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BROOKFIELD sidered a very good township of land, and lage it runs some distance nearly south contains much excellent white pine tim- and then_turns to the west into Newber with several fine mill sites. Two saw Haven. There are three natural ponds mills and one shingle mill have been here; the largest called Bristol pond, is a erected, and, at Aldrich's mills on Clyde mile and a half long and three fourths of a river, are the rudiments of a village. mile wide. In the west part of the town Statistics of 1840.-Horses, 27; cattle, is a spring which is slightly medicinal, 118; sheep, 242; swine, 71'; wheat, bu. and is sometimes visited. There is a bed 358; barley, 63; oats, 1,092; rye, 43; of iron ore in the part of the town next to buckwheat, 277 ; In. corn, 54; potatoes, Monkton, and there have been several 4,700; hay, tons, 246; sugar, lbs. 6,050; forges here, but two only are now in opera. wool, 348. Population, 157.

tion, making annually about 100 tons of Bristol, a post town in the northeast. wrought iron. Most of the ore which is ern part of Addison county, in lat. 449 79 used here, is brought from Monkton and and long. 3° 59, is bounded north by from a bed in Moriah, N. Y. west of lake Monkton and Starksboro' east by Lincoln Champlain. This town furnishes large and Starksboro' south by Middlebury and quantities of sawed lumber, which are sent Avery's Gore and west by New-Haven. to market. The village is near the centre It is 25 miles southwest from Montpelier, of the town, upon New-Haven river, im. and the same distance southeast' from mediately after it passes the Notch in the Burlington. It was chartered to Samuel mountain. It is very pleasantly located and Averill and his associates, by the name of has 70 dwelling houses and about 400 inPocock, June 26, 1762, and contains about habitants. The greater part of it is water26,000 acres. The name was altered to ed by an aqueduct nearly 400 rods in Bristol, October 21, 1789. The settle- length, laid in water lime. The village ment of this town was commenced im- contains 3 meeting houses, 2 school houses, mediately after the revolutionary war, 6 stores, 2 taverns and the usual variety by Samuel Stewart and Eden Johnson. of mechanics' shops. It is 10 miles from These were soon joined by Benjamin Vergennes and 11 from Middlebury. The Griswold, Cyprian, Calvin and Jonathan town contains 9 school districts, 2 grist Eastman, Justus Allen 'and others. The and 11 saw mills, 1 fulling mill and card. town was organized March 2, 1789; and ing machine, 2 forges, &c. Statistics of Samuel Ranny was first town clerk, and 1840.-Horses, 213; cattle, 995; sheep, Robert Holly first representative. There 3,973; swine, 596; wheat, bu. 1,524; are three religious societies, the Baptist, oats, 7,540; rye, 1,087; buckwheat, 348; the Methodist and the Congregational. Ind. corn, 6,300 ; potatoes, 25,150; hay, Each of these societies has a good meet- tons, 2,252 ; sugar, lbs. 9,500; wool, ing house, that of the Baptist erected in 11,800. Population, 1,233. 1819, of the Methodist in 1840, and of the BROAD Brook, a small mill stream, Congregationalist in 1841. The first or which rises in the eastern part of Barnard, dained minister was the Rey. Amos runs across the southeast corner of Roy. Stearns. The present ministers are, the alton and falls into White river in Sharon. Rev. Solomon Gale, Baptist, the Rev. B. BROMLEY. This name was altered to 0. Meeker,Methodist, and the Rev. Calvin Peru, February 3, 1804. See Peru. Butler. The Congregational church was BROOKFIELD, a post town in the western organized July 8, 1805. The epidemic of part of Orange county, in lat. 44° 2' and 1812, preyailed here, but was not very long. 4° 25, is bounded north by Willmortal. About one third of this town lies iamstown,east by Chelsea, south by Ran. entirely west of the Green Mountains, dolph and a part of Braintree, and west and is very level, rich and productive by Roxbury. It lies 16 miles south from The remainder of the town is broken and Montpelier and 40 northwesterly from a considerable part incapable of cultiva- Windsor. This township was granted tion. A considerable mountain extends November 6, 1780, and chartered August through the town from north to south. 5, 1781, to Phinehas Lyman and his assoThat part of it north of the Great Notch, ciates, and contains 36 square miles. The through which New-Haven river passes, first settlement of this town was begun in is called the Hog Back, and that on the 1779, by Shubal Cross and family. Mrs. south is called South mountain. A part Cross was the first woman who came into of the latter was formerly much infested town, and on that account was presented, with rattle snakes. New-Haven river, by the proprietors, with 100 acres of land. enters this town from the southeast

