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1812, and’deservedly ranks first among ciples of the state society may be gathered the benevolent institutions of the state. from the 3d article of its constitution It is composed of men of the first talents, which declares, that " In pursuing its enof the highest respectability and worth terprize the society asks no physical interand of all religious denominations. Its ference with slavery on the part of the object is the distribution of the Scriptures, free states, or of the general government; without note or comment, among the poor nor will it make any appeal to excite the and destitute of our own and foreign slaves to insurrection; nor will it use any lands—to aid in placing the word of God, unlawful or unchristian measures ;—but it the means of salvation, in the hands of will seek the overthrow of slavery by fearevery individual of our fallen race. It lessly exposing the guilt and danger of has for several years past made it an es. holding men as property, by rebuking sin pecial business to seek out the destitute and calling for its immediate relinquishin our own state, and to supply all who ment-by appeals to the understanding will receive it with the word of life. The and conscience-by the power of the pulannual reports of the society show that it pit and the press—by petitioning Congress has already aided much in distributing the to use its constitutional powers for the Scriptures, but the light of eternity only suppression of the American slave trade will reveal the amount of good which it and the abolition of slavery in those terhas effected in promoting the salvation of ritories under its jurisdiction-by address. sinners.
ing considerations of interest, safety and This society holds its annual meeting economy to the people of the slave holdat Montpelier on the Wednesday succeed ing states-by exhorting the people of the ing the second Thursday in October. In free states, in view of their confederation, subordination to the state society, there and consequent participation with the are auxiliary Bible societies in most of the south, to use all lawful and peaceable counties in the state.
means for the removal of the common The Vermont Colonization Society. This evil-and by kindly, frankly, yet boldly, society was organized in the year 1818, holding truth before the public mind, and for the laudable and humane object of as- inviting all to join in forming and expresssisting the free blacks, in the United ing a public sentiment, which shall be States, who desire to return to Africa, effectual in its extermination." ard thus to remove a principal obstacle to \Soon after the organization of the state the 'manumission of those held in slavery society, auxiliary associations were formin this country. It acts as auxiliary to ed in many towns, numbering in the ag. the United States Colonization Society gregate many thousand members. In and has aided in the establishment of a January, 1839, a weekly journal, “The flourishing colony of free blacks on the Voice of Freedom,” was commenced unwestern coast of Africa, where that de- der the patronage of the society and pubgraded race is raised to the dignity and lished three years. From its organization privileges of civilized and enlightened the society has been steadily progressing freemen--an establishment to which the in its work, and at present few are found Christian philanthropist looks, as the in- in the state who are opposed to the prinstrument in the hands of God, for suppress- ciples set forth in its constitution. ing the diabolical traffic in slaves, and for The Vermont Temperance Society. This conveying the blessings of civilization and society was organized in 1829, and holds Christianity to the benighted millions of its annual meeting at Montpelier on the Africa.
Tuesday next succeeding the 20 Thurs. This society holds its annual meeting at day in October. The object of this, and Montpelier on the third Thursday in Oct. of county, town and 'neighborhood tem.
The Vermont Anti-Slavery Society was perance societies, which are formed in all formed hy a state convention assembled parts of the state, is the banishment of al. at Middlebury on the 30th of April and cohol, that most prolific source of moral 1st of May, 1834. At this convention and physical evil, from use as a beverage, delegates were in attendance from 26 and, apparently, much good has been eftowns, and numbering about 100. The fected by these united efforts. And we attention of the people had been, to some have no doubt that, if these societies would extent, previously awakened to the sub- entrench themselves upon the ground of ject of emancipation by the labors of o. expedience, and would then pursue their S. Murray and Henry Jones, the former measures with energy and candor, the of whom had lectured in several counties amount of good effected by them would in this state in 1832, as an agent of the be greatly increased. New England Anti-Slavery Society, and The Vermont Historical and Antiquarian encountered much opposition. The prin- Society was incorporated in November,
VERMONT MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY.
sessments. Rate of as
1838, and is located at Barnet. It owes its origin to the efforts of Henry Stevens, Esq., who is president of the society, and to whose unwearied labors the society is indebted for the greater part of its valuable coellctions which relate chiefly to the early history of the state, and consist of files of most of the early newspapers published in the state, amounting to near 700 volumes, sundry books and pamphlets, and some valuable manuscripts.
