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LAKE CHAMPLAIN.

LAKE CHAMPLAIN.

and its average width about one mile. I thickness, and reveted with masonry The distance from Whitehall to Ticonde-throughout. The ditch is blasted out of roga is about 20 miles. The fortress of the solid rock. There are two demilanes this name is now a heap of ruins.* It and some small detached outworks. An was built by the French, in 1756, on a arched passage led from the interior of point of land formed by the junction of the works to the lake, and a well about lake George creek with lake Champlain, ninety feet in depth was sunk in one of and was two miles northwest from Mount the bastions. The fort crected by the Independence, and opposite the north- French in 1731, was a smaller work, and west corner of Orwell. Ticonderoga is nearer the water. The present fort was derived from the Indian and signifies commenced by the English, in 1759, and noisy. The French called the fort Caril. according to Dr. Dwight, (Travels Il, lon. It was a place of great strength, 444,) cost about two millions of pounds both by nature and art. On three sides sterling. The whole peninsula being of it was surrounded by water, and about solid rock, covered with a thin layer of half the other was occupied by a deep earth, the works cannot be assailed by swamp, while the line was completed by regular approaches, and both in conthe erection of a breastwork nine feet struction and position, the fortress is high on the only assailable ground. In among the strongest in North America. 1758, Gen. Abercrombie, with a British It has been long dismantled, and is now army, was defeated in an attempt upon quite dilapidated, but its form and dimenthis fortress with the loss of 1941 men, sions are still easily traced and measured. but it was the next year surrendered to From Crown Point to Split rock, a disGen. Amherst. It was surprised by Col. tance of about 19 miles, the width of the Allen, May 10, 1775, at the commence- lake will average about three miles and a ment of the revolution, and retained till half. The width from Thompson's Point 1777, when it was evacuated on the ap- to Split rock is only three quarters of proach of Gen. Burgoyne. $ Near this a milo. Split rock is a considerable cuplace is one of the richest localities of riosity. A light house is erected here. minerals in the United States, and is a At McNeil s ferry between Charlotte and most interesting spot to the man of sci. Essex, N. Y., a few miles further north, ence. 56 Within the limits of four or five the width of the lake wants 20 rods of acres are found massive and crystalized three miles. From this place the lake garnet, several varieties of coccolite, spreads as it flows north, and at Burlingaugite, white and green, crystalized and ton from the bottom of Burlington bay to massive, very beautiful adularia and com- that of Douglas' bay is nine miles and mon feldspar, tabular spar, hornblend, three quarters wide. * Upon Juniper calcareous spar containing brucite, and island at the entrance of Burlington bay elegant crystals of silico calcareous oxyde from the sonth, a light house has been of titanium.”Hall. From Ticonderoga erected, and a few miles to the northwest to Crown Point, a distance of 12 or 14 miles, the width of the lake continues * In 1832, the distance from the south wharf in from one to two miles. Crown Point

Burlington, to the light house on Juniper island,

was measured upon the ice under the direction of Fortress is now in ruins and is opposite to John Johnson, Esq. and the bearing of various plathe south part of Addison. || It was built cor being taken from the extremities of this line by by the French, in 1731, on a point of a good theodolite, the various distances were found land between West bay and the lake, and

From the southwest corner of south wharf was called Fort St. Frederick. In 1759, it was surrendered to the British troops To Sharpshin P't. 1217 To the light house 3 18 under Gen. Amherst, and was held by the To Appletree Pt. 3.68 TO Juniper island

9 200 To rock Dunder British till May 10, 1775, when it was To Douglas' bay

2 226

9 193 To Pottier's Point 2 182 taken by Col. Seth Warner, on the same day that Ticonderoga surrendered to

From the light house Allen. It again fell into the hands of the To Pottier's Point 1 119 To Sharpshin Point 2 310 British, in 1776, who kept possession of To rock Durder 0 267 To Appletree Point 3 109 it till after the capture of Burgoyne in

