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his house over night. In the course of a mile and a half east of the old village, the evening he contrived to ascertain contains 140 dwelling houses and about their religious views. If he found they 700 inhabitants. Its public buildings are did not correspond with his, he persuaded four churches and an academy. It has a them to settle in Shaftsbury, of which he woollen factory, employing eight or ten was also a proprietor. By this means the hands; two wadding factories, which settlers of Bennington were nearly all of manufacture from 70 to 80 thousand dozone religious faith; and they continued en sheets per annum, valued at 20 to so, with some exceptions, to a late period. $25,000; two cupola furnaces which This attempt to preserve uniformity of re. make from eight to ten tons of castingsligious sentiment was doubtless designed such as stoves, mill-irons, ploughs, &c.to promote the harmony and consequent per week; three tanneries that prepare happiness of the town. But it is questiona- for market 3000 hides annually; a stone ble whether it had that effect. While but and earthern ware factory, employing a single church existed, it was often di- from 12 to 15 hands; and an establishvided into parties, sometimes of a most ment for making fire bricks,which produbitter character, whose influence exten- ces about $5,000 worth per annum. Tho ded throughout the town, and produced vi- fire bricks, for the composition and manolent animosities and heart burnings. ufacture of which a patent has been ob. The party in the majority was generally tained, are composed principally of kaolin intolerant, and both parties bigoted and and pulverized quartz, which are found in uncharitable. Since other churches have abundance in the east part of the town. been established, more liberal religious, The bricks are used in blast and cupola as well as kinder, social feelings have furnaces, glass ovens, and for other pur. prevailed. The first pastor of this church, poses where a substance capable of resistas has been before stated, was the Rev. ing a high heat is required. For most Jedediah Dewey, who was settled in purposes these bricks are preferred to 1763, and died December 21, 1778. The any imported. This village has also, beRev. David Avery was settled May 3, sides great numbers of mechanics' shops, 1780. He had been a chaplain to General a grist-mill, saw-mill, oil-mill, 8 stores, 3 Learned's brigade of the army, and re- taverns, a printing office, and 3 law offices. signed that situation when he received a The Baptist meeting house is a neat call from this church. He did not give wooden building, and was erected in 1830; general satisfaction and was dismissed, the church having been organized, April May 27, 1783. The Rev. Job Swift was 11, 1827. The Rev. Henry F. Baldwin settled February 27, 1786, and continued was pastor from June, 1828, to October, in charge of the church till June 7, 1801. 1830. The Rev. Thomas Teasdale suco The Rev. Daniel Marsh next became pas- ceeded him and continued his labors till tor about 1806, and continued such until February, 1832; when he was succeeded April 25, 1820. The Rev. Absalom Pe by the Rev. Jeremiah Hall, who remain. ters was ordained July 5, 1820, and releas- ed till 1836. The Rev. Mr. Willis came ed from his charge December 14, 1825. next, and continued one
year, when he The Rev. Daniel A. Clark was pastor was succeeded by the Rev. S. Hutchins, from June 13th, 1826, to October 12, 1830. the present pastor. The Methodist meet The present minister, the Rev. Edward ing house is a stone building, erected in W. Hooker, was settled February 22, 1833. The church was organized in May, 1832. The church, by the separation of a 1827. The following named clergymen portion of its members to form two other have been successively stationed here with churches, has become much weakened, the church since May, 1827, each for two though it is still the largest, and has years, to wit: the Rev. Cyrus Prindle, the most numerous and wealthy con- John M. Weaver, Wright Hazen, Henry gregation of any in the town. One Burton, Henry Smith, Hubbard, and of the academies in this village, was C. R. Wilkins. The present minister is erected in 1821, and the other in 1829. the Rev. Jesse Craig. An Episcopal parThey were for five or six years rival in- ish was organized here July 24, 1834, by stitutions, and were in a flourishing con. the name of St. Peter's Church, under dition; but since 1837, permanent schools the ministry of the Rev. Nathaniel 0. have not been maintained in either. The Preston, and a church edifice built of village is well situated for an institution brick in 1836, which was consecrated Juof this description, and Mr. Horace Fletch- ly 22, 1839. This church is still under er has lately commenced a school in one the pastoral care of the Rev. N. O. Pres. of the buildings, with a fair prospect of ton, and though small, consisting of only success.
