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off eight persons. The surface of the church, which is called St. James' Church, township is uneven and the soil and tim- go back to August 16, 1784. The first ber similar to that of the other towns ly- rector of this church was the Rev. James ing along the eastern side of the Green Nichols, settled in 1786. His salary was Mountains. Markham's Mountain and £20 a year, which was raised by an as. Mount Terrible lie along the western sessment upon “the grand list.” His part of the township. These mountains conduct proving irregular and unsatisfacoccasioned the division of the town, and tory, he was dismissed about the year render the communication between this 1792, and the Rev. Russell Catlin, whose town and Weston somewhat difficult. conduct proved still more exceptionable, There are no considerable streams. The succeeded him. In the beginning of 1803, town is watered principally by the head the Rev. Abraham Bronson took charge branches of Williams river. In 1824, the of this church for half the time. This town was divided into eight school dis- connexion, happy and much blessed, lasttricts with a school house in each. ed till January, 1826. He was succeeded There were at that time three grist mills, by the Rev. Joseph H. Coit. In 1828, three saw mills, one fulling mill, one Mr. C. was succeeded by the Rev. James carding machine, two stores, two taverns Tappan, who, the next year, was succeed. and one tannery. Statistics of 1840.—ed by the Rev. Wm. S. Perkins, who reHorses, 198; cattle, 1,623; sheep, 5,165; signed in 1833. Since that time the min. swine, 523; wheat, bu. 1,159; barley,779; isters have been the Rev. Luman Foote, oats, 6,319; rye, 1,348 ; b'k wheat, 420; the Rev. John Grigg and the Rev. Anson In. corn, 882; potatoes, 5,050 ; hay,tons, B. Hard, who is a native of the town and 988; sugar, lbs. 1255; wool,9,000.* Pop- the present rector. The first church was ulation, 870.
erected in 1786, by a tax assessed on the Arlington, a post town in Bennington grand list. In 1831 a new and elegant county, lies in lat. 43° 4' and long. 3° 54', stone church was erected at a cost of $10,and contains 39 square miles. It is bound- 000. Total baptisms 352; present com. ed north by Sandgate, east by Sunder-municants 80. Arlington, lying lower land, south by Shaftsbury, and west by than the surrounding towns, has the Salem, New York, and is situated 40 miles principal streams in the county, passing from Troy,40 miles from Saratoga springs, through it. Roaring branch enters the 40 from Whitehall and 40 from Rutland. eastern part of the town from Sunderland, It was chartered July 28, 1761, to a num. Mill brook the southeast part from Glasber of persons mostly belonging to Litch- tenbury, Warm brook the south part from field, Connecticut. The first settlement Shaftsbary, and Green river the north was made in the year 1763, by Dr. Simon part from Sandgate. These streams all Burton, William Searls and Ebenezer fall into the Battenkill, which enters the Wallis. In 1764, Jehiel Hawley, Josiah town near the northeast corner, runs Hawley, Remember Baker and Thomas southwesterly about three miles, thence Peck, removed into this town. The for- nearly west about six miles further, and mer was a principal land owner, and has crosses the west line of the town into left in this place a numerous and respecta- Washington county, New York. These ble posterity. The early records of this streams afford many very excellent mill town were lost or destroyed in the year privileges, and along their banks are con1777, by Isaac Bisco, then town clerk, siderable tracts of the finest intervale land. who became a tory and fled to Canada. The principal elevations are West MounHence the precise time the town was or- tain and Red Mountain, which extend ganized, is not known. It was about the from south to north through the west part year 1768, and Remember Baker, an ac. of the town. These mountains are sepa. tive and distinguished leader in the con- rated by the Battenkill, in its westerly troversy between the New Hampshire course through the township. They are grants and New York, was the first town covered with a considerable variety of clerk. Thomas Chittenden was a resi- timber, consisting of white, red and black dent in this town during the revolution, oak, white and black birch, chestnut, and was chosen to represent it in the first hickory, &c. The soil is rich and very assembly after the adoption of the consti- productive of English grain. The soil in tution, but, being elected governor the the eastern part of the town is chiefly same year, was succeeded as representa loam, and the timber principally beech, tive by Ethan Allen. This town was orig. maple, ash, birch, elm, bass and butternut. inally settled by Episcopalians, and an A glade of land, three miles in lenth, and Episcopal society was organized here some one in breadth, extending from north to years before the revolution, which has ex- south, near the foot of West mountain, isted ever since. The records of this ) was formerly covered with an extraordi
nary growth of white pine. The soil of | of any kind, particularly on the southern this tract is sandy. Several extensive portion of the mountain. The name of quarries of granular limestone or white this mountain is undoubtedly of Indian marble, have been opened here, from origin, but writers are not agreed with rewhich large quantities are annually taken gard to its signification.
