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tlers brought their provisions with them, j store, tavern, trip hammer shop, fulling and when their meat failed, they hunted mill, &c. The town meetings and the the moose. The first improvements were meetings of the Baptist society for religimade on the flats along the Lamoille, the ous worship are held here. The other vilwaters of which frequently swept away lage is one mile north of the Borough, and or spoiled in fall the products of summer. is called the Harbor. The old Spartan, The crops of pumpkins frequently floated David Safford, settled here with several away and landed safely on the shores of of his friends. The town is divided into Grand Isle. When their mill dams were 12 school districts. There are two grist swept away, the people ground their grain mills, with two run of stones each, six in mortars, which they called plumping saw mills, two clothier's works, two cardmills. They were made by burning a ing machines, one trip hammer shop, five large cavity in the top of a stump, and stores, three taverns and one tannery. suspending a large pestle to a spring pole. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 644; cattle, The town was organized March 29, 1785, 3,180; sheep, 8,370 ; swine, 1,228; wheat, and John Fasset was first town clerk. bu. 3,531 ; barley, 15; oats, 10,606; rye, David Safford was first representative 291 ; buckwheat, 89; Indian corn, 6,436; and John Safford taught the first school potatoes, 73,100; hay, tons, 5,329; sugar, in town. The religious denominations lbs. 64,111; wool, 19,091. Population, are Congregationalists, Baptists, Episco- 1,790. palians, and Methodists. The Rev. Eli- CAMEL'S HUMP, next to the Chin in jah Woolage was settled over the Congre- Mansfield, is the most elevated summit gational church in 1805, and dismissed in of the Green Mountains. It is situated 1806; the Rev. John Truaire, November in the eastern part of Huntington, near 21, 1810, and dismissed in 1812. The the west line of Duxbury. Its height Rev. Royal A. Avery was settled in 1824. above tide water has been computed to be Their meeting house was erected in 1805, 4,188 feet, and 3,600 feet above the site in the village called the Borough. The of the State house, at Montpelier. It is first Elder of the Baptist church was 17 miles west of Montpelier, 25 northeastJoseph Call who was succeeded by Elder erly from Middlebury, and 20 southeast Samuel Holmes, who died in 1813. The from Burlington. This summit is condysentery prevailed here in 1806, and spicuous from the whole valley of lake was very mortal. In Cambridge, 21 died, Champlain, and the prospect which it and as many more along the river in its commands is hardly surpassed in extent immediate vicinity. The river Lamoille and beauty. The summit is hardly acenters this town on the east side one mile cessible except from the north. It is usufrom the northeast corner, and after run-ally ascended by way of Duxbury, where ning a serpentine course of 12 miles, in carriages can approach within about 3 which it receives north branch from the miles of the summit. The remainder of north, and Brewster's river and Sey- the way can be passed on foot without mour's brook from the south, passes the difficulty, excepting about half a mile west line of the town, one mile from the which is very steep and rugged. The southwest corner. These streams afford rocks which compose the mountain are numerous mill privileges. The surface wholly of mica slate, and the Hump is of the town is uneven, and, in some places nearly destitute of soil or vegetation, only rough. The land is, however, generally a few mosses, stinted shrubs and alpine good, and on the river are about 5000 acres plants being met with. This mountain of valnable intervale. A branch of dead is often erroneously called Camel's Rump. creek, which is a branch of Missisco river, Canaan, a post town, lying in the rises in this town, and another branch of northeast corner of Essex County, and said creek issues from Metcalf pond in entirely at the northeastern extremity of Fletcher, and runs across the northwest the state. It is in lat. 44° 57' and long. corner of the town. The town is well 5° 22', and contains about 29 square miles. watered, and the timber of various kinds. It is bounded north by Hereford, Canada, There are three small villages. The vil- east by Connecticut river, and southwest lage called the Borough, is on the south by Lemington and Averill. It lies opposide of the river Lamoille, in the south-site Stewartstown, N. H. The northeast west corner of the town, on the post road, corner of the town is the most easterly and contains a Congregational meeting land in Vermont, and lies in long. 5° 29' house, 3 stores, 2 taverns, and mills and east, and 71° 33''west from Greenwich. other machinery. The centre village is This town was granted to William Will. on the south side of the Lamoille near the iams, Jonathan and Arad Hunt, and others. centre of the town, west of Brewster's February 26, 1782, it received a new river, and contains a meeting house a charter, and October 23, 1801, the town