, and Mr. Howard's family came in about the before it reaches the centre of the town, same time and Caleb Martin, John Ly: receives Baldwin creek from the north? man, Jonathan Pierce, John and Noah After passing the Notch and Bristol vil. Payne, and several others came in soon



after. The early settlers were principally tons, 1,412; sugar, lbs. 26,486; wool, from Conn. Capt. Cross built the first 25,757. Population, 1,789. grist and saw mill. Timothy Cole was BROOKLINE, a small post town in the the first town clerk and Jonathan Pierce eastern part of Windham county, in lat. the first representative. The religious de- 43° 1', is bounded north by Athens, east nominations are Congregationalists, Bap- by Westminster and Putney, south by tists, Freewill Baptists, Methodists and Putney and Dummerston, and west by Universalists. The Congregationalist Townshend and Newfane, being in part church was organized, July 11, 1787, and separated from the latter by West river. the Rev. Elijah Lyman ordained over it It is about eight miles in length and from April 8, 1789, and continued pastor till one and a half to two and a half miles in his death, which took place April 12, 1828. width. It was set off from Putney and Mr. Lyman was a native of Tolland, Athens and incorporated into a township, Conn. and graduated at Dartmouth col- October 30, 1794, and derives its name lege, in 1786. He was succeeded by the from Grassy brook which runs through present pastor, the Rev. Daniel Wild, the whole length of the town from north who is a native of West Fairlee, graduated to south, and empties into West river op at the University of Vt. in 1828, and was the southwestern boundary. Its area is ordained over this church, July 1, 1830. about 17 square miles. The town was This was for many years the only reli- organized in March, 1795, and John Watgious society in town, and the others are ers was first town clerk. It was first repstill comparatively small. There are four reserted in 1823, by Benjamin Ormsbee. houses for public worship belonging to The first settlement was made in this the several religious denominations, that township by Cyrus Whitcomb, jr., David of the Congregationalists was erected in Ayres, Samuel Skinner, and Jonah Moore 1806. In 1789 there were 52 families in about the year 1777. The first settlers town. The number of deaths in town had many hardships to endure, but nothing from that time up to 1842, is 805. The more than is common in new settlements smallest number of deaths in one year generally. There are two religious sociwas one, the greatest 34, the average eties, a Baptist society, close communion, number 14. The years of most remarka- and a union or open communion society, ble mortality, were 1795, 1801, 1807, 1803, each having a good house of worship. 1811, 1813, and 1823. This township lies The former was organized in 1798 and nearly on the height of land between has had the following ministers ; Rev. White and Winooski river, and parts of it Amos Beckwith, settled in 1802 and reare broken; but it is mostly fit for cultiva- mained but a short time, Rev. Isaac Welltion and is very productive, particularly in more, settled Nov. 2, 1808, continued 18 grass. It is well watered with springs years, Rev. David Cutler, October 3, and brooks, but has no very good mill 1827, two years, Rev. Denzil M. Crome, privileges. The principal stream is the May, 1837, one year, and Rev. John second branch of white river, which Baldwin, the present minister, settled in originates in Williamstown, in conjunc- April, 1838. A deep valley runs through tion with Stevens' branch of Winooski the whole length of the township from river, and runs through the eastern part north to south, at the bottom of which of this town into Randolph There are runs Grassy Brook, which rises in Athens several considerable ponds, some of which and falls into West river near the southafford streams, a considerable part of the west corner of Brookline. Along the year sufficient for mills and other machine-whole of the east line of the town, is a ry. Colt's pond near the north village considerable elevation. West river forms is crossed by a floating bridge 25 rods for a short distance, the western boundary. long. Around and at the bottom of a During a violent freshet, some years small pond in the west part of the town since, a bed of kaolin, or porcelain clay is an inexhaustible quantity of marl, from was laid open in this town. The soil is which very good lime is manufactured better adapted to the production of grass There are three good stage roads passing than grain. There is a medicinal spring through the town leading from Montpelier in the south part of the town, which is to White river. There are 13 school dis- considered efficacious in cutaneous aftricts, a female seminary, a town library fections. The town has always been reconsisting of about 600 volumes, 4 taverns, markably healthy. There are four school 3 stores, &c. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, districts and school houses, one tavern, 546 ; cattle, 2,406; sheep, 12,693 ; swine, one saw mill and one grist mill, but the 1,641; wheat, bu. 6,127 ; barley, 176; mill privileges are not very good. Statisoats, 26,251 ; rye, 321; buckwheat, 4,095 ; tics of 1840.—Horses, 75; cattle, 679; Ind. corn, 7,042; potatoes, 70,686; hay, sheep, 1,553; swine, 201; wheat, bu!