Dr. Dwight and wrought into tombstones and for oth- says that it signifies the three brothers, er purposes. The value of the marble and that it was given in allusion to its manufactured in 1840 was $8,300. There three summits.* Kendall tells us that the is also an abundance of compact limestone true Indian name is Cas-cad-nac, and that from which lime, of a superior quality, is it means a peaked mountain with steep manufactured, Near Aylsworth's mills sides. From the summit of this moun in the east part of the town, is a medi- tain the prospect is extensive and beauticinal spring, which is resorted to by the ful, and richly repays the labor of climbinhabitants of the vicinity as a remedy for ing its rugged ascent. The Connecticut, cutaneous diseases, ophthalmies,&c. The which is easily traced, winding its way water is strongly impregnated with fer- through the rich and highly cultivated rugenous matter, and rather unpleasant meadows, adds much to the interest and to the taste. It contains a minute portion charm of the scenery. of hydrogen gas, but no carbonic acid. Arpens, a small post town in the north Its temperature is about the same as that eastern part of Windham county, is in of the springs in the neighborhood. Near latitude 43° 7', and is bounded north by the northeast corner of the town is a cav. Grafton, east by Westminster and Rockern which is much visited as a curiosity. ingham, south by Brookline and TownsIts entrance is on the east side of a steep hend, and west by Townshend. It is ten hill, and of a capacity sufficient for one miles from Bellows-Falls, and 25 miles person only to enter at a time. From the northerly from Brattleborough. It was entrance to the bottom it is about 20 feet, granted March 11, and chartered May 3, and the passage makes, with the horizon, 1780, to Solomon Harvey, John Moore, an angle of about 45°. The cavern then Jonathan Perham and their associates, and extends westerly in a horizontal direction contains about 7628 acres. The first be13 rods. Its other dimensions are some- ginnings towards a settlement in this what various in different parts of its course. town were made in the fall of 1779, by Its medium width is about eight feet, and Jonathan Perham, Seth Oakes, Joseph its height about the same. In some pla- Rasier, James Shafter and Jonathan Fosces, it contracts so as barely to admit a ter. They chopped a few acres, erected person to pass along, and in others ex. a log-hut, and then all left the town. Feb. pands into capacious rooms or vaults. 25, 1780, Jonathan Perham and Ephraim Near the western extremity is a large Holden removed their families into the room of a conical form, the sides of which town from Rindge, N. H., and were soon are very regular. Its height from the followed by Seth Oakes and family, from base to the apex is more than fifty feet, Winchendon. The first settlers had maand its sides are limerock incrusted with ny privations and hardships to encounter. stelactites. The bottom of the cavern is The snow was four feet deep when they mostly a fine white clay, and a stream of came into town, and they had to beat very pure water runs through its whole their own path for eight miles through length. The road from Bennington to the woods. A small yoke of oxen were Rutland passes through this town. There the only domestic animals of any kind are two houses for public worship, two they took with them. The families all grist and three saw mills, one woollen moved into the hut above mentioned. lo factory, one fulling mill and one tannery. May following, Mrs. Oakes was delivered Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 145; cattle, of a daughter, the first child born in town. 830; sheep, 12,005; swine, 583; wheat, The same month, Samuel Bayley, from bu. 743; oats, 9,025 ; rye, 3,556; buck Sterling, Mass., and Micah Reed, from wheat, 1,092; Indian corn, 5,145; pota- Westmoreland, N. H., came into town, toes, 211,212 ; hay, tons, 4,631 ; sugar, and during the following summer, they, Ibs. 7,420; wool, 27,750. Pop. 1,035. in company, erected a saw mill, and the
ASCUTNEY MOUNTAIN, is situated partly next year a grist mill, for which they rein Windsor and partly in Weathersfield, ceived 168 acres of land, situated near being crossed by the line between those the centre of the town.
The same year, townships. The altitude of this mountain Simon Evans, Ezra Chaffe, and Jeremiah is 3320 feet above tide-water, and 3116 ft. Tinkham began improvements, and on above Connecticut river at Windsor the 18th of September, of that year, Isaac, bridge. It is an immense mass of granite, son of Jonathan Perham, died, and this producing but little timber, or vegetation
*Travels, Vol. II. p. 106. fIbVol. III. p. 202.