of Norfolk was annexed to it. The first ment of New Hampshire, and the council settlers were Silas Sargeant, John Hugh, of safety, and the vexatious embarrassand Hubbard Spencer, who removed their ments consequent to the claims of jurisfamilies into Canaan in 1785, and in 1791, diction by the state of New York. At there were 19 persons in town. Canaan the commencement of the war of Ameribeing a frontier town, was subject to con- can independence, he entered the army siderable disturbance during the last war with a commission, and after sharing in with Great Britain, some account of its toils and honors, the return of peace which has already been given in part brought him again to the bosom of his second, page 95. The religious denomi: family. Possessing a vigorous constitunations are Congregationalists, Freewill tion, he continued long to witness the risBaptists, and Methodists. This township ing greatness of his country, and to enjoy is well watered by Leach's stream, Wil- the benefits for which he had toiled. He lard's brook, &c. which afford good mill died in May, 1840, aged 97 years. Durprivileges. The former is two rods wide ing the war for independence, the people at its junction with the Connecticut, of Castleton were often alarmed and once Leeds pond from which it issues is partly invaded by the British and Indians. On the in Canada. There is some fine intervale on 6th of July,1777, Gen. Fraser senta detachthe Connecticut, and much good land in ment under the command of Capt. Fraser, other parts. Statistics of 1840.-Horses, who attacked, by surprise, about 20 militia, 119; cattle, 670 ; sheep, 1,706; swine, who were posted near the present site of 459; wheat, bu. 692; barley, 483 ; oats, the village, under the command of Capt. 3,320 ; buckwheat, 6,706 ; In. corn, 285; Wells. Capt. Williams, a volunteer, of potatoes, 26,400; hay, tons, 1,451; sugar, Guilford, Vermont, was killed, and Capt. ibs. 11,450 ; wool, 2,711. Population, 378. Hall, of Castleton, mortally wounded, and
CARTHAGE. Name altered to Jay.- his son, Lieut. Hall, and some others See Jay.
were taken prisoners, and carried to TiCaspian LAKE. See Greensborough. conderoga. Lieut. Hall, his brother and
CASTLETON, a post town situated near a Mr. Kellogg, made their escape from the centre of Rutland county, being 10 the fort, re-crosssed the lake in a canoe miles west of Rutland, 13 east of White by night, and after great privations, eluhall, N. Y., 65 north of Albany, and 60 ded their savage pursuers and returned to southwest of Montpelier. Lat. 43° 34', their homes. On the spot where Willong, 30 56. Bounded south by Poultney, liams fell, was erected a fort, the ensuing east by Ira, north by Hubbardton, west by year, which was furnished with 2 pieces Fairhaven; containing 36 square miles. of cannon, and garrisoned under differThe charter was granted to Samuel Brown ent commanders until the return of peace. of Stockbridge, Mass., Sept 22, 1761. The graves of about 30 soldiers, whose Col. Amos Bird of Salisbury, Ct. became names have long been forgotten by their the principal proprietor, and, in company countrymen, are still visible near the site with Col. Noah Lee, made the first sur- of the fort. Castleton was organized in veys in June, 1766. The first dwelling March, 1777. Jesse Belknap was the first house was erected in August, 1769, of town clerk and justice of the peace. Zawhich Col. Lee and his servant were the dock Remington was the first representasole inhabitants the following winter. In tive. There are three organized religious 1770, Ephriam Buel, Eleazer Bartholo- societies, Congregationalists, Methodists, mew and Zadock Remington, with their and Roman Catholics. The Congregafamilies, settled in this town; and were tional church, which is the most numersoon followed by Cols. Bird and Lee. The ous, was organized in 1784. Rev. Matfirst inhabitants were chiefly emigrants thias Cazier was the first minister, and from Connecticut. The enterprise and was settled by the town, Sept. 5, 1789, worth of Cols. Bird and Lee entitle them and dismissed, Dec. 13, 1792. Rev. Elito a prominent place in the early history hu Smith was installed Jan. 17, 1804, and of Castleton; the former died in the midst dismissed Dec. 13, 1826. The present of active benevolent exertions for the in- pastor, Rev. Joseph Steele, was installed fant settlement, September 16, 1762. His Dec. 25, 1828. This church consists of solitary monument on the banks of Cas- 270 members. Their house of worship tleton river, and an isolated mountain in is large and commodious, and was built the southeast corner of the town, are me. in 1833. The Methodist society was morials of his name, still associated with more recently organized, but is also conthe remembrance of his worth. Col. Lee siderably numerous. Their meeting house, was vigilant and active amidst the hard. a neat and convenient edifice, was erectships and dangers which were encountered in 1824, since which time they have been ed by the first settlers, under the govern- regularly supplied with local preachers;