In 1821, the distance from Burlington to Douglas 1777. This fortress is in lat. 44• 3' and Bay on the opposite, was measured on the ice, and

the following soundings taken, and the dopth of the long. 73° 29' west from Greenwich. It lake was found to be is nearly a regular pentagon, the longest At half a mile from the wharf curtain being ninety, and the shortest Between Sharpshin and Red Rock

Between Sharpahin and Pottier's Point about seventy-five yards in length. The Between Appletree Point and Juniper Island ramparts are about twenty-five feet in Retween Colchester Point and Sloop Island

Between Providence Island and E. Brother 186 See part second, page 8, | Page 9 and 14. Between Valcour Island anu West Brother Page 33 and 41. || Page 6.

Due south of Schuyler's Island PT. II,

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LAKE CHAMPLAIN.

CHARLESTON.

of this bay the steamboat Phænix was spot where the haughty Burgoyne surconsumed by fire on the morning of the rendered his sword, October 17, 1777, 5th of September 1819, and much pro- where Schuyler's house was burnt, and perty and several lives lost. † Between where the brave Fraser fell. The house, Juniper island and Pottier's point, a large where that officer died, is still standing, rock rises above the water, called rock and the rooms, occupied by the Countess Dunder, and to the southwest of Juniper Riedsell, remain unaltered.” lie four small islands called the Four CHARLESTON, a post town in the east Brothers. They were named on Charle- part of Orleans county, is in lat. 440 51' voix map the isles of the Four Winds. and long. 4° 57, and is bounded northeast The bay opposite Burlington, called by Morgan, southeast by Brighton, southDouglas' bay, was called by the French west by a part of Westmore and BrownCorlar, and the island lying a little to the ington, and northwest by Salem. It lies north, called Schuyler's island, they call- 50 miles northeast from Montpelier; was ed Isle aux Chapon. The greatest ex- granted the 6th, and chartered the 10th of panse of water is between the Four November, 1780, to the “Hon. Abraham Brothers and Grand Isle, but the greatest Whipple, his shipmates," and others, conwidth from east to west shore is further taining 23,040 acres Commodore Whipnorth across the islands, where the dis- ple was a distinguished naval officer in tance is about 14 miles. Cumberland the revolutionary war, and he called the bay, on the head of which stands Platts- town Navy, in honor of the American burgh, N. Y., is about 22 miles from Bur- navy, the prowess of which he had so lington. This bay is celebrated for the bravely maintained; but the name was signal victory of the American squadron, altered to Charleston, by act of the legisunder Commodore McDonough, over the lature, Nov. 6, 1825. The settlement of British fleet, on the 11th of September, this township was commenced in 1803, 1814. t. The peninsula lying north of by Andrew McGaffey, who, this year, Cumberland bay called Cumberland Head, moved his family here from Lyndon. was called by the French Cape Scou- Mrs. McGaffey died October 30, of this mouton. On this point is a light house. year, which was the first death in town. From South Hero to the 45th degree of In July, Abner Allyn also moved his famlat. the breadth of the lake including the ily here, and his was the second family islands is from nine to twelve miles. in town. In 1804, Joseph Seavey moved Where the lake leaves the state on the his family here; Orin" Percival, his in west side of Alburgh, its width is less 1805 ; and from this time the settlement than two miles. The lake extends into proceeded more rapidly. The whole numCanada 24 miles to St. Johns, where the ber of deaths in this town, up to 1824, was river Richelieu commences and conveys 13, and only three of these adults. The the waters to the St. Lawrence. The town was organized, March 31, 1806, and Richelieu is about 60 miles long, and joins Abner Allyn was first town clerk. He the St. Lawrence near the upper end of was also the first representative, chosen lake St. Peters, and about 45 miles below in 1807. The Freewill Baptists are the Montreal. The navigation of the Riche- most numerous denomination of Chris. lieu is interrupted by the Chambly rapids, tians. Elder John Swazey, a Protestant but the lake is connected with the St. Methodist, is the only resident minister, Lawrence at Montreal, by a railroad 18 but the town is generally supplied by itinmiles in length, leading from St. John's erant preachers. Ezra Cushing is the to Laprairie. The canal which connects only physician. The principal stream is lake Champlain with the Hudson, at Al-Clyde river, which enters the township bany, is 64 miles in length, and traverses from Brighton, and runs northwesterly, a most interesting country. “It passes nearly through its centre into Salem. in sight of the very spot where the tree There are some falls of consequence, on stood, to which Putnam_was bound, in this stream, particularly the Great falls, 1757. Fort Edward and Fort Miller also where the descent is more than 100 feet recall to mind many circumstances of in 40 rods, but its current is, generally, American history. The former was built slow. The alluvial fats, along this stream, by Col. Williams, in 1755, and its walls are extensive, but generally too low and are now in some places 20 feet high. The wet for cultivation. In the southeast part unfortunate Miss M'Crea was murdered of the township are 1000 acres of bog near this fort, and the trunk of the tree, meadow in a body upon this river. There to which she was bound, still remains are several considerable ponds. Ecko with her name and the date, 1777, rudely pond, the most important, is in the northinscribed upon it. It passes near the ern part, and was named by Gen. J. See part second page 246. fIbid. Page 96.