20 communicants, is regarded as in a pros. Bennington East Village, situated about | perous condition. The Congregational
BENNINGTON COUNTY. meeting house was built in 1839. The Hinsdillville is about a mile south of church, being a colony from the old cen. North Bennington, at the junction of tre church, was organized April 26, 1836. Paran creek with the Walloomscoik. It Rev. Aretas Loomis the present minister, has three cotton factories, and until withwas settled soon after the organization of in three or four years past was a busy and the church.-Union Academy is a flour- flourishing village ; but the works are ishing institution, under the patronage not now in operation. On the 29th of of the Baptist denomination. It is at October, 1834, a portion of the old centre present under the charge of W. G. Brown church formed themselves into a new and W. A. Fisher.
church, adopting the Presbyterian mode Bennington Iron Works are situated of government, and, in 1835 erected at near the east line of the town, about three this place a neat stone house for worship. miles from the centre village. They con- The Rev. Mr. Kenney, the Rev. Mi. sist of three large blast furnaces, which Johnson, and the Rev. Mr. Nott have sucproduce from two to three thousand tons cessively been the pastors of the church. of pig iron per annum, giving employ. It has at present no minister. ment to 150 or 200 hands, and from 40 to Irish Corner is three quarters of a mile 50 teams. The ore is obtained in about below Hinsdillville, at which are a tavern equal quantities from two beds; one, half and store, and also a cotton factory, not a mile from the works, and the other about now in operation. Between this and Hinssix miles distant in the west part of the dillville is a small Methodist chapel, built town. The ore yields about 50 per cent in 1836. of pure iron. The descent from the sur- Walbridgeville, about three quarters of face of the ground into the west ore bed a mile above Hinsdillville on the Wal. is by means of a windlass through a per. loomscoik, has two paper mills where pendicular shaft 70 feet in depth. From paper is extensively manufactured by apthe bottom you may travel by candle-light proved modern machinery. It has also a through its subterraneous passages for saw mill and a small woollen factory. several hundred yards.
Iron ore is found in several places in North Bennington is situated about four this town. The oxyde of manganese, of the miles northwest of the court house, on variety called the earthy oxyde, is also Paran creek, a branch of the Walloom- found in connexion with brown hematite. ecoik. It has 50 dwelling houses and Its color is brownish black. Radiated about 300 inhabitants, a post office, tav. and compact varieties also occur. It is very ern, five stores, two cotton and one wool. abundant. The yellow oxyde of iron, or len factories, two establishments for mak- yellow ochre is also found' in abundance ing carpenters' steel squares, a grist mill in this town. It is a good article for comand saw mill. One of the cotton facto mon uses, and about 100 tons are annual. ries, which was the first that was put in ly prepared and sent to market. Marble, operation in the state, has 1280 spindles magnesian limestone, argillacious slate, and 36 power looms, employing about 40 and hornstone are also found. The marhands, and manufactures 450,000 yards of ble is worked, but not to a large extent. shirting per annum. The other factory, Mount Anthony, in the south west part more recently erected, makes sheeting of the town, is a considerable elevation. exclusively; its prodactions being about on the east side of the mountain, a mile equal to the first. The woollen factory is from the centre village, is a cavern, which on a small scale. The business of manu. is a considerable curiosity. Stalactites facturing carpenters' squares, was com- are suspended from the roof, and also menced in this village in 1820, and was incrust the sides of the cave. Statistics the first establishment of the kind in the of 1840.—Horses, 692; cattle, 2,669; United States. The article is much su. sheep, 9,578; swine, 2,138; wheat, bu. perior to any imported, and has nearly 2,185 ; barley, 939; oats, 30,399; rye, superseded foreign squares in market. 3,852; buck wheat, 1,213; Indian corn, There are now two establishments in the 16,000 ; potatoes, 56,475; hay, tons, 564 ; village, capable of turning off 50 finished sugar, lbs. 7,828; wool, 26,327. Popula. squares per day, or from 12 to 15,000 an- tion, 3429. nually. The village has also a Univer- BENNINGTON County lies in the southsalist meeting house, built in 1836. The west corner of the state, and is bounded Rev. G. Leach and the Rev. Wm. Bell north by Rutland county, east by Windhave successively officiated as clergymen. ham county, south by Berkshire county, There is at present no resident minister. Mass., and west by Washington and RensThere is also a Baptist meeting house selaer counties, N. Y. It is situated beabout three-fourths of a mile north of the tween 42° 44' and 43° 18' north lat. and village, within the limits of Shaftsbury. between 3° 46' and 4° 14' east long. and
