ordinary crops. Among 1834. The settlement of this township the minerals are marble, limestone, rock was commenced soon after the close of the crystals, and sulphuret of iron. The revolution, by Reuben King and others. township produces a great variety of In 20 years from the commencement of fruits, particularly apples, in abundance. the settlement there were but 17 deaths, The timber is various, consisting of beech, four of them men, two of whom were upbirch, maple, oak, ash, elm, pine, &c. wards of 80 years of age, and no estate Statistics of 1840.--Horses, 216; cattle, has been settled by law. Jos. Patrick was 1,160; sheep, 6,451 ; swine, 726; wheat, the first town clerk, the first justice of the bush. 2,953; barley, 106; oats, 10,148 ; peace, and the first representative. The rye, 4,022 ; buck wheat, 1,146; Indian dysentery prevailed here in 1806, and was corn, 2,187; potatoes, 19,968; hay, tons, very mortal. The religious denomina2,061 ; sugar, 'lbs. 9,893; wool, 12,504. tions are Congregationalists and Baptists. Population, 724.
White river is formed here by the union Grand Isle County, is bounded of several considerable branches. On one north by Canada, on the north line of of these is a fall of 100 feet. Fifty feet of Alburgh; the rest of the county consists the lower part of it is perpendicular, and of islands, which are embosomed in the at the bottom is a hole worn into the rock waters of lake Champlain. It lies be- ten feet deep. A considerable part of the tween 44° 35' and 45° north lat. and be- surface of the township is mountainous. tween 3° 39' and 3° 47' east long., being Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 123 ; catile, 28 miles long from north to south, and 560; sheep, 2,100; swine, 440; wbeat, about 5 miles wide, and containing 82 bush. 1,006 ; oats, 5,300; rye, 60 ; buck square miles. It was incorporated No- wheat, 205 ; Indian corn, 560; potatoes, vember 9, 1802. No permanent settle. 19,200 ; hay, tons, 1,390 ; sugar, lbs. ment was made in this county until after 15,900; wool 5,900. Population, 545.
GRASSY BROOK. See Brookline. of March, Mrs. Shephard was delivered
GREEN MOUNTAINS. (See part first, p. of a son, William Scott, the first child 3.) The principal summits of the Green born in this town. The proprietors voted Mountains are Shrewsbury peak in him a present of 100 acres of land. In1790, Shrewsbury, Killington peak in Sher- Mr. Joseph Stanley removed his family burne, Camel's Hump in Huntington, here, and the same year the Hon. TimoMansfield mountains in Mansfield, Ster- thy Stanley erected the first saw mill on ling peak in Sterling, and Jay peak in Jay. the outlet of Caspian Lake. In 1791, Mr.
GREEN RIVER. There are two small Law and three Messrs. Hills, removed streams of this name. One rises in Eden, their families here. This year Mr. T. passes through the corner of Hydepark, Stanley erected a house and grist mill, and and falls into the Lamoille in Wolcott. removed his family here in 1792. In 1795, The other originates in Marlborough, and there were 23 families and 108 persons in after running through a part of Halifax and town. The town organized, March 20, Guilford, passes off into Massachusetts. 1792. The denominations of Christians
GREENSBOROUGH, a post town, six miles are, Baptists, Congregationalists and square, lying in the south part of Orleans Methodists. The Rev. Salmon King was county, in lat. 44° 36' and long. 4° 41. settled over the Congregational church It is bounded northerly by Glover, east. here about the year 1808, and continued erly by Wheelock and Goshen gore, a few years. The surface of this town is southerly by Hardwick, and westerly by uneven, but the elevations are not gener. Craftsbury and a small part of Wolcott. ally abrupt. The land is well timbered, It lies 27 miles northeasterly from Mont. mostly with hard wood, except on the pelier, and 79 miles north from Windsor. river and about its head waters, where it This township was granted November 6, is almost entirely hemlock, spruce, cedar 1780, and chartered August 20, 1781, to and fir. The soil is of a middling qualiHarris Colt and his associates. Messrs. ty, but on account of its being situated Tolman and Wood visited this town, and about the head waters of several consider. spent three days here, in the spring of able rivers, much of the land is wet and 1787. In December, 1788, the Hon. Tim- cold, and the crops are liable to suffer by othy Stanley lost his foot by frost, atten- frost. The river Lamoille is formed by ding a meeting of the proprietors of this the union of several streams in this town. township at Cabot. The first settlement Caspian Lake or Lake Beautiful, lies in was begun in Greensborough, in the the south part of this town, and discharge spring of 1789, when Messrs. Ashbel and es its waters to the east into the Lamoille, Aaron Shepard removed, with their fami- affording a number of valuable mill privlies, from Newbury to this place. The ileges, around which has grown up a beauhardships which the first settlers of this tiful little village, containing a meeting town had to endure, were very consider. house, store, &c. This pond is about 3 able. In coming into the town, the wo- miles long, and 14 broad. Elligo pond, men had to proceed on foot, and all the lying mostly in the western part of this furniture, belonging to the two families, town, is about a mile long, and forms the was drawn upon three hand sleds, on the head waters of Black river. These ponds crust. Both families consisted of five per- produce abundance of fine trout. Runasons, Mr. Ashbel Shepard and his wife, way Pond (see Glover) was partly in this and Mr. Aaron Shepard, his wife and one town, and was formerly the source of the child. Mr. Aaron Shepard removed his Lamoille. There are several other small family to Coos in August, and did not re- ponds in the north part of the town, turn till March, when his brother, Horace which, at present, form the head waters Shepard and family, returned with him. of the Lamoille. One grist mill, three Thus were Mr. Ashbel Shepard and his saw mills, one fulling mill, and one card. wife, left from August till March, with ing machine. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, no other human being in the town. Their 198; cattle, 1,202 ; sheep, 4,524; swine, nearest neighbors were Mr. Cutler's fam- 561 ; wheat, bu. 2,074; barley, 1,656; oats, ily, in Craftsbury, which had removed 9,907; rye, 64; b’k wheat, 478; Indian there the preceding autumn, and Mr.Web. corn, 557 ; potatoes, 42,423 ; hay, tons, ster's family, in Cabot. Mr. Shepard 3,215; sugar, lbs. 43,920; wool,"11,820. brought all his grain from Newbury, a dis- Population, 883. tance of more than 40 miles, of which he Groton, a township in the south part drew it 16 miles upon a hand sled, with of Caledonia county, is in lat. 44° 14' and the snow between four and five feet deep. long 4° 45', and is bounded north by In the same manner, he drew hay for the Peacham, east by Ryegate, south by support of a cow, from a meadow of wild Topsham, and west by Harris' gore.
It grass, three miles distant On the 25th lies 16 miles east from Montpelier, and