Whitelaw, on account of the succession of

CHARLOTTE.

CHARLOTTE.

echos, which are usually heard when any travelers. There is a small village a little sound is produced in its vicinity. It is 14 west of the centre, called the 4 corners, miles long and f a mile wide. The stream with a meeting house and parsonage, bewhich discharges the waters of Seymour's longing to the Methodist society, built lake, in Morgan, into Clyde river, passes with brick in the year 1841, and well through this pond. On the outlet mills are finished in modern style. Also, a female erected. The other pond, of most con- seminary, built in 1836, which is now sequence, is called Pension pond, and lies under the superintendance of the Methoin the course of Clyde river. These ponds dist society. There are also two stores abound in fish, and large quantities are and one tavern. At about the same annually caught. There are two small distance north of the centre, there is a villages situated upon Clyde river about village of still smaller size, and also two six miles apart, with a post office in each, miles east of the centre, where there is a designated as East Charleston and West Baptist meeting house, built with brick Charleston. The soil of the township is and well finished, in the year 1841. The a rich loam and produces good crops, and Congregational meeting house stands near the roads and business of the town are the centre of the town, and was erected rapidly improving. There are 8 school in the year 1808. The church was ordistricts, 5 school houses, 2 stores, 2 tavo ganized, January 3, 1792, and on the next erns, 4 saw, 2 grist and 2 fulling mills, &c. day the Rev. Daniel C. Gillet, was ordain. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 172; cattle, ed over it. He was dismissed in 1799, 587; sheep, 1,408; swine, 366; wheat, and the church was vacant till Nov. 4, bu. 1,431 ; barley, 701; oats, 4,548; rye, 1807, when the Rev. Truman Baldwin, 62; buck wheat, 1,560; Ind. corn 467; was ordained over it, who was dismissed potatoes 26,279; hay, tons, 1,499; sugar, March 21, 1815. The church was then Ibs. 23,965 ; wool, 2,861. Pop. 731. destitute till Oct. 15, 1817, when the Rev.