BROWN'S RIVER.-BRUNSWICK.—BUEL'S GORE. BURKL. 294 ; barley, 6; oats, 2,904 : rye, 343; thaniel Wait. John Merrill removed here buck wheat, 196; Ind. corn, 2,815 ; pota- the succeeding autumn. In 1791 the toes, 9, 29; bay, tons, 937 ; sugar, lbs. population was 66, and so slow has been 3,530; wool, 2,331. Population, 328. its advancement that it is only twice that

BROWNINGTON, a post town in Orleans number now. Brunswick is watered by county, in lat. 44° 49' and long. 4. 51', is the west branch of Nulbegan river, which bounded northeasterly by Salem and runs through the northwest part of the Charleston, southeasterly by Westmore, town, and unites with the north branch in southwesterly by Barton, and west by Bloomfield. Wheeler's stream rises in north by Orleans, and a small part of Wenlock, and passes through this town Jrasburgh. It is 95 miles north from into Connecticut river. This stream afWindsor, 45 north by east from Montpe- fords several valuable mill privileges. It lier, and 57 northeast from Burlington. passes through a number of natural ponds. It was granted February 26, 1782, and Paul's stream, receiving its waters from chartered, by the name of Brownington, Granby, Ferdinand and Maidstone lake, October 2, 1790, to Timothy and Daniel passes through the south part of the town, Brown and their associates, and contains and is a considerable mill stream. There 19,845 acres. This was constituted a half are three natural ponds, one covering 80 shire town of Orleans county, when that acres, one 60, and one 25. The latter is county was incorporated. The seat of only 4 or 5 rods from the bank of Conjustice is now at Irasburgh. The settle-necticut river, and is elevated 80 feet ment of the township was commenced above that stream. Between the pond about the year 1800. The Orleans county and the almost perpendicular bank of the grammar school was incorporated and lo- river is a spruce ridge 15 or 20 feet bigher cated here in 1822. The building was than the pond. The pond receives a completed and the school opened in the small brook, but has no visible outlet. fall of 1823, under the charge of the Rev. About half way down the bank of the James Woodward. For several years past river issues a considerable stream which it has been under the charge of the Rev. probably, in part at least, proceeds from A. L. Twilight. The religious denomi- the pond; but while the waters of the nations are Congregationalists and Metho- pond are sweet and good, those of the dists. Willoughby's river, which passes spring are strongly impregnated with sulthrough the south part of the town is the phuretted hydrogen and other substances only permanent mill stream. Small streams which render their taste and smell disa. are numerous, and there is a small pond greeable, and impart to them medicinal on the line between this town and Salem. properties. The spring is known by the It has one grist mill, 2 saw mills, and 2 name of the mineral spring, and the pond stores. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 135; by that of mineral pond. Statistics of cattle, 563; sheep, 1,844; swine, 304; 1840.—Horses, 43; cattle, 219; sheep; wheat, bu. 1,549; barley, 318; oats, 4,181; 630 ; swine, 190 ; wheat, bu. 253 ; barley, buck wheat, 724 ; Ind.corn, 426 ; potatves, 160 ; oats, 3,380; buck wheat, 575; Ind. 22,600; hay, tons, 1,391; sugar,lbs. 18,395; corn, 435 ; potatoes, 8,200; hay, tons, wool, 4,711. Population, 786.

460; sugar, lbs. 3,370; wool, 1,385. PopuBrown's River originates among lation, 130. the Mansfield mountains, runs westerly Buel's Gore, a tract of 4273 acres through the south part of Underhill, and lying between Avery's Gore, in Chittennorth part of Jericho into Essex, and den county, and Starksborough. A part thence northerly through Westford, and of it has been annexed to Huntington, empties into Lamoille river in Fairfax. the remaining part contained 18 inhabitIts length is about 20 miles and it derives ants in 1840. its name from a family by the name of BURKE, a post town in the northeast Brown, which settled upon its banks in part of Caledonia county, in lat. 44° 36' Jericho.