Asylum for the Insane. In the fall of 1834, Mrs. Anna Marsh, widow of the late Dr.Perly Marsh, of Hinsdale, New Hampshire, left by will $10,000 to found an Asylum for the Insane on the bank of the Connecticut, somewhere in Windham county, Vermont, and in October of that year the Hon. Samuel Clark and John Holbrook, Epaphri Seymour and John C. Holbrook, Esqrs. were incorporated as trustees of said institution by an act of the legislature. In 1835, the legislature appropriated $10,000 in aid of the benevoient designs of the institution, and have since appropriated $6,000 more.
In 1836, the trustees decided upon its location in Brattleborough, on the place formerly occupied by Joseph Fessenden, Esq. situated at a short distance in a northwesterly direction from the east village. The old mansion was at first enlarged and opened in December, 1836, for the reception of patients, with wliom it became crowded in the course of about seven months; and in 1838 another more spacious building was erected, adapted especially to the objects of the institution, Wm. 6. Rockwell, M. D. was appointed the first superintendent and continues to perform the arduous and responsible duties of that office. Since the Asylum was opened 230 patients have been received, of which about one third of the chronic cases and nine-tenths of the recent cases have recovered. The present number of patients is about seventy five.
The Vermont Mutual Fire Insurance Company was incorporated in 1827, and issued its first policy, March 31, 1828. Individuals become members of the company by having property insured in it, and each member is obliged to bear his share of the losses sustained by the company, in proportion to the property which he has at their risk. The affairs of the institution are managed by a board of directors who are chosen annually by the company and who appoint a secretary and treasurer. The following table, kindly furnished by J. Y. Vail, Esq. secretary of the company, exbibits the aggregate of their proceedings from their organization to the present time :
64 35346 02
36278 each years assign'ts amount of
43808 50118 00 221461 23218002 47 assessments & alter- Receipts.
ar'n with Amount of Fees for
6620 56 1039 88 1672 76 4
&c. Notes in and expen- Abatements, cidental
854697 42002 64 1756 35) 1756 35 665 44 1027 41 3
13276561 10605093 604676 39 17455 06 53227 17 2723 91 5509 93 21 13953 11116 50 69370 83 67289 47
4612 1689671 4 193272 4180700 234081 21 4872 53 11493 091726 18 2637 35 3
Jses of set'lg
mount in- nowinsured Premium 1839 2512 27900s15590 2348638|2375683412732080 860397 9947986 43191166 59 2432 17 5449 63 5 165 165 164 180233 180233 179683 $8284" 65 $
867897 Result No. of Whole Polic's Amount Whole a-/ Amount
1807 11 33 37 24
DISEASES OF VERMONT.
CANKER-RASH, DYSENTERY AND FEVERS. In 1838, Mutual Insurance companies common, but not very mortal. About were incorporated in each of the five the year 1784, canine madness prevailed, counties of Bennington, Windham, Rut. not only among dogs, but cats, foxes and land, Windsor & Orange, which accounts wolves were affected. On the 17th of for the slight dimination of the business March of this year, a Mr. Stewart, of of the state insurance company since that Barnard, was bitten in the face by a mad period.
wolf. In 27 days from that time symptoms of hydrophobia appeared, and three days after he died of that horrid disease. His son, bitten in the arm by the same
animal, had symptoms of the disease in SECTION VIII.
30 days, but recovered.