AVERY'S GORES was the first death of an inhabitant of the one saw mill standing on the site where town. On the 25th of Nov. following, the first mills were erected. Statistics of two men, at work in a remote part of the 1840.—Horses, 75; cattle, 553; sheep, town, were alarmed by the whoops and 3,061; swine, 284 ; wheat, bu. 501; baryells of the Indians. They quit their ley, 112; oats, 1,082; rye, 589; b. wheat
, work and spread the alarm as fast as pos- 322 ; Indian corn, 1,885 ; potatoes, 10,sible. The people, affrighted almost out 035; hay, tons, 966 ; sugar, lbs., 6,470; of their senses, hurried away with their wool, 5,387. Population, 378. women and children with all possible de- AVERILL, a township six miles square in spatch, expecting from each tree that the north part of Essex county, is bounthey passed to be saluted by an Indian ded northeast by Canaan, southeast by tomahawk or scalping knife. J. Perham Lemington, southwest by Lewis, and and family decamped in such haste that northwest by Norton,
This township they left their oven heating and their oxen was chartered June 23, 1762, and it chained to a tree. The report was spread is watered by a considerable branch of with the greatest rapidity through the Nulhegan river, several streams which neighboring towns, that Athens was de- fall into Connecticut river, and some stroyed by the Indians. The whole coun- which pass off northerly into Canada. try was immediately in arms to defend There are likewise several considerable themselves and property from the merci- ponds. It is inhabited by two or three less foe. Some spent the whole night in families only. The surface of the town preparing their guns and amunition, and is broken, and the soil cold and unfaror. the fearful apprehension of impending able for cultivation. Statistics of 1840.destruction, chased sleep from every eye. Horses, 3 ; cattle, 14; sheep, 35; swine, “Lo the mountain laboured and brought 15; buck wheat, bu. 100; potatoes, 400; forth a mouse." The hallooing of a hunter, hay, tons, 20; sugar, lbs. 600. Populaaided by imaginations rendered suscep- tion, 11. tible by fear, amounted in the course of a Avery's Gores.-A considerable numfew hours to the destruction of a fine ber of tracts of land situated in different settlement and the massacre of its inhabi- sections of the state were granted to Samtants.* Athens was organized March 4, vel Avery in 1791, and received the name 1781, and William Beal was first town of Avery's Gores. Several of these have clerk. It was represented the same year since been annexed to townships. We by Abel Mattoon. The religious denom- shall mention a part of them. 1. Anery's inations are Methodist, Congregational Gore in Addison county, was granted ists, Baptists, Universalists and Christians. January 27, 1791, and contained 8744 These denominations united in 1818, and acres. It is bounded north by Lincoln, erected a very good brick meeting-house. east by Kingston, south by Hancock and The Methodist Episcopal Church was west by Ripton. It lies nearly on the sumorganized in 1801, and have been favored mit of the Green Mountain, and the with the labors of several distinguished greater part of it has been annexed to itinerant preachers, among whom were Granville. Avery's Gore in Chittenden Jonathan Nichols, John Broadhead, Wil- county, was granted January 7, 1791, and bur Fisk, and H. Guernsey. The sur- originally contained 5970 acres, but a face of this township is uneven, but the part of it has since been annexed to Hunelevations are not generally abrupt. The tington. It is of a triangular form and lies soil is good and produces well. It is, south of Huntington, and west of Fays. however, much better adapted to grazing ton. Avery's Gore, in Essex county, is than tillage. The apple tree flourishes bounded north by Norton, east by Lewis, and produces as well here as in any part south by Wenlock, and west by Warren of the state. The natnral growth of tim- Gore. It was granted January 27, 1791, ber is beech, birch, maple, ash, basswood, and contains 10,685 acres. It is moun hemlock and spruce. There is but one tainous and uninhabited. stream of consequence in town. It origi- in Franklin county, is bounded north by nates in a pond of about 30 acres area in Montgomery, east by Lowell, south the westerly part and falls into Saxton's by Belvidere, and west by Bakersfield. river in Rockingham, affording several It was granted June 28, 1796, and conmill privileges. Lily pond is small, lies tains 9723 acres. This Gore lies on the in the south west part of the town, and western range of the Green Mountains, derives its name from the great quanti- and is the source of two branches of the ties of white lilies growing in it. The Missisco river.
