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considerably diversified with hills and corn, 8,627 ; potatoes, 35,255; hay, tons, vallies, but the soil is generally good; 4,490 ; sugar, lbs. 18,987 ; wool, 30,263 the uplands yield excellent pasturage, Population, 2,305. and when newly cleared, produce abun. CHIMNEY Point is in Addison opposite dance of grain. The intervales are rich to Crown Point and is the most westerly and fertile, producing good crops of rye, land in Vermont. It was upon this point corn, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, that the first settlement was made in the &c.

The roads are now all free, re- western part of Vermont by the French markably well laid, level and well wrought in 1731, and here they erected a stone for such an uneven township, mainly wind mill, which was garrisoned during following streams. Timber, mostly hard the colonial wars, and hence it has some wood, with some bemlock, spruce and times been called Windmill point, but pine. Minerals, granite, actynolite, augite this name is now confined to a point in chlorite, common and potter's clay, cy. Alburgh. anite, epidote, feldspar, garnet, hornblend, Chin, the name given to the north peak iron, magnetic, oxyde of sulphuret,quartz, of Mansfield mountain in the township of serpentine, talc, and mica. The town is Mansfield. This is the highest summit divided into twenty school districts, with in the State, being according to Captain 18 school houses, mostly of brick or stone, Partridge, 4279 feet, and according to E. and 742 scholars, on the first day of F. Johnson, Esq., 4359 feet above tide January, 1840. An academy was incor- water. porated, and a building 50 by 40 feet, CHITTENDEN, a post town in the norththree stories high, erected in 1814, in the eastern part of Rutland county, is in lat. south village. The school is now in a 43° 44', and bounded northerly by Goflourishing condition, under the instruc- shen, easterly by Pittsfield, southerly by tion of James 0. Pratt. There are two Parkerstown, and west by Pittsford and a villages, called the north and south vil- part of Brandon. It was granted the 14th lage; the north village is situated near and chartered the 16th of March, 1780, to the centre of the township, on the north- Ghershom Beach and associates. The erly side of the north branch of William's township of Philadelphia was annexed to river. It contains one meeting house, Chittenden, November 2, 1816. The set2 stores, 2 grist mills, 2 taverns, 2 cabinet tlement of this township was commenced shops, i attorneys office, 1 tannery, and about the close of the revolutionary war, about 25 dwelling houses. The south but much of it being mountainous remains village is situate in a pleasant valley on unsettled. The religious denominations the north side of the middle branch of are Methodists, Congregationalists and William's river, three fourths of a mile Roman Catholics. The Methodists numsouth of the north village, and one and a ber about 70, of whom 10 are Protestant, half mile southeasterly of the centre of the Congregationalists about 50, and the the town. It contains 1 academy, 2 Roman Catholics 100. The Methodists meeting houses, post office, 1 woollen erected a house of worship in 1832, and factory, 1 clothier's shop, 1 hatter's shop, the Congregationalist in 1833. The most A saddler's, 1 chair maker's, 1 wheel distinguished man who has resided here wright's, 2 blacksmith's, 2 mechanic's was Aaron Beach. He fought under shops, 1 tannery, 2 taverns, 3 attorney's Wolf on the heights of Abraham, served offices, 4 stores, and about 60 dwelling his country through the war of the revolahouses. The line of stages from Boston tion and was prevented only by the solicitto Montreal, and from Hanover and ations of friends from being with the Green Charlestown, to Saratoga and Albany, Mountain Boys in the battle at Platts. intersect in this village. The road from burgh. The northwest part is watered Chester to Manchester, is considered the by Philadelphia river, which falls into best passage of the Green Mountains in Otter creek at Pittsford. Tweed river the state, south of Montpelier, and renders rises in the eastern part and falls into this village the great thoroughfare for the White river. The southwestern part is travel from Maine and New Hampshire, watered by East creek. Near Philadel. to the state of New York, and particularly phia river, is a mineral spring, and among to Saratoga and Ballston springs. There the mountains are some caverns, but they are in operation in the town, 5 grist mills, are little known. This town is interest. 8 saw mills, 3 tanneries, 2 carding ma- ing on account of its minerals. Iron ore chines, 5 stores, 5 taverns, and 2 fulling of good quality is found here in abunmills. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 486; dance and also manganese. About 600 cattle, 2,559 ; sheep, 10,752; swine, 1,287; tons of the iron ore are raised annually, wheat, bu. 1,477.; barley, 510; oats, 15,- much of which is smelted at the works in 272.; rye, 2,323; ibuck wheat, 876; Ind. Pittsford. The manganese is found at