The canker rash was epidemic in the Diseases of Vermont.
western part of the State in the winter of
1787-8. In the summer and fall of 1788, Although Vermont is blessed with an the dysentery prevailed, and proved very atmosphere, and with water as pure and mortal; and was followed by the measles. wholesome as any other country in the In the fall of 1789, the influenza was world can boast, still diseases of several universally epidemic; scarcely an indikinds have prevailed, more or less, from vidual escaped, and in some cases it provthe very commencement of the settle- ed mortal." This year was noted for a ment. A particular account of these, and general scarcity of provisions; but the especially of such as have been epidemic, statement of Mr. Webster was news to with the accompanying circumstances of the inhabitants, that, “In Vermont peotemperature and state of the atmosphere ple were reduced to the necessity of feed--origin and progress,--symptoms and ing on tadpoles, and pea straw boiled with treatment, would constitute an interesting potatoes." and valuable part of our domestic history. From 1790 to 1795, there were cases of The limits, however, of this work will the ordinary diseases of the climate, but admit only of a brief abstract.
no serious epidemic. In the winter, at The diseases, which have been most the beginning of the year 1795, the pleucommon in Vermont, are fevers, dysente- risy was epidemic, and in some places ry, consumption and other inflammatory considerably mortal. In the fall of this complaints arising from colds, induced by year, the ulcerous sore throat, or canker the sudden changes of temperature to rash began to prevail, and during the folwhich our climate is subject. The two lowing winter it was very mortal. It former have frequently been epidemic and was computed that there were from 20 at some times very fatal. Cases of con- to 30 deaths to each 1000 inhabitants, sumption have occurred in every year throughout the State. In the spring of from the first settlement of the State, but 1796, the measles were common, and in it is believed that their increase has been the summer and autumn, fevers and dysin a much greater ratio, than that of the entery produced considerable mortality
. population. Intermittent fevers were com- The latter disease was very fatal to young mon in many places in the neighborhood children, particularly in the neighborhood of lake Champlain, when the country was of Rutland. new, but since the lands have become In 1797, fevers, which had been called generally cleared cases of that complaint inflammatory, bilious, or remittent, asare of rare occurrence.
sumed a more formidable character, and Previous to the American Revolution were then called typhus or putrid fever. the population of Vermont was very in. The canker rash, or scarlet fever continuconsiderable, and little is known respected this year, and canine madness was ing the diseases up to that event. 'Be- common. The prevailing diseases in 1798, tween the years 1773 and1777,a malignant were typhus fever and dysentery. They sore throat is known to have prevailed at were both severe in some neighborhoods
, several times and to have been fatal to while others were comparatively exempt. many children. In the summer of 1776 The dysentery was particularly mortal in and, also, of 1777, the dysentery was Pomfret, Norwich and Sandgate. From universally prevalent in this State and 1799 to 1806, the dysentery prevailed throughout New England ; and produced more or less, during the summer and great suffering and mortality in the Amer- autumn of each year. In 1802, it proican army, in the neighborhood of lake duced considerable mortality in many Champlain. The same disease prevailed places. The year 1800, was distinguishextensively in this State between 1783 ed for the prevalence of the typhus fever and 1790. In 1781 catarrhal fevers were in the neighborhood of Woodstock, and
SPOTTED AND LUNG FEVERS,
in 1802 and 1803, the canker rash, or ever experienced in Vermont. This disthroat distemper prevailed generally, but ease resembled that which immediately was not quite so mortal as it had been at preceded it, excepting in having its chief some former periods. In 1803, the hoop- location upon the lungs, and being longer ing cough prevailed. In 1804, an influ- in reaching its crisis. It commenced in enza, or catarrhal fever, produced consid- this State, among the troops of the United erable mortality along the western part States army, stationed at Burlington, in of the State. The prevailing disease in the autumn of 1812, where it proved very 1805, was the typhus fever.