In 1840, it contained town is divided into three school districts 35 inhabitants, and has a post office. Stawith a school house in each. There is tistics.-Horses, 6; cattle, 26; sheep, 50; *See part second pago 70.
swine, 7; wheat, buz. 60; oats, 40; buck
wheat, 20; In.corn, 75; potatoes, 1,300 ; | are two establishments for the manufachay, tons, 60; sugar, lbs. 7,00; wool 75. ture of starch. The town is well waterThe other Gores of this name, are nowed with springs and brooks, but has no annexed to townships.
good mill privileges or streams of much BAKERSFIELD, a post town, in the east- consequence. Hawks mountain, which ern part of Franklin county, in latitude lies between the town and Cavendish, 44° 47' and long. 4° 13', is bounded north renders the communication between the by Enosburgh, east by Avery's Gore and two towns difficult, and was the occasion Waterville, south by Waterville and of the division. The summit of this Fletcher, and west by Fairfield. It is mountain is, for the greater part of the 30 miles northeast from Burlington, was distance, the boundary line. The rocks granted Feb. 27, 1787, and chartered to are almost wholly Gneiss and Granite ; Luke Knowlton, Jan. 25, 1791, and origi- the soil warm but stoney. The town has nally contained but 10,000 acres. Addi- always been healthy. There was not a tions have since been made, and it now case of the spotted fever at the time it was contains about 26,000. The settlement epidemic in other parts of the state. of this town was commenced in 1789, by There are two school districts with school Joseph Baker, from whom the town de- houses in each. No mills in town. Starives its name. He emigrated from West- tistics of 1840.—Horses, 40; cattle, 242; borough, Mass. Joel Brigham and Abi- sheep, 971; swine, 99; wheat, bu. 292; jah Pratt settled in Bakersfield about the barley, 17; oats, 1,664 ; rye, 225; buck same time. From October 1790 to Oct. wheat, 49; Ind. corn, 905; potatoes, 1812, there were only 68 deaths in this 6,566 ; hay, tons, 519; sugar, lbs. 1,650; town. During the two next years there wool, 2,855. Population, 155. were 60 deaths, mostly by the spotted BARNARD, a post town in Windsor and lung fevers. The religious denomi- county, 21 miles northwest from Windnations are Congregationalists, Method- sor, and 37 south from Montpelier, is in ists, Baptists and Universalists. The lat. 43° 44', and long. 4° 24'. It is bounpublic buildings are a town house, built ded northerly by Royalton and Bethel, in 1827, a brick meeting house in 1831, a east by Pomfret, south by Bridgewater, brick chapel in 1839, and an academy in and west by, Stockbridge. The town 1839. The professional men are three was chartered July 17, 1761, to William clergymen, one attorney and two physi- Story, Francis Barnard and their associcians. This township is somewhat brok- ates. James Call chopped the first en, but not mountainous. It is timbered timber here in 1774, but left in the fall. principally with hard wood, and the soil The settlement was commenced in March, is in general warm and productive. It is 1775, by Thomas Freeman, his son Wm. watered by Black creek, which crosses and John Newton. The same the southwest corner, and several other Lot Whitcomb, Nathaniel Paige, Wm. branches of the Missisco river. The Cheedle and Asa Whitcomb moved their streams are, however, small and the mill families into town. Thomas Freeman, jr.. privileges not numerous. Statistics of came into town Jupe 7, 1775. He is now 1840.- Horses, 260; cattle, 2000; sheep, living and is the only survivor of those 4,733 ; swine, 400; wheat, bu. 3000; bar- who spent the first winter here. At the ley, 110; oats, 7,728 ; rye, 176; b. wheat, time of the battle of Bunker's hill, (prop450; Ind. corn, 2,450; potatoes, 62,000; erly Breed's hill,) which took place on hay, tons, 3,570; sugar, lbs. 33,305; the 17th of June, 1775, the firing was diswool, 10,876. Population, 1,258. tinctly heard in this town by Thomas
BALTIMORE, a small township of a tri- Freeman and others, a distance of more angular form, lying in the south eastern than 100 miles. On the 9th of August, part of Windsor county, in lat. 43° 21', 1780, this town was visited by a party of and bounded east by Weathersfield and 21 Indians, who made prisoners of Thos. Springfield, south by Chester, and north. M. Wright, Prince Haskell and John west by Cavendish. It is eleven miles Newton, and carried them to Canada. northwest from Windsor, and 64 south Newton and Wright made their escape from Montpelier. It was set off from the spring following, and Haskell was Cavendish by an act of the Legislature, exchanged in the fall. They suffered Oct. 19, 1793, and constituted a separate many hardships while prisoners and on township. The town was organized March their return,but they arrived safely at Bar12, 1794, and Joseph Atherton was first nard, and were all living in 1824, upon the town cl’k. It has seldom been represent. farms from which they were taken. They ed in the General Assembly. The reli- were all prisoners in Canada at the time gious denominations are Congregational. Royalton was burnt, and were not then ists, Baptists and Universalists. There taken, as has been stated in the narrative