and long. 5° 2', is bounded northeast by BRUNSWICK, a post town in Essex coun- Newark and East-Haven, southeast by ty, situated in lat. 44° 43' and long. 5° 18', Victory, south by Lyndon and Kirby, and containing 14,617 acres, or 23 square west by Sutton. It is 40 miles northeast miles. It is bounded north by Minehead, from Montpelier, and 37 north from Neweast by Connecticut river, south by Maid- bury. It was chartered, February 26, stone and west by Wenlock. It lies op- 1782, to Justus Rose, Uriah Seymour and posite to Stratford, in N. H. and fifty-five others, and contains 23,040 acres. The miles northeast from Montpelier. This settlement of this town was commenced town was chartered, October 13, 1761. about the year 1790 by Lemuel and Ira The first settlement was commenced in Walter, Seth Spencer and others from the spring of 1780, by Joseph and Na- Connecticut and the south part of this



state. The town was organized Dec. north from Middlebury, 22 southeast from 5, 1796, and Lemuel Walter was the first Plattsburgh, 85 from Montreal, and 440 town clerk. It was first represented by from Washington. Its charter is dated Thomas Bartlet, in 1805. A saw and June 7, 1763, and the township originally grist mill were erected here by Roman contained 36 square miles, measuring 10 Fyler and his sons about the year 1800. miles in a right line along the Winooski The saw mill was destroyed by fire the river and 6 miles from north to south on next year, but was soon rebuilt. The re- the eastern boundary. On the 27th of ligious denominations are Congregation- October, that part of the township east of alists, Baptists, Free will Baptists, Metho- Muddy brook, was annexed to Williston, dists, and Universalists. Elder Peleg leaving the present area of the township Hicks was settled for several years over about 26 square miles. The first that was the Baptist church, but since 1810 that done in this town with a view to its setand the other societies have depended tlement was in 1774. During the summer upon itinerants, and temporary supplies. of 1775, some clearings were made on the The epidemic of 1812 and '13 prevailed intervale north of the village, and in the here, producing considerable mortality neighborhood of the falls, and two or The township is watered by Passumpsic three log huts erected. But the revoluriver, which runs through it in a south- tion commencing this year, the settlers westerly direction and by several of its in this and neighboring towns, either rebranches, which afford numerous mill treated to the south in the fall, or took privileges. It is separated from Victory shelter in the block house in Colchester* by Burke mountain, which is about 3,500 for the winter, and abondoned the counfeet high, and is seen from a great dis- try the succeeding spring. During the tance. The surface of the township is war no attempt was made to renew the uneven and the timber mostly hard wood, settlement in these parts, but on the return interspersed with some evergreens. The of peace in 1783, many of those who had soil is generally good. In 1817, Roman been compelled to leave the country, reFyler and others, established á manu- turned and others with them, and a perfactory of shaving boxes and brushes here, manent settlement was effected. The and for several years manufactured these first man who brought his family into articles to the amount of from $1000 to Burlington in the spring of 1783, was Mr. $2000, annually. In 1819 Mr. Fyler and Stephen Lawrence. A number of other sons commenced the preparation of oil families came into Burlington the same stones, in this town. The stone was pro- season, among whom were Frederick Saxo cured from a small island in Memphrema- ton, Simon Tubbs and John Collins, and gog lake, and was here prepared for use from that time to the present the populaand then sent to market to the amount tion has been constantly on the increase. of three or four tons annually. It has the first town meeting on record, was been considered nearly, or quite equal to March 19, 1787, and Samuel Lane was the Turkey, oil stone and is generally then chosen town clerk. The town was, known by the name of Magog oil stone. however, probably organized a year or The town contains several grist and saw two before. There are in this town six mills and stores.-Statistics of 1840. Hor- religious societies. The Congregational ses, 281 ; cattle, 1,609; sheep, 3,965 ; church was organized February 23, 1805, swine, 985; wheat, bu. 2,358; barley, and was for several years the only reli767; oats, 17,408 ; rye, 149'; buck wheat, gious society, but no minister was settled 1,438 ; Ind.corn, 2,891 ; potatoes, 49,620; in town before the year 1810. The Rev. hay, tons, 2,931 ; sugar. Ibs. 42,050; wool, Chauncey Lee officiated here for some 7,475. Population, 997.