unequal depths below the surface, and This stream runs through Round pond in about 300 tons, worth $35 per ton in Charleston and through Salem lake, a New York, are annually sent to market. beautiful sheet of water, near iwo miles A furnace was erected in this town as in length and one in width, lying partly early as 1792, by a Mr. Keith of Boston. in Salem and partly in Derby. It waters In 1839, a forge was erected which makes about 150 square miles. about 500 lbs., of bar iron per day. The CLARENDON, a post town in the central town contains 6 school districts, 6 saw part of Rutland county, is in lat. 43° 31' mills, each sawing yearly 100,000 feet of and long. 4° 6', and is bounded north by boards, one store and a post office, the Rutland, east by Shrewsbury, south by two latter established in 1841. Statistics Tinmouth and Wallingford, and west of 1840.-Horses, 126; cattle, 481 ; sheep, by Ira. It is 55 miles S. from Montpelier, 4,326 ; swine, 287; wheat bus., 1,115; and 46 N. from Bennington, and was barley, 5; oats, 5,032; rye, 262; buck chartered September 5, 1761. It was wheat, 345; Indian corn, 2,379; potatoes, granted both by N. H. and New York, 16,830; hay, tons, 1,970; sugar, lbs. 11,- and comprehends a part of the two grants. 790; wool, 9,202. Population, 644. of Socialborough and Durham.

The CHITTENDEN County, is bounded north settlement was commenced in 1768 by by Franklin and Lamoille county, east by Elkanah Cook who was joined the same Lamoille and Washington county, south year by, Randal Rice, Benjamin Johns and by Addison county and west by lake others. The first settlers were mostly Champlain. It lies between 44° 7' and from Rhode Island, and purchased their 44° 42' N. lat. and 3° 41' and 4° 14' east lands of Col. Lideus, who claimed them long. Its extent from north to south is under a title derived from the Indians. 30 miles, and from east to west 22 miles, This title was however, never confirmed covering about 500 square miles. It was by either of the colonial governments, incorporated October 22, 1782. A few and the diversity of claimants occasioned settlements were commenced in this much litigation, which continued till county before the revolution, but they 1785, when the legislature passed what were all abandoned during the war. Win-was called the quieting act. By it the ooski river runs through the middle of the settlers were put in peaceable possession county and falls into lake Champlain be of their land, and the New Hampshire tween Burlington and Colchester. The title to the lands not settled, was conriver Lamoille runs across the northwest firmed. In consequence of these procorner, and Laplott river and some other ceedings there are no public rights in streams water the south part. This coun- town. The first town meeting on record ty, except along the lake shore, where it was in 1778, and Stephen Arnold was is generally level, is uneven, but not this year town clerk, and Abner Lewis, mountainous. The soil is various, being representative. Elder Isaac Beals of the in some places pine plain, and light and Baptist order was the first settled minis sandy; in others a rich loam, and in others ter. The Congregational church was a deep alluvion. The flats on the Wi- gathered here Feb. 1822 by the Rev. Hennooski river are equal to any in the state. ry Hunter, who was installed over the Burlington is the seat of justice and the same on the 6th of November following principal town in the county. The su- and continued six years. The church at preme court sits here on the Monday pre-first consisted of 12 members; the present ceding the first Tuesday of January ; the number is 70. Otter creek runs through county court on the 4th Tuesday of May this town from south to porth, a little and November. Statistics of 1840.—Hors- east of the centre, and receives here Mill es, 4,231 ; cattle, 24,142; sheep, 110,774; river and Cold river from the east, which swine, 25,310; wheat, bus., 29,502; bar- affords numerous sites for mills and other ley 1,305 ; oats, 131,799; rye, 31,570; machinery. Mill river rises in Mounta buck wheat, 11,575 ; Indian corn, 119,- Holly, runs nearly on the line between 087; potatoes, 522,792; hay, tons, 56,- this town and Wallingford, receiving from 357; sugar, lbs. 177,343; wool, 215,019. the latter the waters of a considerable Population, 22,978.

pond, crosses the southwest corner of CLYDE RIVER, has its source in Pitkin's Shrewsbury and falls into Otter creek near and Knowlton's ponds, in the northeast the south part of Clarendon. Cold river part of Brighton, and runs a northwester rises in Parkerstown, crosses the northly course through Brighton, Charleston, west corner of Shrewsbury and enters OtSalem and Derby, to lake Memphrema- ter creek near the north part of Clarengog. Excepting a few short rapids, this dop. Furnace brook, called also Little is a dead, still river, until it comes with West river, rises from a small pond in the in three miles of lake Memphremagog. south part of Tinmouth and runs north,