of that event. During the years 1783 | potatoes, 50,286; hay, tons, 4,913 ; sugar, and 4, canine madness was very common İbs. 36,360 ; wool, 18,027. Pop. 1,774. in this part of the state. Dogs, wolves, BARNET, a post town in Caledonia counfoxes, cats, &c. were affected by it. On ty, lying on Connecticut river, opposite to the 17th of March, 1784, a Mr. Stewart Lyman, New Hampshire, in lat. 44° 19', of this town was bitten in his finger by a and ilong. 4° 55' and containing about mad wolf. Twenty-seven days from that 40 square miles. It is bounded north by time symptoms of hydrophobia appeared, Waterford, east by Connecticut river, and he died of the disease three days af- south by Ryegate, and west by Peacham ter. Barnard was organized as a town, and Danville, and is 35 miles east from April 4, 1778, and Thomas W. White was Montpelier,and 65 miles north from Windfirst town clerk. Thomas Freeman, Asa sor, as the roads are travelled. The charWhitcomb and Solomon Aikens were the ter of Barnet is dated September 15, 1763. first select men, and Asa Whitcomb was The principal proprietors were Enos, Sam. first representative and first justice of the uel and Willard Stevens, sons of Captain peace. The religious denominations are Phineas Stevens, who so nobly defended Congregationalists, Methodists and Uni- the fort at Charlestown, New Hampshire, versalisis, each of which have a conven: April 4, 1747, against a large party of ient meeting house. The Rev. Joseph French and Indians, under the command Bowman was installed over the Congre- of M. Debeline.* March 4, 1770, the first gational church
Sept. 22, 1784, and settlement was commenced in this town continued their pastor till his death, by Jacob, Elijah and Daniel Hall and Jonwhich happened April 27, 1806. The athan Fowler. Sarah, daughter of Elijah Rev. Joel Davis was ordained over this Hall, was the first child, and Barnet, son church August 10, 1807, and was dismiss- of Jonathan Fowler, the first male child ed in 1822. The Rev. Hosea Ballou was born in town. The latter was presented ordained over the Universalist Church by Enos Stevens, Esq. with 100 acres of and society about the year 1804, and land. The town was subsequently setthree or four years after removed to Ports- tled mostly by emigrants from Scotland. mouth, N. H., and from that place to A part of the township was purchased in Boston where he now resides. The Meth- 1774 by the late Alexander Harvey, Esq. odist society is numerous, and is princi- and another gentleman, for a company in pally supplied by the several preachers Scotland. A considerable proportion of of that order, who reside in town, and by the people are of Scotch descent. In the circuit preachers. The most remarkable summer of 1772, Enos Stevens, Esq. erectrevivals of religion were 1801 and 1822, ed a grist mill on Stevens' river, about both of which were very general. The 150 rods from its junction with the Conhopeful subjects of the latter amounted necticut. The first town meeting was to nearly 300, about 200 of whom united held and the town organized March 18, with the Methodist church, and 67 with 1783. Walter Brock, Esq. was first town the Congregational church. There are clerk, and Colonel Alexander Harvey the no considerable streams. The town lies first representative. Major Rogers, on between Ottà Quechee and White river, his return from an expeditiont against the and contributes to both. Locust creek St. Francis Indians, in 1759, encamped rises in the southwest part of the town, near the mouth of the Passumpsic river and running northerly falls into White in this town, where he expected to meet river in Bethel. Near the centre of the a supply of provisions to be sent on from town is a natural pond which covers about Charlestown, New Hampshire, by order 100 acres. It discharges its waters to the of General Amherst. The order of the northwest into Locust creek. The outlet General was complied with. Samuel of this pond affords some very fine mill Stevens and three others proceeded up seats. A branch of Ottà Quechee river Connecticut river with two canoes, to the rises in the south part on which is one round island opposite the mouth of the saw mill in this town. In the eastern Passumpsic, where they encamped for the part of the town a bog of excellent night. In the morning, hearing the remarl. There is a small village situated port of guns, they were so terrified that in the centre of the town, about the out- they reloaded their provisions and haslet of the pond, in which are two meet- tened back to Charlestown, leaving Roging houses, two stores, two taverns, and ers and his famished rangers to their fate. several mills and mechanic shops. Sta- The Presbyterian church and society is tistics of 1840.—Horses, 384; cattle, 1,- the most numerous in town. The Rev. 957; sheep, 8,847 ; swine, 846; wheat,
* See part second, page 7. bu. 2,279 ; barley, 60; oats, 9,040; rye,
For an account of this espedition ses part vec413; buck wheat, 2,087 ; In. corn, 4,266; I ond, page 14.