mortal, carrying off from 10 to 12 a day, The year 1807, was noted for a severe in- for several weeks before it began to spread fluenza, which prevailed, not only in Ver- among the inhabitants. But, by the bemont, but throughout the United States ginning of the year 1813, it had become and Canada, and also in Europe. In the general throughout the State ; and in the summer of 1808, fevers were common, course of the winter, it swept off from 20 but the following year, 1809, was remark- to 60 of the most respectable and useful ably healthy. This year was, however, inhabitants of almost every town. The noted for a general blight upon wheat. whole number of deaths in the State, by
In the year 1810, the diseases of this this disease during the winter, was estiState seem to have assumed a new cha- mated at more than 6000, or one death to racter, taking a sthenic or inflammatory every 40 inhabitants.* type, and from this period for several From 1814 to 1832, there was nothing years, the greatest amount of sickness remarkable in the diseases of the State. was in the winter instead of the summer, Isolated cases of consumption, typhus and as had been previously the case. It was lung fevers and other endemics were conabout this period, that that short and stantly occurring, and annually bringing fatal malady, the spotted fever, first made down numbers to the grave, and dysenits appearance in Vermont. It did not, teries, scarlet fever, measles, influenzas, however, excite general alarm, or prevail &c., were several times epidemic, and extensively till the beginning of 1811. produced considerable mortality, in partiIn January of this year, it made its first cular sections. appearance in the vicinity of Woodstock. Early in June, 1832, that most dreadful From the 23d of January to the 23d of disease, the Asiatic cholera, made its first March, the average number of new cases appearance on this side of the Atlantic. was about 35 weekly, within a circuit of It commenced nearly at the same time at five miles from the court-house in that Montreal and Quebec, and soon extended town. The whole number of cases, within into the United States, producing a unithe above limits, up to the first of June, versal panic throughout the country. The was computed to be about 600; and the first case of cholera in Quebec, was on the number of deaths between 60 and 70. 8th of June, and in the first three days During the same time this disease appear- there were 41 deaths, and the number of ed in the greater part of the towns in the fatal cases there during the summer, was eastern part of the State, from Massachu. about 2000. In the course of three months setts to Canada, and in many places the from the appearance of the disease in mortality was,proportionally, much great- Montreal, it is computed to have carried er than at Woodstock Although the off 2800 persons out of a population of disease was very considerably abated dur. 30,000, or one eleventh part of the whole. ing the summer, it renewed its ravages in Although the alarm was very great in the fall, and in the beginning of 1812, it Vermont, on the appearance of the cholera was in many places, even more fatal than in Canada, but few fatal cases occurred it had been the preceding winter. within the State, and these were mostly
This epidemic was calculated to pro- confined to the towns along lake Chamduce the utmost alarm. No age, nor sex, plain. In Burlington there were only no condition was exempted. It, however, four deaths by the cholera, three of these more commonly attacked, and fell with on the 17th and 18th of June, and the greatest force, upon persons of the most last on the 24th of August, and the whole robust and hardy constitutions; and it number of fatal cases of the disease within often proved fatal to such in the course the State did not exceed 10 or 12. Durof a few hours from their first attack. It ing the prevalence of this disease in Cawas not uncommon for the patient to be a nada, in 1834, Vermont was entirely excorpse, before a physician could be brought empted from it. to his assistance.
Since 1834, no alarming epidemic has The spotted fever was followed by the prevailed, and all parts of the State have epidemic peripneumony, or lung fever,
* Our materials thus far are derived principally which proved to be the severest epidemic from Dr. Gallup's work on the epidemics of Vermont
LOTTERIES. been remarkably healthy during this time,
SECTION IX. with exception of the last fall and winter.
