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year, Mr. John Aiken, of Wentworth, N. died here, March 26, 1824, aged 101 H., erected the first grist mill, which years and seven months.
The sur went into operation the year following. face of this township is generally very Previous to this, the settlers had to go to uneven and broken, and the elevations Newbury, 12 miles, for their grinding. abrupt, yet the land is, in almost every In 1780, several other families came in, part, susceptible of cultivation. The soil and the town was organized. George consists of a dark loam, mixed with a Bondfield was first town clerk, David small portion of sand, is easily cultivated McKeen first constable, and Nehemiah and is very productive. The land was Lovewell first representative. Some time, originally timbered with hard wood exthis year, Lieut. Elliot was stationed here cept on the streams, where there was a with 20 men to defend the inhabitants mixture of hemlock, spruce and fir. There against the Indians and tories, and built is nothing peculiar in its mineralogy. a small fort. În 1781, Col. Wait and Small but handsome specimens of feldMajor Kingsbury, with two companies of spar, garnet, serpentine, hornblend, mica soldiers, under Captains Sealy and Nel- and rock crystal have been found. The son, built a fort near the centre of the rocks are principally granite and mica town, on what is called Cook's hill, and slate. This township is well watered by made this their head quarters. October Wait's river, which runs through the 16, of this year, five men, from this fort, northeast part, and by several of its viz: Moses Warner, John Barret, John branches. On North branch, from TopsSargeant, Jonathan Luce and Daniel ham, in the northeast corner of the town, Hovey, being on a scout, and proceeding is East village, containing 2 meeting down Winooski river, were fired upon in houses, 2 stores, a post office, grist mill, the township of Jericho by a party of 16 &c. Another branch rises in Washing. tories. Warner, Sargeant and Barret were ton, passes through the south part of this wounded, the latter mortally. He lived town, and unites with Wait's river in the about 40 hours and was buried near the western part of Bradford. There are some margin of Winooski river in Colchester. other streams on which mills and other The others were carried to Quebec, and machinery are erected. There are in kept till the next spring when they were town 5 meeting houses, 21 school districts, suffered to return. In 1782, a British 5 stores, &c. Statistics of 1840.- Horses, scouting party from Canada, about 20 in 536; cattle, 3,401; sheep, 11,886 ; swine, number, under Major Breakenridge, after 1,673; wheat, bu. 6,745; barley, 285; annoying the settlers of Newbury, killing oats, 21,879; rye, 313; buck wheat, 1,096; one man and taking another prisoner, Ind. corn, 10,506; potatoes, 71,845; hay, proceeded to Corinth, where they com- tons, 6,240; sugar, lbs, 33,585; wool, pelled the settlers to take the oath of al. 20,343. Population, 1,970. legiance to the British king. The reli- Coos, an Indian word, signifying at the gious denominations are Baptists, Congre pines. This name was applied by the gationalists, Methodists, Free will Baptists Indians to two sections of Connecticut and Universalists There are two Free-river, one below, and the other above the will Baptist churches; that in the north- 15 mile falls. See part second, page 205. west part was organized in 1805, and that CORNWALL, a township in the central in the south in 1807. The Congrega- part of Addison county, is in lat. 43° 57' tional church was organized Oct. 10, 1820. and long. 3° 50', and is bounded north by Jan. 25, 1821, they settled the Rev. Cal. Weybridge, east by Middlebury and Salisvin Y. Chase, who died here in 1831. bury, south by Whiting and west by BridThe Rev. Stilman Morgan, was settled in port and Shoreham. It was chartered 1832, and continued till 1836. In 1838 November 3, 1761, to Elias Read and his the Rev. Solon Martin, their present associates. It is 75 miles north of Ben. minister, was settled. The Congrega- nington, and 36 south of Burlington. The tional meeting house was built in 1800, as settlement was commenced in 1774, by was that of the Freewill Baptists, in the Asa Blodget, Eldad Andrus, Aaron Scoti, northwest part of the town. The Free Nathan Foot, William Douglass, James will Baptist house in the south part, was Bentley, James Bentley, junior, Ebenezer built in 1837. The Methodist house in Stebbins, Thomas Bentley, Samuel Blodthe west part, was built in 1838, and that get and Joseph Troup. When Ticondein the east in 1840. In 1804, the canker roga was abandoned to the British in 1777 and dysentery were fatal here to a great the settlers all Aed to the south, and did number of persons, mostly children, and not return till after the war. In the win. many families lost from one to three of ter of 1784, about 30 families came into their number. Mrs. Jane Brown, a native the township from Connecticut. The of Ireland, and relict of Mr. s. Brown, town was organized in March of this