their present minister is Rev. Josiah ed in propeling various kinds of machineBrown. Each religious society pos- ry. Being increased by many abundant sesses a parsonage, and each may be springs along its bed, its waters are very regarded as in a prosperous condition. pure and cool in summer, and seldom froThere is considerable variety in the soil zen in winter. The diseases most comand surface of Castleton. The rocks are mon are typhus fever, inflammation of the chiefly argillaceous, occasionally travers- lungs, croup, consumption, rheumatism, ed by veins of quartz, and occasionally and in the early settlement of the alternating with, or enclosing large mass- town, intermittent and remittent, and ines of the latter rock; small quantities of flammatory fevers, were common but are secondary lime stone are found in a few now comparatively rare. The most mor localities. Specimens of oxide of man- tal diseases have been typhoid pneumonia, ganese are found in the vicinity of Bird's malignant typhus and canker rash, mountain, in the southeast part of the which have been epidemic. The most town. The rocks are disposed in eleva- mortal epidemic was of typhoid pneumoted ridges in the eastern and northern nia, in 1813, of which 63 persons died, sections, and are in some places abrupt who were chiefly adults.* The climate and precipitous; but for most part cover- of Castleton is salubrious, with the exceped with fertile arable soil. The south tion of epidemics. The number of deaths west part is a pine plain, in some places in 1841, was 21, being a fraction above intersected by slate rock and ridges of one per cent. of the population. slate gravel. The larger streams are gen- Castleton village is pleasantly situated erally bordered by rich alluvial inter on the southern bank of Castleton river, vales, which, in some instances, are broad on a level plain, elevated about 30 feet and extensive. The soil of the plains is above the stream. Main street extends sandy and light; on the hills it is slaty half a mile in length from east to west. gravel, loam and vegetable mould; these Seminary and Mechanic's streets extend soils are rendered much more productive south from Main street; West street by the use of plaster of Paris; that of the crosses Main nearly at right angles. The intervales is strong and productive, in number of dwelling houses is 75; populamany places however requiring drainage. tion 550. The dwellings are remarkable The cultivated crops are grass, Indian for a uniform neatness and convenience, corn, oats, rye, wheat, b'kwheat, potatoes, being a true index of the equality and &c.' The agricultural interest is chiefly moderate competence of the inhabitants
. vested in sheep, neat cattle, horses, and in the village are three houses of worsbip, swine. Lake Bombazine lies principally a town house, two buildings of the Casin Castleton, its northern extremity ex- tleton Medical College, and one of Cas. tending a short distance into Hubbardton. tleton Seminary. The Congregational It lies in a basin of rocks, which, in some and Methodist churches, and college parts, is of great depth; it is 8 miles buildings are handsomely located on the long, and its greatest breadth is 24 miles; north side of Main street. The seminaan island containing about 10 acres is sit- ry edifice, which is 160 feet in length, uated near the centre of this lake; being 40 feet in breadth, and four stories high, provided with a grove and a cottage, it is is situated on a beautiful elevation at the à pleasant summer resort for parties of head of Seminary street. The Catholic pleasure, and adds much to the beauty of chapel stands on the south side of Main the scenery. The outlet of the lake, at street. In the village are 4 lawyers, 4 its southern extremity, has sufficient de physicians, 1 printing office, 1 book store, clivity and volume of water to propel a 4 mercantile stores, i druggist's store, 3 large amount of machinery. The ma- public houses, one a temperance house, chinery at present in operation at this i grocery, 1 watchmaker, 2 tailors
, 3 place are one sash factory, one carding mantuamakers, 4 shoemakers, 1 hatter
, 2 machine, one clothier's works, three saw saddlers and harness makers, 2 carriage mills, and one grist mill; here also is a makers, 4 blacksmiths, 2 cabinet and mercantile store and a cluster of dwelling chair makers, 4 joiners and builders, 1 oil houses, called Mill village. Castleton mill, 1 grist mill, 1 furnace and 1 tannery. river, which arises in Pittsford, traverses The Albany, Montreal,Boston and Whitea part of Rutland, Ira, and Castleton from hall mail routes intersect in Castleton, maeast to west, where it receives the waters king 4 daily mails, and affording easy acof lake Bombazine. It afterwards unites
* The annual number of deaths from 1804 to 1813, with Poultney river in Fair Haven, and inclusive, were as follows : 1804, 16; 1805, 15; 18 enters lake Champlain at East bay. This 20; 1807, 20 ; 1808, 15; 1809, 20 ; 1810, 23; 1811,
24, 1812, 25, 1813, 77. river and its tributary brooks furnish con
† A history of this flourishing institution was exsiderable water power, which is improv- Pected for our work, but it was not furnished.