CHARLOTTE, a post town in the south- Calvin Yale was ordained over it,who was west corner of Chittenden county, in lat. dismissed March 5, 1833. The Rev. 44° 18' and long. 3° 49', and is bounded William Eaton was installed as pastor of north by Shelburne, east by Hinesburgh, the church, on the 23d of Sept. 1834, and south by Ferrisburgh and a part of Monk- was dismissed January 12, 1837. The ton, and west by lake Champlain. It is Rev. Eldad W. Goodman, the present 10 miles south from Burlington, and 10 pastor, was installed July 12, 1837. The north from Vergennes, and was charter- most remarkable season of mortality was ed June 24, 1762. The first attempt to in the winter of 1812 and '13, when about settle this town was made by Derick 70, mostly over 16 years of age, were vicWebb. He first began in town in March, tims to the epidemic of that period. This 1776, but soon left. He came in again, township is pleasantly situated on the in March, 1777, and left in May, follow- lake shore, and is watered by the river ing; but no permanent settlement was Laplott, which runs through the northmade till 1784, when Derick Webb, and east corner, and Lewis creek, which runs Elijah Woolcut moved into the town, and through the southern corner. The westwere followed by others, so that the town ern part of the town was originally timwas soon after organized. John McNeil bered with hard wood, and the soil is was one of the early settlers, and was the excellent, producing in abundance. The first town clerk and representative to the eastern part was principally timbered Legislature. In the year 1790, he located with pine, hemlock, &c.' There are no on the lake shore, and with the advantage elevations which deserve the names of of a good natural harbor,established a ferry mountains, but a range of considerable from Charlotte to Essex, in the state of hills running through the centre of the New York, which by the name of “Mc- town from north to south. From many Neil's ferry” is generally known through- parts of this ridge the scenery to the west out the state as one of the most important, is peculiarly picturesque. The lake with safe and well conducted ferries on the its islands, may be seen at a great dislake. The boat is propelled by six horses. tance. Add to this the extensive range Time in crossing about 30 minutes, mak- of lofty mountains with their broken suming four trips each day. There is crossing mits which lie beyond it, and it is believat this ferry some weeks earlier and later ed that, particularly at some seasons of in the season, than at any other ferry on the year, the beauty and sublimity of the the lake, with the exception of that from prospect is not excelled by any part of Burlington to Port Kent. There is a good our country. The town is divided into store house and dock, with a sufficient 13 school districts. It has 4 taverns depth of water for any boat on the lake, which are all temperance houses, 5 saw and a good Ion for the accommodation of | mills, 1 grist mill, and 3 stores. Statistics

CHELSEA.

CHESTER,

of 1840.--Horses, 500; cattle, 3,020; | mostly of a good soil. All kinds of grain sheep, 15,865 ; swine, 1,396; wheat, bu. common in Vermont, are raised with tol2,195; barley, 110; oats, 13,843; rye, erable success. The timber is of various 1,660; buck wheat, 1,118; Ind. corn, kinds, in which maple, elm, beech, birch 26,885; potatoes, 52,985 ; hay, tons, and hemlock predominate. In a swamp 9,175 ; sugar, lbs. 6,000 ; wool, 31,348. in the east part of the town, tamarack Population, 1,620.