is 39 miles long and 20 wide at the north | Barber, Durfee, and Noble. Mr. Dur. end. It contains about 610 square miles. fee came into town and made some imThe earliest permanent settlements, on provements before the revolution, but was the west side of the mountain, in Ver- driven off. The town was organized about mont, were made in this county. During the year 1786, and Allen Goodrich was the revolution, most of the settlements the first town clerk, and Chauncey Smith north of the county of Rutland, were aban- first representative. In 1790, a congredoned, and the inhabitants retreated into gational church was organized here, over these two counties. It was in Benningwhich the Rev. Dan Kent was ordained, ton county that the councils of safety held September 5th, 1792. Since that time, most of their meetings. A considerable besides several partial awakenings, there part of the county is mountainous and have been three very general revivals of broken. The waters flow from it in all religion. The first began in 1804, and dudirections. From the southeast part they ring this and the succeeding year, 160 fall into Deerfield river, and from the were added to this church; the next was southwest into Hoosic river. The Batten- in 1816, when 130 were added to the kill receives most of the waters from the church, and the third in 1821, when there north part, but some fall into West river, was an addition of 160 members. During some into Otter creek, and some into the last 9 years the church bas been much Wood creek. The land, except on the diminished by emigration. It has formed mountains, is excellent for tillage and one entire colony, which removed the produces fine crops. The streams afford spring of 1832 and settled on the Du Page many valuable mill and other water priv. river, about 25 miles west of Chicago, Ill. ileges. There is a range of granular Many more have since emigrated to that limestone or marble extending through and other places at the west, so that, althe county from south to north, which is though 261 members have been added, wrought in several places. Its color is since the settlement of the present pastor, usually white. Iron ore is abundant, and to the 218 then belonging to this church, lead has been found in small quantities. the present number is only 240. Of the The principal towns are Bennington and above additions to the church, about 120 Manchester, which are the shire towns. were in 1829, '30, and '31. The Rev. Dan The Supreme Court sits alternately at Kent was dismissed, July 11, 1828, and these places on the 2d Tuesday after the died July 21, 1835. The Rev. D. D. Fran4th Tuesday in January. The County cis, the present pastor, was ordained July Court sits at Manchester, on the 2d Tues- 29, 1829. The Congregational meeting day in June, and at Bennington, on the house is a handsome building, 66 feet first Tuesday in December. Statistics of long, 42 wide, standing in a small but 1840.—Horses, 3397; cattle,16,879; sheep, pleasant village near the centre of the 104,721; swine, 9,906 ;wheat, bu. 12,959; town, and was completed about the year barley, 1,540; oats, 137,837 ; rye, 25,671; 1800. There is a small Baptist church buckwheat, 16,071 ; Indian corn, 70,246; which was organized at an early period, potatoes, 564,279; hay, tons, 42,907; which is under the pastoral care of the sugar, lbs. 180,986: wool, 223,674 ; iron, Rev. Robert Bryant. They erected a neat tons, 1,829; furnaces, 5; woolen 'facto- and commodious house of worship in the ries, 4; cotton, 3 ; population, 16,879. village in 184). The Methodist church,
Bensor, a post town in the western consisting of 90 members, also erected a part of Rutland county, in lat. 43° 42', convenient house of worship in 1841 in and long. 3° 46'. It is bounded north by the village. The Rev. S. Stiles is their Orwell, east by Hubbardton, and a small present preacher. The canker rash prepart of Sudbury and Castleton, south by vailed in this town about the year 1796, Fair Haven and West Haven, and west and was very mortal. The epidemic of by lake Champlain, being opposite Put- 1812 was also very distressing. It carried nam, in Washington county, N. Y. It off 60, nearly all heads of families, in the lies 124 miles east of north from White-space of 60 days. The practicing phyhall, N. Y., 25 miles north of west from sicians are Doctors Cooley, Ransom, and Rutland, and 25 west of south from Mid. Howard. Hubbardton river runs through dlebury. Benson contains 25,214 acres, the easterly part of the town, affording was granted October 27, 1779, and char- several good mill privileges. In the N. tered to James Meacham and Ezekiel E. corner is a considerable pond of clear Blair, May 5, 1780.* The settlement of water, which abounds with trout, and disthe town was commenced 1783, by Messrs. charges its waters into Hubbardton river,
The town is well supplied with agreeable *The name was given by Mr. Meacham in honor and wholesome water. A few springs are of a revolutionary officer by the name of Benson, for slightly impregnated with medicinal prowhom he bad great respoci.