Miscellaneous. Since August, 1841, the amount of sickness and the number of deaths in the Lotteries. The practice of raising monState have been unusually great. Typhus ey by lotteries for specific objects was, in and lung fevers have been common in early times, sanctioned by the legislatures most parts of the State, and in many cases of most of the states in the Union; and fatal; and during the winter and present Vermont, though she did not indulge in spring, a malignant sore throat has pre- this species of gambling to very great exvailed and still continues (May 2, 1842) tent, adopted for a while this mode of disto prevail through all the western parts, pensing charity, and of promoting good producing considerable mortality. The objects. The following list is believed to disease usually commences by a soreness contain abstracts of all the acts, granting in the throat, but developes itself in other lotteries, which have been passed by the parts in a great variety of ways, and is legislature of this state : attended with a high fever. Thus far it To raise £840, for building a bridge has, to a great extent, baffled the skill of over Black river, February 27, 1783. our best physicians.
To raise £150, for repairing the road Of all the diseases, which continue from between Chester and Black river, Octoyear to year to make their inroads upon ber 26, 1789. our population, the pulmonary consump- To raise £150, to aid John Hubbard in tion is the most fatal and most deplorable. erecting a brewery in Weathersfield, Oc. Slow in its advances, it almost impercept.tober 26, 1789. ibly undermines the constitution-dries To raise £300, to make a road from up the fountains of life, and annually Woodstock to Rutland, October 27, 1791. brings down hundreds to an untimely To raise £150, to repair a bridge in Roy. grave; and the prevalence of this disease alton, October 28, 1791. seems to have been constantly on the in- To raise £200, to aid J. Hubbard and A. crease from the first settlement of the Downer in erecting a brewery, November state to the present time. It doubtless, to 3, 1791. a considerable extent, had its origin in To raise £150, for building a road in the sudden changes, to which our climate Shrewsbury, November 3, 1701. is subject, and which have become more To raise £600, to assist in building a marked in proportion as the country has court house in Rutland, Oct. 25, 1792. become cleared and cultivated. But it is
To raise £200, to Anthony Haswell to believed that the increase of this disease repair loss sustained by fire, Oct. 31, 1792. is owing still more to our present modes of To raise £1200, to Jabez Rogers, to reliving, to the confined air of our stove pair losses by fire, October 31, 1792. rooms and our compliance with the absurd To raise £300, for building a bridge caprices of fashion.
over the river Lamoille, Nov. 8, 1792. The following are a few instances of To raise £500, for building a bridge ofer longevity:
White river at Hartford, Nov. 8, 1792. Names.
To raise £150, for building a bridge over Died. | Age.
Deerfield river at Readsborough, NovemMrs. Jane Hazelton Townshend Walter Scott
ber 8, 1792. Susanna Carpenter Royalton
To raise $2500, granted to A. Spooner, Benjamin Cook Whitingham
S. Barrett and S. Conant, Oct. 25, 1793. Mrs. Sprague Joseph Monta
To raise $500, for building a bridge in Mrs Susanna Corliss Greensborough 1810 100 m Fairfax, October 30, 1793. Mrs Mary Buel Orwell
1840 101 101
To raise $500, for making a road from Mrs Dillia Abbey Derby
1840 102 6 Simeon Hooker
Castleton to Sudbury, Nov. 7, 1796. Mrs Dorcas Nichols Braintree
To raise $400, for building a bridge over Patrick Carigan Alburgh
White river in Stockbridge, Nov. 8, 1796. Mrs Susanna Hart Williston 1830 104 Mrs A. Carpenter Tinmouth
To raise $500, for making a road from Mrs Catharine Head Hydepark
Winhall to Bromley, Nov. 8, 1796. Mrs Brownel Williston
To raise $500, for building a bridge Mrs Susanna Wells Williston 1811 104
over Otta-Quechee river at Woodstock, Many more might have been added March 7, 1797. had pains been taken to collect them. To raise $500, granted to John Wood, According to the returns of the census of March 9, 1797. 1840 there were then living in the state
To raise $2000, granted to Joseph Haw. 22 persons who were upwards of 100 kins of Alburgh, October 30, 1798. years of age, and about 200 others who To raise $1000, granted to Horatio were upwards of 90 years old.
Knight, October 31, 1799.
1617 100 6