grows in great plenty. Pine was formerChelsea, the shire town of Orange ly abundant on the streams, but it has en. county, is situated near the centre of the lirely disappeared. The town has always county, in lat. 40° and long. 4° 30', and is been very healthy. The epidemic of 1812 bounded north by Washington and Wil- and '13, was fatal in very few cases. liamstown, east by Vershire, south by Among the instances of longevity within Tunbridge, and west by Brookfield. It a few years are the following: -Mrs. was granted to Bela Turner and his asso. Woodworth died in 1836, aged 93 ; Mrs. ciates, Nov. 2, 1780, and chartered by the Abagail Hale, in 1838, aged 95; Miss Irename of Turnersburgh, August 4, 1781. na Smith, in 1839, aged 91 ; Mrs. PerkBy the charter it contains 23,040 acres, ins, in 1838, aged 88; Mr. Jacob Flanor 36 square miles. The name was alter- ders, in 1840, aged 86. The village is sited to Chelsea, Oct. 13, 1788. Improve- uated near the centre of the town, on the ments were commenced in this township first branch of White river, 13 miles from in the spring of 1784, by Thomas and its mouth. It contains two churches, Samuel Moore, and Asa Bond, who, the Congregational and Methodist, a court next spring, brought in their families house and jail, two taverns, five stores, from Winchester, Ñ. H. They were soon two groceries, 'three carding machines, a joined by others from different quarters, clothier's establishment, a trip hammer who settled in different parts of the town. shop, two tin workers' shops, two cabinet Those who first came in brought all their shops, two tanneries, a printing office, 3 furniture and provisions on their backs jeweller and watchmaker's shop, with va. from Tunbridge, nine miles distant, where rious other mechanics shops, and about were their nearest neighbors. The first ninety dwelling houses. The bank of house in town was erected in the present Orange county is located here, as is also þurying ground by Thomas Moore, and the office of the Orange County Mutual was burned to the ground with all its Fire Insurance Company, which was contents, in September, 1785, but four or chartered in November, 1838, and comfive months after his family had entered menced operations in Dec. 1839. The it. The first child born in town was amount insured by them is now about Thomas Porter Moore, son of Thomas $500,000. Near the west line of the town Moore, born Oct. 16, 1785. He is still is a meeting house, owned by several difliving in the town, as are also Thomas ferent denominations, called the union Moore and wife. The first town meeting house. The town is divided into 17 school was held March 31, 1788,and was warned districts, containing as many school hou. by Thomas Moredock, Esq. of Norwich. ses. There are in it, two grist and ten It was called to order by Thomas Porter, saw mills. Statistics of 1840.—Horses

, Esq. of Vershire, and Roger Wales was 340; cattle, 1,710 ; sheep, 6,696 : swine, appointed moderator, Asa Bond, Joshua 971 ; wheat, bu. 3,177 ; barley, 55; oats, Lathrop, and Roger Wales were chosen 11,663 ; rye, 86; b'k wheat, 413; In.corn, selectmen, and Enos Smith town clerk 4,427; potatoes, 47,090 ; hay, tons, 4,124; and treasurer. The town was first repre- sugar, Ibs. 18,782; wool, 11,122. Popu. sented in 1794, by Samuel Badger. A Con- lation, 1959. gregational church was early organized CHESTER, a post town on the south here, over which Rev. Lathrop Thomp-line of Windsor colnty, is in lat. 43° 17' son was settled in November, 1799. He and long. 4° 21', and is bounded north by was dismissed in April, 1805, and Rev. Cavendish and Baltimore, east by Spring; Calvin Noble was ordained over the field, south by Grafton and a small part church in September, 1807, and continu- of Rockingham, and west by Andover, ed in its charge till his death in April, and part of Ludlow. It was first charter1834. Rev. James Buckham was settled ed by New Hampshire, February 22, 1754, in February, 1835, and dismissed in Feb. by the name of Flamstead. It was re: 1841. There is also a flourishing Metho-chartered November 3, 1766, by the name dist society, organized in 1825. There of New Flamstead. The settlement was was formerly a small Baptist society in commenced in 1764, by Thomas Chandler 'the west part of the town, but for many and his two sons, John and Thomas years it has been without a settled minis- Chandler, Junior, Jabez Sargeant, Edward 'ter. The township is quite hilly, but Johnson, Isaiah 'Johnson, Charles Mary

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CHESTER .