perties, one of which is becoming a place and David Nutting was first town clerk. of resort for invalids. The timber is The town was first represented, in 1796, beech, maple, pine, and hemlock, inter- by Stephen Royce. The religious denomspersed with oak, ash, and walnut. The inations are Congregationalists, Methosoil is mostly clay. A range of slate from dists, Baptists, and Episcopalians. There 1 to 24 miles wide,passes through the town are two Congregational churches, one in from north to south, furnishing a good East and the other in West Berkshire. share of upland for tillage. About a quar. The former was organized, Oct. 8, 1020, ter of a mile N. E. from the meeting-house and has a house of worship; the other mais a bog of marl, which might be mistaken ny years earlier, and has a share in a house for fuller's earth. In the S. W. part of of worship. The Episcopal church, call. the town is a swamp, from which a stream ed Calvary Church, is in East Berkshire
, issues, and, after running a short distance, and was organized about 1820. Their passes under a considerable hill. It runs house of worship was consecrated Oct. 1, completely through the base of the hill, a 1823. The ministers who have labored in distance of more than half a mile. The this parish are the Rev. J. Clap, Rev. J. mean width of the lake, on the west line Gray, Rev. R. Peck, Rev. L. McDoof the town, is about half a mile. The nald, and Rev. J. Obear. Present minwidest place is one mile and a half, and is ister, the Rev. Moore Bingham. Commu. just north of Stoney Point landing, which nicants, 56. Missisco river runs through is situated about the middle of the west the southeast corner of the town, and reside of the town. There are two landing ceives Trout river near the line of Enosplaces, Kinyan's bay and Gibbs' landing, burgh. On these streams is some fine inwhere the steamboats touch for passen- tervale. Pike river enters the township gers, and where store houses are erected from Canada, and, after taking a circuit The village is pleasantly situated in a val- of several miles, and affording here some ley near the centre of the town. There of the finest mill seats in the country, reare in town 12 common and one select turns again into Canada. On Pike river, school, 2 grist mills, 9 saw mills, 1 fulling in this town, are several mills. The soil mill, 3 stores, 4 taverns, and 1 tannery. is various, but generally good. Its snr: Statistics of 1840.—Horses, 261 ; cattle, face is diversified with gentle swells and 1,807; sheep, 20,527 ; swine, 663; wheat, vales, but does not rise into mountains. bu. 2,578 ; oats, 3,324 ; rye, 1,385; buck: It is well watered with brooks. The timwheat,'649 ; Indian corn, 5,353; potatoes, ber is mostly beech, maple, bass, elm, and 15,700 ; hay, tons, 5,592; sugar, lbs. 6,- hemlock. The rocks abound with epidote. 285; wool, 49,048. Population, 1403. There are 1 grist mill, 4 saw mills, and 1
Benton's GORE is a tract of 5000 acres, fulling mill. Statistics of 1840.—Horses, lying in the southwestern part of Wind 298; cattle, 1,902; sheep, 3,788; swine, sor county, now forming the westerly part 532; wheat, bu. 3.884 ; barley, 53; oats, of Weston, granted' to Samuel Benton 5,746; rye, 52; buckwheat, 735; Indian and 23 associates, October 26, 1781. corn, 2,876; potatoes; 67,995; hay, tons,
BERKSHIRE, a post town in the north- 3,818; sugar, lbs. 31,785; wool, 9,457.– east part of Franklin county, in lat. 44• Population, 1818. 58' and long. 4° 16', containing 36 square BERLIN, a post town in Washington miles. It is 50 miles northwesterly from county, lying nearly in the centre of the Montpelier, and 39 northeasterly from state, in lat. 44° 13' and long. 4° 25'. It Burlington, and is bounded north by St. is bounded north by Montpelier, east by Armand in Canada, east by Richford, Barre,south by Northfield and a small part south by Enosburgh,and west by Franklin. of Williamstown, and west by Moretown. This township was granted to Wm.