year, and Joel Linsley was the first town COVENTRY GORE, a tract of 2000 acres elerk, and Hiland Hall the first representa- of land belonging to Coventry, (now Or. tive. The Congregational church, in this leans,) lying in Orleans county, a few town, was organized July 15, 1785, and miles to the south west of that town. It September 26, 1787, they settled the Rev. is bounded north by Newport, east by Thomas Tolman, who was dismissed Trasburgh, south by Lowell and west by November 11, 1790. The Rev. Benjamin Troy, and contains 10 inhabitants. Wooster was ordained over this church CRAFTSBURY, a post town in Orleans February 23, 1797, and dismissed Janua. county, lat. 446 39' and long. 4° 32', six ry 7, 1802. The Rev. Jedediah Bushnell miles square, and is bounded on the north was installed May 25, 1803, and this year, by Albany, east by Greensborough, south their meetinghouse was erected. He was by Wolcott, and west by Eden. It is dismissed May 25, 1836, and was succeed- situated twenty-five miles south from ed by the Rev. Lamson Miner, who was Canada line, and about the same distance settled January 3, 1837, who has since northerly from Montpelier, and is nearly been succeeded by the Rev. Jacob Scales at equal distances from Connecticut river the present pastor. This church'consists on the east, and lake Champlain on the of about 350 members. In 1841, a Free west. It was granted Nov. 6, 1780, to church was organized from the Congrega. Timothy Newell, Ebenezer Crafts, and tional and Baptist churches, which is their associates, and cbartered by the under the care of the Rev. Wm. B. Ran. name of Minden, Aug. 23, 1781. The
There is a Methodist church in the first settlement in the town was com. west part of the town who have a neat menced in the summer of 1788, by Col. chapel. There is a literary debating so. Ebenezer Crafts, who during that sum. ciety which was incorporated in 1832. It mer opened a road from Cabot, eighteen has a good hall for its weekly meetings miles, cleared ten or twelve acres of land, and a choice library of about 450 volumes. built a house and saw mill, and made con. Elder Henry Green was settled over the siderable preparation for a grist mill. la Baptist church and society, in 1809, and the spring of 1789, Nathan Cutler and dismissed February 28, 1824. The Bap- Robert Trumbell moyed their families tist meeting house was erected in 1807. into this township. In the ensuing fall One person has died, in this town, aged Mr. Trumbell, by reason of the sickness 106 years, and several have lived to be up of his family, spent the ensuing winter in wards of 90. This is a very handsome Barnet, but Mr. Cutler's family remained township of land, and the surface is gen. through the winter. Their nearest neigherally level. Lemonfair river crosses the bors were Ashbel Shepard's family, in northwest corner, and Otter creek wash- Greensborough, distant six miles; there es a part of the eastern boundary. This were at that time no other settlements township, by charter, comprehended that within the present bounds of Orleans part of Middlebury, which lies west of county. In Nov. 1790 the name of the Otter creek, including the mill privi- town was altered to Craftsbury. In Feb. leges on the west side of the creek at Mid. 1791, Col. Crafts, having previously erectdlebury falls. In the south part of the ed a grist mill, and made considerable adtown is a quarry of excellent dark blue ditions to his improvements, together with lime stone from which the materal for the John Corey, Benjamin Jennings, Daniel front of the new college in Middlebury was Mason, John Babcock, and Mills Merriobtained, and near the centre of the town field, removed their families from Stur. is a bed of hydraulic cement, or water bridge, Mass. After arriving at Cabot lime. Calcareous spar, in very beauti. they found it impossible to proceed any ful, transparent, rhomboidal crystals, is further with their teams, on account of found in the western part of this township. the great depth of the snow, being about Along Otter creek, in the southeast part, four feet deep: They were obliged to is a large swamp covering several thou- provide themselves with snow-shoes, and sand acres. There are here 2 saw mills, to draw the female part of their families 3 stores, 1 tavern, 2 tanneries and 1 marble on hand_sleds, a distance of eighteen shop. Statistics of 1840.- Horses, 318; miles. These settlers were soon after cattle, 3,059; sheep, 24,561 ; swine, 824 ; followed by several other families from wheat, bus. 2,436 ; oats, 9,021 ; rye, 874; Sturbridge and other towns in Worcester buck wheat, 690 ; Indian corn, 7,288; po- county. In March, 1792, the town was tatoes, 24,307; hay, tons, 8,751; sugar, organized, and Samuel C. Crafts was the Ibs. 11,000; wool 60,897. Population first town clerk, and was annually chosen 1163.