CHESTER. William Warner, Ichabod Ide, and Ebe- I. M. S. London, professor in Yale Col. neezer Hotton, from Woodstock, Con- lege, and lecturer in Vermont University, necticut, and Worcester and Malden, who resided in Chester many years in his Massachusetts. On the 14th of July, youth. Col. Thomas Chandler, under 1766, Thomas Chandler obtained a charter whose particular influence and agency, from the state of New York, for himself the charter under New York was obtained, and 36 others, in which the town took the was a man of quick apprehension, hasty name of Chester. About the same time, in his movements, and dogmatical, and the county of Cumberland was organized, was said to have been instrumental in the and Chester became the shire town. Col. massacre at Westminster; and afterwards Thomas Chandler was appointed chief died there. Thomas Chandler, junior, justice of the county court, and his son was also conspicuous in the formation of John Chandler, clerk. Chester is situate our state government, one of the comsix miles west of Connecticut river, con- missioners of confiscated estates, one of taining 487 square miles, or 32,242 acres. the judges of the first supreme court, and It was organized in June, 1767, and first secretary of state. Elder Aaron Thomas Chandler, was first town clerk. Leland in early life, took an active part The religions denominations are Congre in politics, as well as religion, and filled gationalists, Baptists, Restorationers, and several offices of trust in town, county Methodists. The Congregational church and state, was town clerk, one of the sewas first formed in 1773, and Rev. Samuel lect men, and representative a number of Whiting, was settled by this town and years, judge of the county court, speaker Rockingham, for five years; he officiated of the house of representatives, and Lieut. one third of the time at Chester, and the Governor of the state. His portly apremainder at Rockingham, after which pearance in person, overawed some, while they had no settled minister for 36 years. his light and airy deportment, sometimes In 1825, Rev. Uzziah C. Burnap was displeased others. Lucius Hubbard, Esq. settled here, and continued till 1837. educated at Yale College, was for a numRev. Silas H. Hodges was settled in July, ber of years the only lawyer in the town. 1837, and continued until December, 1840. He was a man of science, and died young. This society had erected a meeting house Daniel Heald, Esq. was one of the early in 1789, 40 by 50 feet, but, having become settlers from Concord, Mass. where he dilapidated, in 1825, it was repaired, resided at the commencement of the painted, and a tower and bell added to it. revolutionary war, was a soldier in the Town meetings are now usually held in battle at Concord bridge, and in the service this house. The Baptist society was at Cambridge, the same season; also at formed in 1788, and built a house 40 by Ticonderoga. In 1776,' he built a log cabin 30, the same season, which they con- in Chester, on the same lot on which he tinued to occupy until 1835, in which ever after resided until his death, in 1833, year it was removed, and a new one of in the 95th year of his age. He had brick erected, 66 by 46, (including the shared fully of the confidence of his projection in front.) Elder Aaron Leland townsmen ; was town clerk 20 years, was pastor of this church, from 1788 until from 1779 to 1799, and 13 years reprehis decease, in 1833, being 45 years. He sented the town in the legislature. His was succeeded by Elder Jacob's, McCol. eldest son, Amos Heald, lives upon the lom, who continued 21 years, and was same farm on which his father settled, succeeded by Elder Ira Person, who con- and has been entrusted with many imtinued 24 years. Elder Richard M. Ely, portant offices, both by the town and state, the present minister was settled April, and now, at the age of 73, is town clerk, 1838. The Restoration society was form- which office he has held for the last Já ed about the year 1829, and their church years. This oflice has been filled for 61 organized in 1832, which now consists of years past by three individuals, and in about 25 members. Rev. Warren Skin. that time it has been necessary, in only ner, Darius Forbs, Solomon Law, A. four instances to appoint a clerk pro tem. Williams, and L. Ballou, the present Williain's river is formed in this township minister, have supplied the desk about by the union of three considerable branchhalf the time. In 1828 the Union meeting es. These branches unite, nearly in the house, owned principally by the Congre- same place, and about one and a half gationalists and Restorationers, was built miles southeast of the two villages; they in the south village. It is 66 by 41 feet, constitute the principal waters, heading and has a bell, weighing about 1,200 lbs in the towns of Andover, Ludlow and Among the distinguished persons who Windham. No natural pond, cave, or have resided in this town, may be men- Indian name or antiquity, ever known or tioned, Doctor Nathan Smith, M. D., c. I recorded in said town. The surface is

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