time, about the years1795 and 1796, and the BURKE's TONGUE. The southeast part Rev. Daniel C. Sanders, a considerable of Burke bore this name; but, October 28, portion of the time, from 1798 to 1807. 1807, the Tongue was annexed to Hop- From 1807 to 1810, Dr. Samuel Williams, kinsville, and the two incorporated into a who was then having a second edition of township by the name of Kirby.

his History of Vermont printed at BurBURLINGTON, a post town and seat of lington, preached here some part of the justice in Chittenden county, lies in lat. time. In 1810, the Congregational soci44° 27' and long. 3° 52', and is the most im- ety became divided into two, one of portant town in the state. The township which embraced the doctrine of the Trinis bounded north by Colchester, from ity, and the other rejected it. In April, which it is separated by Winooski river, of this year, each of these societies settled east by Williston, south by Shelburne, a minister. The Rev. Daniel Haskel and west by lake Champlain, being 35 was ordained over the Trinitarian or miles west by north from Montpelier, 30 * See part second, page 26.



Calvinistic society, April 10, and the Rev. the most tasteful and commodious houses Samuel Clark over the Unitarian society, of worship in New England. April 19, 1810. In the beginning of 1822, The Unitarian house of worship was Mr. Haskel was dismissed from his pas- erected in 1816. It is one of the largest toral charge to accept the presidency of meeting houses in the state, is built of the University of Vermont, and on the brick with a lofty steeple, and, together 23d of August of this year the Rev. Wil. with the organ, clock and bell, cost about lard Preston was installed over the Cal. $23,000. Mr. Clark, who was settled vinistic church and society. In July, over this society in 1810, resigned his 1825, he resigned his charge to succeed charge on the 18th of February, 1822, on Mr. Haskel as president of the Universi- account of ill health, and was succeeded ty, and on the 3d of May, 1826, the Rev. by the Rev. George G. Ingersoll, the Reuben Smith was installed over this present pastor, who was ordained on the church and society. Mr. Smith was suc- 30th of May, following. This society is ceeded by the Rev. J. K. Converse, the large and wealthy. The Methodist society present minister, who was ordained Aug. was organized as early as 1820, and in 1832 9, 1832. This society erected the first they erected a neat brick chapel. They meeting house in town, which was dedi- are supplied by local preachers, who are cated in December, 1812. This house, stationed for two years at a time. Rev. S. which was of wood, was consumed by fire D. Brown is their present minister. The June 23, 1939, but another has arisen Baptist church was organized in 1834, the from its ashes, which was dedicated on Baptists here previously belonging to the 14th of April, 1842.

the church in Williston. This church and society have a small chapel in the eastern part of the village, and are under the pastoral care of Rev. Hiram Safford. They are about erecting a new and elegant house of worship, in a central part of the village. The Episcopal church was organized in April 1831, by the name of St. Paul's Church. In the summer of this year the Rev. George T. Chapman, D. D. was employed by this society, and in the fall they commenced the erection of a church which was completed and consecrated the next year. This building, which is of stone, is of the Gothic order of architecture, and the interior is neatly finished. Including its excellent organ and bell, it cost about $9,000. Dr. Chap man resigned the rectorship in Sept. 1833, and in November following, was succeeded by the Rt. Rev. John H. Hopkins, bishop of the Diocese, who is the present rector. Confirmations in this church

since 1832, 206—present communicants, This fine building, which is of brick, 131. For an account of the Roman Cathwas constructed from the designs and un- olic church in this town, the reader is reder the superintendence of Mr. Henry ferred to part second, page 202. The Searle, of Burlington, at an expense of greater part of the surface of this towaabout $20,000. Its dimensions are 92 by ship is considerably elevated above the 61 feet. The front is a hexastyle Ionic lake, but the soil in general is not of the portico, with columns from the temple best quality. The variety of soil is, hor. on the Ilissus, surmounted by a square ever, very considerable. Below the lowbase, from which arises a cupola taken er falls on Winooski river, is an extensive from the choragic monument of Lysicra- tract of intervale, which is not surpassed tes, fully wrought out, with the omission in beauty and fertility by any in the counof the panels and tripods. The interior try. The up-land in the northeastern is in a rich and chaste style of finish, with part was originally timbered with pine, panelled ceiling, Corinthian columns and and the soil is sandy and light. In the pilasters, and a narrow gallery upon three southern part the timber is mostly hard sides resting upon columns from the Tow-wood, and the soil clay and loam. The er of the Winds. It is warme dby hot air soil of the declivity, occupied by the vilfurnaces, and the whole edifice is among | lage, is compact and firm, and very suita

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