to that office until March, 1829, when COVENTRY, name altered to Orleans, Joseph Scott, (then jun.) was elected, November, 1841. See Orleans.
and continues to hold said office. The
town was first represented in the general quartz, in concentric lamina. These are assembly by Ebenezer Crafts, in 1792. about the size of butternuts, and, in many In 1797, a Congregational church was of the specimens, are so numerous that a organized, and the Rev. Samuel Collins hundred may be counted within a circle was installed, and continued to preach in of two feet in diameter. In some parts of this town until 1804, when he died. From the ledge these nodules are very much 1804 to 1822 the town was without a set- flattened, as if subjected to an immense tled minister, in which last mentioned vertical pressure when the mass was in a year the Rev. William A. Chapin was semi-fluid state. A rock similar to this, ordained pastor of the Congregational it is believed, has not been found in any society; which office he held for about other place in this country or Europe. twelve years, and then took a dismission. Near the centre of the township, on an The Rev. Samuel R. Hall is at present elevated plain, affording an extensive pastor of the Congregational church and prospect, is situated the centre village, society, he was installed into that office containing over thirty dwelling houses, in 1841. There has for many years past two meeting houses, a town house, an been a very considerable society of Metho academy, school house, two taverns, two dists in Craftsbury, the Rev. Joseph C. dry goods and one hardware store, two Aspenwall has at present the charge of cabinet makers', two saddlers', two blackthe society. There is also a society of smith's, one tin maker's, and one hatter's Reformed Presbyterians, or Covenanters, shop, and one tannery. This village is over which the Rev. Samuel Wilson has principally situated round an open square, been ordained. There are some Baptists, forty rods north and south, by twentyand several Universalists, which are only four rods east and west. Craftsbury occasionally supplied with preaching. academy is located here; was incorporated The professional men, besides the above in October, 1829, and has the avails of named, are James A. Paddock and Natban one half of the grammar school lands in S. Hill, attornies, Daniel Dustin, Ephraim Orleans county, being about two thousand Brewster and Daniel Bates, physicians. six hundred acres, about half of which is This township is well watered by Black leased. The building is of brick, two river which is formed here, and by its stories high, and is pleasantly situated on several branches, which afford numerous the west side of the common. It is the mill privileges. Black river was known object of the trustees and instructers to to the natives, who occasionally resided render it a place of thorough education to in this part of Vermont, by the name of those who resort to it. The institution Elligo-sigo. Its current is in general embraces three departments. The c assislow, the whole descent from Elligo pond cal, is designed for those who are fitting to Memphremagog lake, including the for college ; the teachers, for those who falls at Irasburgh and Coventry, being by are qualifying to become instructers; and actual survey only 190 feet. Wild branch the general, for those who wish to qualify & tributary of Lamoille, rises in Eden and themselves for business in the various passes through the western part of this pursuits of life. The apparatus is exten. township. There are five natural ponds, sive, including a galvanic battery, elec, viz : Elligo, (see Elligo,) lying partly in tro magnetic apparatus, air pump, elecGreensborough, Great Hosmer, lying trical machine, telescope, double and partly in Albany, Little Hosmer, and two single microscopes, globes, chemical apsmaller ponds. The geology of this town paratus, &c., together with a very ex. is in many respects interesting, and, in tensive cabinet of minerals, shells and some, peculiar. Few areas of the same marine productions, and a museum of space, in a region of primary rocks, fur. curiosities in other departments of natural nish so many varieties in situ. In the history and the arts. The collection of eastern borders, granite appears, then ancient coins contains specimens from gneiss, then mica slate ; and these in the the Catacombs of Egypt and Herculanecentral portions are displaced by, argilla- um, besides numerous other interesting ceous slate of a very dark or plumbago varieties. The institution is under the color, alternating with silicious lime stone. superintendence of the Rev. S. R. Hall. The rocks on the west side of Black river There is another village situated on Trout are hardly more uniform; strata of mica brook, a large branch of Biaek river, a slate, agillaceous and chlorite slates, and mile and a half from the centre village, limestone, give place to each other in containing about twenty dwelling houses, rapid succession.' Near the south village two saw mills, an oil mill, a fulling mill, is an extensive body of gray granite, very a carding machine, a carriage maker, a much broken on the surface. This rock blacksmith and a chairmaker's shop, one is filled with nodules of black mica and store and a tavern. There are three
DANVILLE. meeting houses in the town, two in the Universalists, who own jointly 3 meeting centre village, and one in the easterly houses, one at the centre, one in the part. There are twelve school districts, south part and one in the east. Otter and ten school houses. There are also creek runs nearly on the line between within the limits of the township, two this township and Mount Tabor, but there grist mills, one hulling mill, one oil mill, are no streams of much consequence ten saw mills, two fulling mills, two card within the township. The most considing machines, and three carriage maker's erable-are, Mill river which rises in the shops. Statistics of 1840:-Horses, 333; southwestern part, and falls into Otter cattle, 1,718; sheep, 3,166 ; swine, 658; creek in Monnt Tabor, and Flower branch wheat, bu. 1,730 ; barley, 1,049; oats, which rises in the northwest part, and 14,398'; rye, 167 ; buck wheat, 830; In falls into Pawlet river in Pawlet. These corn, 1,923 ; potatoes, 47,906; hay, tons, and a branch of Otter creek, in the north3,171 ; sugar, lbs. 35,412; wool, 7,980. eastern part, are all sufficient for mills. Population, 1,151.