Good. It was chartered June 8, 1763, to C. Gra. rich, Barzilla Hudson, Charles Dibble, ham and others, and contains 36 square and their associates, March 13, 1780, and miles. The settlement was commenced was chartered by the name of Berkshire, in 1785, near the mouth of Dog river, by June 22, 1781. The settlement of this Ebenezer Sanborn, from Corinth, and Jo. town was commenced in 1792 by Job Bar- seph Thurber from New Hampshire ; both ber. Stephen Royce, who was also one of them removed the next year to Plattsof the first settlers of Franklin, Daniel burgh, New York. In January, 1786, Adams, Jonathan Carpenter, and Phine- Moses Smith from Granby, Massachuhas Heath, moved their families here in setts, commenced in the southeast corner 1793, and from this time the settlement of the town, supposing that he was in the advanced with considerable rapidity. El- north west corner of Williamstown. In ihu M., son of Stephen Royce, was born May, Daniel Morse and family, from in 1793, and was the first child born in Washington, and in July, Jacob Fowler, town. The town was organized in 1794, from Corinth, removed to the settlements
commenced the year before by Messrs. I is about two miles long and half a mile Sanborn and Thurber. Mr. Fowler was wide. The fish in this pond are princithe first settler who resided here perma. pally pickerel. When the settlement of nently, or whose descendants lived in this town was commenced, the dace was town. In addition to the above, Capt. the only fish found in this pond. About James Hobart, Hezekiah Silloway, Wm. 1803, some trout were put into it, and in Flagg, Jacob Black, Eleazer Hubbard, the course of a few years became quite Zachariah Perrin, David Nye, Elijah Nye, plentiful, some of them weighing 4 or 5 Jabez Ellis, Aaron Strong, Joshua Bay. pounds. Pickerel were afterwards introley, John Taplin, and James Sawyer may duced, and as these have multiplied the be mentioned as among the early settlers others have disappeared. There is a meof the town. The number of families in dicinal spring in the northeast corner of town in 1790, was 21; in 1795, 65; in the town and another in the west part, 1798, 85. There was nothing remarkable but they have not gained much celebrity attending the first settlement of this town The town is somewhat broken, yet it conbut what was common in the first settle tains much very good and handsome tilment of others. The town was organized lage land. There is considerable interMarch 31, 1791. David Nye was first vale on Winooski and Dog river and Stetown clerk, and John Taplin first repre- vens' branch. The timber, west of Dog sentative. Abel Knapp was chosen town river, is a mixture of spruce, hemlock, cierk in 1795, which office he has held till maple, beach, birch, basswood, and ash; the present time, with the exception of east of that, principally hard wood, exone year (1815). The people of this town cepting in the vicinity of the pond and are mostly engaged in agriculture, being streams. On a ridge of land south of the so situated that it is more convenient for centre, is some butternut, and east of the them to patronize the tradesmen and pro- pond, considerable cedar and fir. Iron fessional men of other towns than their ore has recently been discovered a little own. The religious societies are Con- east of Dog river, near which place terre gregationalist, Methodist and Universal de sena has been found of good quality. ist. Rev. James Hobart was settled over The town has been generally very healthy. the Congregationalist society in 1798, and Occasionally typhus fever, scarlet fever, dismissed in 1829. Rev. Austin Hazen whooping cough, &c. have been epidemwas settled in 1837, and still continues ics. The epidemic of 1813 prevailed to their pastor. The first meeting house some extent, and was fatal in quite a numwas erected 1801, and burnt in the winter ber of cases. We find on record the folof 1837. A “union house," owned prin- owing list of birth and deaths, in this cipally by the Universalist and Methodist town, from 1799 to 1813, inclusive : societies, was erected in the south part of the town, and a Methodist house a little
Deaths. Year. east of the centre in 1837, and a Congre.
1807 45 12 gationalist house at the latter place in
15 1838. The town is watered by Winooski
12 1809 37 14 river, which forms a considerable part of
36 25 1810 35 19 the northern boundary; Dog river which
1803 37 11 1811 47 runs nearly north through the western
1804 38 13 1812 36 13 part of the town; Pond brook near the
1805 23 10 1813 43 30 centre, and Stevens' branch, which runs
1806 39 6 across the northeast corner. Before any settlements were made in this vicinity, a There is a small village a little east of hunter by the name of Stevens, from the the centre of the town containing from east part of the state, was found dead in 15 to 20 dwelling honses, 2 meeting houshis camp on the bank of this stream near es, a store, tavern, post office, grist and its mouth, and was buried there; hence saw mill, starch factory, and several meits name. In 1812, Mr. Daniel Thomp-chanics. There are 13 school districts son, while digging a ditch on his farm, and 13 school houses; 1 mercantile store, ploughed up human bones, which were 1 machine shop, 5 carpenters and joines, supposed to be those of Stevens'. They 4 blacksmiths, and 8 shoemakers. Statiswere carefully collected and buried.* tics of 1840.- Horses, 414; cattle 2,266 ; Berlin Pond is a little southeast of the sheep, 7,097 ; swine, 956; wheat, bu. centre of the town. It is in two bodies of 2,510; barley, 110 ; oats, 20,335; rye, water, being connected by a narrow neck; 155; buck wheat 1,915; In. corn, 7,182;
.There is a notice of this in the first edition of potatoes, 83,734 ; hay, tons, 1,232; sugar, the Gazetteer, under the name of Barre. He died in lbs. 29,175; wool, 14,647. Population, this town and it is supposed that his camp was on 1598.
L. B.D. the farm owned by Mr. Thompson.