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COLCHESTER, parallel to Otter creek, through the west ton, and west by lake Champlain. It is part of the town and falls into Otter creek 116 miles north from Bennington, and 36 near the centre of Rutland. Near the miles northwest from Montpelier. It was north line of Clarendon it receives Ira chartered June 7th, 1763, with its present brook from Ira. Near Furnace brook are name; but from the fact that among the situated the Clarendon springs, an ac- grantees there were ten by the name of count of which has been given in part Burling, it is supposed Burlington was the first, page 7. Their situation in relation name originally intended for this town,but to the stream, boarding houses, road &c., through some mistake was given to the may be seen by the following diagram. town adjoining it on the south. The set

tlement of this town was commenced in 1774, at the lower falls on Winooski or Onion river, by Ira Allen and Remember Baker. Baker's family,consisting of a wife and three children, was the first in town. In 1775, Joshua Staunton began improve ments on the intervale above the narrows

in that river, and there was a small clear. H

ing made at Mallet's bay before the revolution. From the spring of 1776, the town

was abandoned by the settlers till after &

the close of the war, in 1783, when Messrs. McClain, Low and Boardman, settled on Colchester Point, and General Allen returned and renewed the settlement at the falls. Allen erected mills, a forge and a shop for fabricating anchors, and the place soon assumed the appear

ance of a considerable village. The town References.-a, the road from Tinmouth; 5, road Ira Allen was first town clerk. It was

was organized about the year 1791, and to West Rutland; S, springs ; B, bathing house 1, Clarendon House ; 2, 3, 4, Public boarding hous: first represented in 1793, by Joshua Staunes; L, Furnace brook ; H, Dill; 0, lligh lands.

ton. The religious denominations are The east part of the town borders on dists. The Congregational church was

Congregationalists, Baptists, and Methothe Green Mountains, but the principal elevations are the range of hills between gathered in 1805, but have never had a Otter creek and Furnace brook, and be settled pastor, and for a great portion of tween the latter and Ira brook on the the time been destitute of regular preachwest line of the town. The alluvial flats ing; The Baptist church was organized

in 1816. Phineas Culver was settled on Otter creek are from half to a mile wide through the town and are very pro: the nominal pastor till 1832. They were

over this church in 1820, and remained ductive. The uplands are a gravelly without a settled pastor from that time loam. Clarendon caye is situated in the westerly part of the town, and has alrea- till this year when Columbus Green was

ordained over it. These two churches dy been described in part first, page 8. Very good marble is found here and is erected a commodious brick meeting wrought to some extent.

house in 1838, which they now occupy in There are two

The Methodists have generalsmall villages, one in the eastern and the other in the western part, with a post office ly been supplied with preaching and have at each and at Clarendon springs. There erected a convenient brick chapel. Thero

is, also, an organized Congregational are in town 3 grist mills, 4 saw mills, 5

church at Winooski village, which stores, &c. Statistics of 1840.--Horses,

erected in 1839, a commodious house of 337 ; cattle, 2,047; sheep, 15,922 ; swine, 1,015; wheat, bus., 1,663 ; oats, 9,358 worship: Thus in the space of three years rye, 1,385 ; buck wheat, 45; Indian corn, for public worship, all of brick. The on:

were built in this town three good houses 10,936 ; potatoes, 44,601 ; hay, tons ob; ly other public building is the town house. 415; sugar, lbs., 24,950; wool, 40,984.

A public library was commenced in 1832, Population, 1,549.

and now contains about 300 volumes. Coir's GORE. Sce l'aterrille. Colchester, a post town in Chitten

There are two small ponds in this town. den county, is in lat. 44° 33' and in long. * See part second, page 31. Aner Baker's death in 3° 59', and is bounded north by Milton,east the fall of 1775, his family romnined at the bloche by Essex, south by Winooski river, which house in Colchester, till the place was abandoned the

following spring. The widow aftersyards sparried separates it from Burlington and Willis.' Thomas Butterfield.