cess to the public institutions. The post | 30th, 1754, and Mrs. Johnson was delivoffice is at present a distributing office. ered of her child half a mile up this There are in Castleton ten school districts brook.” and school houses; and usually are one or " When trouble is near the Lord is kind,
He hears the Captives cry; more select schools in the village; num
He can subdue the savage mind, ber of scholars belonging to the primary And learn it sympathy." schools, 596. Statistics of 1840.- Horses, The settlement of this township
was 322; cattle, 1,638; sheep, 14,631; swine, commenced in the north part by Capt, 890; wheat, bu. 1,752; oats, 8,876; rye, John Coffein, in June, 1769, at whose 3,306; b'k wheat, 822; Ind. corn, 10,185; hospitable dwelling, thousands of our potatoes, 23,915; hay, tons, 4,479; sugar, revolutionary soldiers received refreshibs. 8,660 : wool, 27,631. Population, ments, while passing from Charlestown, 1769.
then No. 4, to the military posts, on lake CASTLETON RIVER originates in Pitts- Champlain, nearly the whole distance ford, runs south into Rutland, thence being, at that time, a wilderness. On west through Ira, Castleton and Fair the farm, now the residence of James Haven into Poultney river. In Castleton Smith, Esq., in the northwesterly part of it receives the waters of lake Bombazine, the town, 20 miles from Charlestown, and another considerable mill stream from was another stopping place, called the the north. The road from Rutland to “ Twenty miles encampment,” giving Whitehall, through Castleton village, name to a small river near the head of passes along this river for a considerable which the encampment was situated. In part of the distance. Length of the stream 1771, Noadiah Russell and Thomas Gilabout 20 miles
bert joined Capt. Coffein in the settleCAVENDISH, a post town in Windsor ment, and shared with him in his wants county, is in lat. 43° 23' and long. 4° 25', and privations. For several years they and is 60 miles south from Montpelier, struggled hard for a scanty and precarious and 10 miles from Windsor. It is bounded subsistence. The grinding of a single grist north by Reading, east by Weathersfield, of corn was known to have cost 60 miles south by Chester, and west by Ludlow. travel. Such was the situation of the This township was chartered by the gov. roads and the scarcity of mills at this ernor of New Hampshire, October 12, early period. Many interesting anec1761, and afterwards regranted by New dotes are related of Capt. Coffein, which York. It was originally about 7 miles our limits will not permit us to insert. At square. In 1793, 3000 acres were set off one time, he owed his lite to the sagacity from the southeast corner, and constituted of his faithful dog. He was returning a separate township by the name of Balti- from Otter creek, in March, 1771, while more. On the morning of the 30th of the country was perfectly new, and on Aug. 1754, the Indians surprised Charles- account of the depth of the snow was town, N. H., and made prisoners of compelled to travel on snow-shoes. While Mr. Labaree, Mr. Farnsworth and Mr. crossing one of the ponds in Plymouth, Johnson with his family. The savages the ice broke, and he was suddenly proceeded with their prisoners and booty plunged into the water. Encumbered into the wilderness, and encamped within with a large pair of snow-shoes and a the present limits of this town, where great coat which he had on, he strove, Mrs. Johnson was, that night, delivered but in vain, to extricate himself. He of a daughter, which she called Captive. struggled about half an hour, and, in desMrs. Johnson was compelled to keep on pair, was about yielding himself to a her march over the Green Mountains, watery grave, when, at this critical moand to perform a journey of 200 miles. ment, his large and faithful dog beholding After a captivity of some time, in which his situation came forward to the rescue they endured many privations and hard- of his master. He seized the cuff of his ships, this little band of sufferers were great coat, and, aided by the almost ex. ransomed and returned again to New piring efforts of Capt. Coffein, succeeded Hampshire, to the enjoyment of their in dragging him from the watery chasm friends and society. Captive Johnson is to a place of safety. Capt. Coffein lived now the wife of Col. George Kimball. to see the town all settled and organized, Near the place where Mrs. Kimball was and to take an active part in its public born, a monument is erected with an in concerns. He was the first representative, scription, of which the following is a and represented the town for a number of verbatim copy. “This is near the spot years. The first settlers were mostly from that the Indians encamped the night after Massachusetts. Josiah Fletcher was first they took Mr. Johnson and family, Mr. town clerk. There is a Baptist and ConLabaree and Mr. Farnsworth, August Igregational church, and some Methodists,
Universalists, &c. but no settled minister. fbeen sent to Boston and New York The epidemic of 1812 prevailed here, and markets, and found a ready sale. There about 40, mostly heads of families, were are in town 3 meeting houses, one free, victims to it. The soil of this town is one Baptist, and one Methodist house. easy and generally fertile. Black river, The latter was built in Proctorsville in which runs from west to east, and Twenty 1841. There are 8 saw, 2 grist and 2 mile stream, which runs in a southerly fulling mills, 5 stores, 3 taverns, &c.direction and unites with it near White's Statistics of 1840.-Florses, 265; cattle, mills, are the principal streams. Along 1,716; sheep, 7,124 ; swine, 591 ; wheat, these streams are some small tracts of fine bu. 1,101 ; barley, 57; oats, 7,996; rye
, intervale. The greatest curiosity in the 1,798 ; bụck wheat, 246; In. corn, 3,750; town, and perhaps the greatest of the potatoes, 30,680 ; hay, tons, 3,620; sugar
, kind in the state, is at the falls on Black lbs. 7,545; wool, 14,279. Population, river, which are situated between Dut- 1,427. ton's village and White's mills.