The surface of the township is uneven, CUMBERLAND COUNTY:- This county and some parts of it monntainous. South was erected by an act of the legislature mountain and Spruce mountain are the of New York, passed July 3, 1766. This principal elevations. The soil is well act was annulled by the crown June 26, adapted to the production of grass, and 1767, and repassed by New York Feb. 20, there are here some of the largest dairies 1763, and chartered on the 17th of March in the state. No less than 300,000lbs. of following. By the charter, this county cheese, and butter in proportion, have was bounded as follows; beginning in been carried from this town to market in Massachusetts north line on the west bank one year. There are several caverns in of Connecticut river and running W. 10° this township, which are considerable coN. about 26 miles to the southeast corner riosities, but they have never been thorof Stainford ; thence N. 13° E. 56 miles oughly explored. One of them, in the to the south east corner of Socialborough; southeastern part, descends like a well thence N. 53' E., 30 miles to the south into the solid rock. It is siad that a corner of Tunbridge; thence along the person was let down by a rope 150 feet south line of Tunbridge, Strafford and perpendicularly into this cavern without Thetford to Connecticut river and down discovering any bottom. Specimens of said river to the place of beginning. The galena, or sulphuret of lead, have been county seat was first at Chester and after found here. In the western part of the wards at Westminster. The original township is a spring, which is nearly sufcharter of this county, elegantly written ficient to carry a mill, where it issues on parchment, was presented to the Uni- from the foot of the mountain. There versity of Vermont in 1840, by Udney H. are several marble quarries in the south Peninan, Esq. of Colchester and is preserv- east part, and in the east village are three ed in the library of the University. After mills for sawing marble. The town is dithe organization of the state government vided into 13 school districts. There are this county retained the name till Feb. 11, two grist mills, five saw mills, five stores, 1779 when it was changed to Windham. two taverns, two tanneries, and one trip
DANBY, a post town in the south part hammer. Statistics of 1840.-Horses, 356; of Rutland county, is in lat. 43° 21' and cattle, 3,366; sheep, 8,950; swine, 689; long. 4° 1', and is bounded north by Tin- wheat, bu. 2,217 ; barley, 65 ; oats, 6,094 ; mouth, east by Mount Tabor, south by rye, 110; wheat, b. 256 ; I n. corn, 4,267 ; Dorset and west by Pawlet. It is 34 potatoes, 47,563; hay, tons, 5,378; sugar, miles north from Bennington, and 18 lbs. 35,715; wool, 23,433. Population, south from Rutland. It was chartered 1379. August 27, 1761, and contains about 39 DANVILLE, a post town and the shire
The settlement of this town of Caledonia county, is in lat. 44 township was commenced in 1765, by Jo26' and long. 4°51', and is bounded north seph Soper, Joseph Earl, Crispin Bull, by Wheelock, northeast by St. JohnsboLuther Calvin, and Micah Vail. The ry, southeast by Barnet, south by Peachtown was organized March 14, 1769, and am, and west by Walden, Goshen Gore, Thomas Rowley was first town clerk and and a part of Cabot. It is 28 miles east first representative. There is here a so- northeast from Montpelier. This town. ciety of Friends or Quakers, who have a ship was granted October 27, 1786, and meeting house in the east part of the chartered to Jacob Bailey, Jesse Leaventown, and another called Orthodox worth and others, October 31, 1786. Some Friends, or separatists, who have one in difficulty having arisen respecting the the north part. There is also a society of lands, the proprietors took out a new, or Methodists, one of Baptists, and one of quieting charter. October 29, 1792, Wal