The largest contains about 60 acres. On 306 ; oats, 9,856 ; rye, 5,973 ; b'k wheat, the outlet to this pond are still seen the 1,202; Ind. corn, 10,343; potatoes, 36,remains of beavers' works. The princi- 324; hay, tons, 3,401; sugar, lbs. 1,900; pal streams of this town are, the river La- wool, 11,375. Population, 1739, moille which runs from Milton through Concord, a post town in the southern the northwest corner into lake Champlain; extremity of Essex county, situated in lat. Mallets creek which also comes from Mil- 44° 25' and long. 5° 8', containing about ton and empties into Mallets bay ; Indian 47 square miles. It is bounded northwestcreek which runs into Mallets creek; and erly by Kirby and Bradleyvale, northeastWinooski river on the south. The soil erly by Lunenburgh, southeasterly by in the north and northwestern parts is a Connecticut river, and southwesterly by variety of gravel and loam, and is well Waterford, lying opposite to Littleton, in adapted to grazing, though Indian corn, New Hampshire. It was granted Nov. 7, the English grains and the common cali- 1780, and chartered September 15, 1781, nary roots are successfully cultivated. to Reuben Jones and his associates. The The timber in these parts is principally first settlement of Concord was commenwhite pine, beech, maple, birch, basswood, ced in 1788, by Joseph Ball. Among the ash, elm, oak, walnut, butternut and settlers, who came into town previous to some chestnut. In the middle part of the the year 1794, may be mentioned Amos town is a large tract of pine plain, mostly Underwood, Solomon Babcock, Daniel covered with pitch pine and small oaks, Gregory, Benjamin Streeter, Jonathan and seems more particularly adapted to and Jesse Woodbury and Levi Ball. In the raising of rye and corn. On the bank 1795, when John Fry came into town, of the Winonski river, are large tracts of there were 17 familie's here. The first intervale. Besides the ordinary methods settlers were principally from Westboro' of enriching the soil, plaister of Paris has and Royalston, Mass. John, son of Joseph been used in this town with great success. Ball, was born in 1789, and was the first The rocks in the northern and eastern child born in town. The first town meetparts are mostly composed of lime and ing was held and the town organized slate with occasional bolders of granite ; March 3, 1794. Elijah Spafford was first red sand stone is found in abundance near town clerk. At this meeting 14 persons Mallets bay. Iron ore has been found in took the freeman's oath. There are å small quantities in the western part of the Congregational, a Freewill Baptist and a town, and sulphate of iron is found in the Methodist church, in this town. The northeastern part. About the year 1812, Congregational church was organized or '13, the dysentery prevailed here ex. January 7, 1807, and then consisted of 17 tensively, and in the early settlements members. The Rev. Samuel Godard was there were frequent cases of the fever and ordained over it Sept. 7,1809, and dismiss. ague, but the town has generally been ed June 6, 1821. The Rev. Samuel R. very healthy. There have been two in- Hall was ordained March 4, 1823, and dividuals in this town who have lived to continued till August, 1830. The Rev. be upwards of 100 years old, and two oth- Solon Martin was ordained June 7, 1835, ers who have lived to be above 90. and dismissed Oct. 1, 1838. The Frea.

Winooski village is situated at Winoos will Baptist church was formed Oct. 10, ki lower falls, being partly in this town 1821, and the Methodist church in May, and partly in Burlington, and 14 miles 1822. Concord academy was incorporafrom Burlington village. The water pow. ted here November, 1823, and was for 6 er here is sufficient for almost any amount or 7 years, while under the charge of the of machinery. The village has suffered Rev. S. R. Hall, a very flourishing instivery severely by fire. On the 21st of tution. Hall's pond, lying near the cenDec. 1838, an extensive block factory, a tre of the town, is about a mile long and large satinet factory, a paper mill, and on an average 100 rods wide. Miles' saw mill were consumed in one conflagra- pond is about the same size, and lies near tion. There are at present in this village, the northeast corner of the town. This on the Colchester side of the river, a hand town is watered by Moose river, which some meeting house, two stores, two tav. passes through the northwest part, by erns, a saw mill, machine shop, sash fac. Connecticut river, on the south, and by tory, and an extensive woollen factory for several small streams. The surface of the manufacture of broad cloths. A sub- the town is uneven, and in the northeas. stantial covered bridge connects the two tern parts, very stoney. It is an excelparts of the village. The town is divided lent grazing township, and has some good into 9 school districts. Statistics of 1840.- tillage land. The town contains two Horses, 229 ; cattle, 1,667 ; sheep, 5,953; stores, a meeting house and several mills. swine, 1,169 ; wheat, bu. 1,903; barley, | Slulistics of 1840.-Horses, 329 ; cattle,

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1,837; sheep, 3,880 ; swine, 812; wheat, of 130 miles, is about 200 feet. * There bu. 3,579; barley, 308; oats, 13,150); rye, are in the river, several bars of sand, over 469 ; b’k wheat, 614; Ind. corn, 1,906; which boats pass with difficulty in low potatoes, 48,885; hay, tons, 3,609; sugar, water. At such times a bar between lbs. 19,090; wool, 6,218. Pop. 1024. Deerfield and Montague, Mass., renders