" Here CHAMPLAIN LAKE. A general account the channel of the river has been worn of this lake and of its name in the landown 100 feet; and rocks of very large guages of the aborigines, has been given dimensions have been undermined and in part first, page 5. We had intended to thrown down, one upon another. Holes insert in this place a long extract from the are worn into the rocks, of various di- journal of Champlain in which he gives mensions and forms. Some of them are minute account of his discovering and cylindrical, from one to eight feet in di- naming the lake in 1609, and of the batameter, and from one to fifteen feet in tle in which he was engaged with the depth; others are of a spherical form Indians, but our limits do not permit us from six to twenty feet diameter, worn to carry out our design. In his journal almost perfectly smooth into the solid Champlain calls the outlet of lake Chambody of the rock.” Hawk's mountain, plain the river des Iroquois, and writers which separates Baltimore from this town, who succeeded him not only continued to derives its name from Col. Hawks, who, apply this name to the outlet of the lake during the French and Indian wars, en: but to the lake itself. Hence some have camped thereon for the night with a small supposed that Iroquois was the name gir. regular force, among whom was General en to the lake by the Indians. But it (then Captain) John Stark. Some traces seems most probable that the application of their route are still to be seen. The of this name to the river and lake originastage road, from Weathersfield to Rutland, ted with the French. The great thoroughpasses through this town along Black fare between the St. Lawrence and the river. There are two villages, viz: Dut- powerful nations of the Iroquois on the tonsville, and Proctorsville. Duttonsville Mohawk being through this river and derives its name from Salmon Dutton, lake, they designated them as the river Esq. the first principal inhabitant, and and lake of the Iroquois, or the river and has among other things a woollen factory, lake leading to the Iroquois. The name, for the manufacture of broadcloths, built Corlear which the Indians at a later peof stone, 100 feet by 50, and 5 stories riod often applied to this lake, was the high. It employs 75 hands, and makes name of a Dutchman, who was instrudaily about 140 yards. Proctorsville has mental in saving a war party of Canada a factory for making cassimeres, which Indians from being destroyed by the Moemploys 35 hands, and makes about 130 hawks, at Schenectady, in 1665. In toyards per day. The building is of brick, ken of gratitude for this service the In75 by 42 feet, and 5 stories high. The dians afterwards applied the name Corlear post-office at Duttonsville bears the name to every thing excellent in New York, of the town; that at Proctorsville the and, among others, to this lake. Lake name of the village. One mile north- Champlain commences at Whitehall
, west from Proctorsville are extensive at the junction of Wood creek with quarries of serpentine, near which, on East bay. A mile or two north of this it Black river is a mill, 100 feet by 40, with receives the waters of South bay, which 10 or 12 gangs of saws, and other ma- projects to the southwest. From Whitechinery for polishing,are now in operation. hall to the south part of Orwell, the averThe serpentine receives a high polish age width of the lake is about half a mile. and is considered equal in beauty and su- At Sholes landing, about one mile south perior in quality to the Egyptian marble, as of Mount Independence, the lake is not it possesses the rare qualities of being un. more than 40 rods wide, and between affected by heat or acids. It makes the Mount Independence and Ticonderoga, most excellent and elegant fire-jambs,and only 80 rods. The widest place, in the centre and pier tables, and quantities have lake against Orwell, is about two miles,