den gore was annexed to this township, north part of the town are Sleeper's river and since that time, one half of Deweys. and the Branch, on which are 5 grist and burgh, the other half being annexed to saw mills. Large quantities of butter, Peacham, so that it now contains about 50 pork and wool, are here produced for square miles. Sargeant Morrill commenc- market. Danvilie village is very pleased chopping in this town in 1784. In 1705, antly situated nearly in the centre of the or '6, the settlement was commenced by township, on elevated land and in the about 50 emigrants from New Hampshire midst of a beautiful farming country, and and Massachusetts, who entered on the contains 600 inhabitants. The public lands as “ squatters." In October, 1786, buildings are, a Congregational, a Methothe legislature granted the township, as dist and a Baptist meeting house, a court above stated, reserving to the settlers the house and jail, and an academy, all in a lands on which they had located, not ex. neat and modest style. The village encloceeding 320 acres each. In the following ses an open square of several acres. The winter 40 families more joined the set- academy was incorporated in 1840, and tlement, and for two or three years the named Philips academy, in honor of Paul settlement was so rapid that, in 1789, the D. Philips, who endowed it with $4,000. number of families was estimated to be The building was erected by the inhabit200. The consequence of such an influx, ants and cost $4,000. A weekly paper, was an extreme scarcity, and much suf- called the “ North Star," has been pube fering for the want of provisions. The lished in this village by Ebenezer Eaton, first mills in this town were a saw and for 35 years. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, grist mill, erected in 1787, by David 722; cattle,3,403; sheep, 14,982; swine, Whitcher. The same year, March 20, 2,264 ; wheat, bu. 6,355 ; barley, 1,304 ; the town was organized. Abraham Mor- oats, 41,198 ; rye, 27; Ind. corn, 5,883; rill was the first town clerk and the first potatoes, 160,062; hay, tons, 8,311; sugar, representative. In 1790, improvements ibs. 62,467; wool, 26,834. Pop. 2633. had been commenced on nearly all the DEERFIELD River, rises in the north lots in town. The religious societies are part of Stratton, and runs south tbrough Methodists, Congregationalists and Bap. Somerset into Searsburgh, thence southtists, each of which has a cominodious east into Wilmington, thence south weshouse of worship, situated in the village. terly through the corner of Whitingham, The Congregational church was organiz- and leaves the state after running three ed August 9, 1792, and has had the ser- or four miles on the line between Whivices of the following ministers. The tingham and Readsborough. After en. Rev. John Fitch, from October 30, 1793, tering Massachusetts, it takes a southeasto October 1, 1816; Rev. Jeremiah Flint, terly course and falls into Connecticut from July 31, 1817, to March, 1818; Rev. river, between Greenfield and Deerfield, Edward Hollister, from March 26, 1823, about 18 miles below the south line of to May 7, 1826; Rev. E. J. Boardman, Vermont. It runs about 28 miles in Verfrom January 3, 1827, to October 29, 1833; mont, and waters about 320 square miles. and Rev. David A. Jones, from March 25, Its whole length is about 50 miles 1835, to April, 1839. The Rev. R. C. Derby, a post town in the northeast Hand is the present minister of this part of Orleans county, is in lat. 44° 58' church. The eastern part of this town- and long. 4° 50', and is bounded north by ship is elevated about 200 and the western Stanstead, in Canada, east by Holland, about 800 feet above Connecticut river. south by Salem, and west by MemphreThe soil is free from stone, is easily culti- magog lake which separates it from Newvated, and is perhaps equal, in richness port. It extends 7 miles on Canada and adaptation to agriculture, to any in line, and 5 miles and 7 chains on Holland the state. It is watered by numerous line, and is 52 miles northeasterly from streams of pure water, which arise in the Montpelier. It was chartered to Timohigher lands of Wheelock, Walden and thy Andrus and his associates, Oct. 29, Cabot. Joe's pond lies mostly in the 1779, containing 23,040 acres. The first western part of the township and covers settlement was made here in 1795, by about 1000 acres. It discharges its wa- Alexander Mogoon, Henry Burrel, and ters into the Passumpsic by Merritt's the Hon. Timothy Hinman. Much praise river, or Joe's brook.' At its outlet a is due to the latter for his persevering inlarge never failing sheet of water falls dustry in making roads and furnishing over a limestone ledge, 75 feet in 12 rods. other facilities for the settlement of the Here are grist, saw, clapboard and shin. country, but no peculiar circumstances gle mills. Below these, on this stream, are known to have attended it. Emiare here, two woollen factories, two grist grants from Connecticut and other places mills, and several saw mills. In the l soon made it a flourishing town. It was