CONNECTICUT River lies between Ver- the river fordable. Connecticut river mont and New Hampshire, and belongs receives from Vermont, beginning at the wholly to the latter. * Its name is from north, Nulhegan, Passumpsic, Wells, the Indian words Quonnec or Unnec, signi- Wait's, Ompomponoosuc, White, Ottà fying long, and Tucque or Tuck, signify- Quechee, Black, William's, Saxton's and ing river. When the Indians spoke of West rivers; and from New Hampshire, any thing happening at this river they Upper and Lower Amonoosuc, Israel's, used the expression Quonnec tucquok, or John's, Mascomy, Sugar, Cold, and AshUnnectuckok, meaning at the long river; uelot rivers. Between Vermont and New and hence comes Connecticut. This river Hampshire this river is crossed by about originates among the mountains in the 20 bridges. The flats, along the river, north part of New Hampshire, and, for are, in some places, low and extensive; some distance, forms the boundary be in others, the banks are high and rocky. tween that state and Canada. After run. The intervales are not surpassed in ferning between New Hampshire and Ver- lility and beauty by any in the United mont, it passes through Massachusetts States. In spring, the river usually overand Connecticut, and falls into Long flows its banks through a distance of 300 Island Sound. The breadth of this river, miles. The scenery, along this Nile of when it first washes Vermont, is about New England, is variegated by a suc150 feet, and, in the course of 60 miles, cession of neat and pleasant villages, and increases to 390 feet. In Massachusetts is charming beyond description. and Connecticut its breadth may be esti- Corinth, a post town six miles square mated from 450 to 1050 feet. The depth in the central part of Orange county, is of the river, below the head of boat navi- in lat. 44° 2° and long. 4. 42', and is gation, may be stated to vary from five to bounded northerly by Topsham, easterly twelve feet. This river is navigable for by Bradford, southerly by Vershire and vessels drawing ten feet of water, 36 westerly by Washington. It lies 21 miles miles, to Middletown; for small sloops, southeast from Montpelier, 12 westerly 50 miles to Hartford ; and by means of from Haverhill, N. H. and 41 north from canals and other improvements, it has Windsor. It was chartered by New been rendered passable for boats to the Hampshire, Feb. 4, 1764, to Messrs. Ward, Fifteen Mile Falls, 250 miles further. T'aplin, and others. A confirmation grant There are, in this river, many rapids. The was, afterwards procured from New York, most considerable are Bellows' Falls, be- by Henry Moore and others. In the tween Rockingham and Walpole, N. H., spring of 1777, previous to the settlement (see Rockingham,) Ottà Quechee Falls, of the town, Ezekiel Colby, John Nutting just below the mouth of Ottà. Quechee and John Armand, spent several weeks river, White River Falls, just above the here in manufacturing maple sugar. They mouth of White river, and the Fifteen started together from Newbury, with each Mile Falls, which extend from Barnet to a five pail kettle on bis head, and with Lunenburgh. The perpendicular height this load they travelled, by a pocket comof the falls, which have been made passa- pass, 12 miles through the wilderness to ble by dams and locks, between Spring- the place of destination near the centre field, Mass. and Hanover, N. H. a distance of the township. This year, Mr. Colby

moved his family into Corinth, which * Prepara tory to granting the townships along was the first family in town. The next mission from the governor of New Hampshire, in year, 1778, Mr. Nutting moved his family March, 1760, made a survey of that river upon the here, and Mrs. Colby was delivered of a ice, from Charlestown, N. X. to the lower Coos, and son, Henry, the first child born in town, the next year the survey was continued by Hugh-In 1779,

Messrs. Edmund Brown, Samuel uments were placed upon the banks of the river, Norris, Jacob Fowler and Bracket Towle, once in the distance of 6 miles in a right line, to moved their families here, and the same mark the corners of the river towns, which were to be surveyed afterwards. A plan of this survey was * The total fall of Connecticut river, from lako kept in the land office at Portsmouth, and from it the Connecticut to the head of McIndoes falls in Bar courses and distances were taken by Gov. Went-net, 92 1-2 miles, is 1140 feet ; and from the latter worth, in making out the charters of townships along place to ride water, at Hartford, Conn. the fall is the river. These facts, together with a full account | 449 feet. of the surveys, and the troubles arising from con- + The first bridge over the Connecticut was built dicting claims, and which we are obliged for the in 1785, at Bellows Falls, by Col. Enoch Hale. The want of room to omit, were furnished by J. Mc- second was built at Windsor, and completed in Oct. Duffco, Esq.


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