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hard earnings of the ill-starred farmer.
Weighed down by accumulated embarAgriculture.
rassments and goaded by the twigs of the Agriculture gives employment to the law, the harrassed people looked upon the great body of the people of Vermont. legal profession as the prolific fountain of While suitable numbers are devoted to all their sufferings, and upon lawyers as a the various trades and professions, which curse-a very pest in society. are rendered necessary by the immediate During the embarrassments which prewants of society, six-sevenths of the vailed for many years after the close of whole population are engaged in agricul- the revolution, they who were in distress, tural pursuits; and it is pleasing to ob- they who were in debt, and they who serve the gradual improvement, which were discontented frequently gathered this art is undergoing in Vermont, and themselves' in conventions to consult the great advance which it has made, together respecting their grievances within a few years past, in the public and devise plans of relief. At these estimation. The time has been, when meetings it was considered a legitimate the professional men, the merchants and and an indispensible part of their even a portion of the mechanics in this business to adopt a series of resolustate were wont to look down (down?) tions, denouncing the lawyers in terms with feelings bordering on contempt upon neither mild nor measured.' But at length the farmer and his employment. And more correct views began to prevail. the farmer himself, ignorant, or insensible The people began to discover that their of his own advantages, submitted to live embarrassments and troubles were chargein a state of vassalage to the other classes, able rather upon themselves than upon and particularly, to the merchants. But the hated lawyers; and in proportion as for several years past there has been a they have improved their advantages, by gradual change going on in the relative their industry, economy and avoidance condition of the merchant and the farm- of debt, has the prejudice against the legal er. Or, in other words, the farmers have profession been done away and the occubeen learning, (and we hope they will pation of the agriculturist risen in public not forget the lesson,) that they are the estimation, till an exchange of the former only class of community, who possess for the latter has come at length to be the elements of independence, and, rely considered no degradation. ing upon these, they have been by de
The chief agricultural productions of grees freeing themselves from their thral- the state may be learned from the followdom and rising in their relation to the ing abstract of the returns of the census other orders of society, until agricultural- of 1840. ists and farmers are become titles of Wheat, bush. 495,500 Cocoons, lbs. 4,280 which none are now ashamed.
230,993 Wax, lbs. If it be true that the borrower is servant
1,119,678 Product Dairy $2,008,737
2,222,584 do Orchard 213,944 to the lender, it is emphatically true Buckwheat do 228,416 do Garden 16,276 thet the debtor is servant to the creditor; Barley
54,781 do Nurseries, etc. 5,600 and in this relation, but a few years ago, Hay, tons,
869, 739 Neat Cattlo 384,341 stood a large part of our farmers to the Hops, lbs. 48,137 Sheep
1,681819 merchants. The merchants sold upon Tobacco, Ibs. 585 Swine credit, and must necessarily sell at a
59,000 Poultry. value $131,578 Wine, gallons
$346,939 much higher price than for ready pay, to Wool, lbs. 3,699,235 Other prod. forest 2,500 compensate for bad debts and for lying out of the use of their money. The farm
The above productions, with the excepers, buying upon credit, bought more and tion of wool, products of the dairy, horses, at much higher prices than they would cattle, sheep, swine, and lumber, of which have done, if ready pay had been deman-considerable quantities are exported, are ded. The consequence was that at the nearly all consumed in the state. For end of the year they found themselves several years past, wool has been the more deeply in debt than they expected, staple production for market. and were obliged to turn out their stock and produce at the merchant's price and give their notes of hand for the bal
SECTION V. ance in money. The notes and accounts
Manufactures. became due and resort was had to the law to enforce payment. This gave em. The manufactures carried on in Verployment to swarms of lawyers and petti- mont were, for many years, such only as foggers, whose fees, added to the demands the immediate wants of the people ren. of the creditors, were wrung out of the dered indispensable, and in general each
do do do
RETURNS OF MANUFACTURES.
family were their own manufacturers. 7 Cotton factories, 7254 spindles, manuWith scarcely any tools but an axe, the facturing $113,000 value. first settlers entered the forests, cleared off Mixed manufactures, $155,276 value. the timber from a small piece of ground, Hats, valued $62,432. cut down trees to a suitable length, and, by the help of a few neighbors, reared 261 Tanneries 102,763 sides sole leather.
$ 102,937 «
upper their log houses and covered them with Maple Sugar, 4,647,934 pounds. bark. These afforded shelters for their 1 Brewery, making 12,800 gallons. families, and, by persevering industry, | 2 Distilleries, 3,500 they were soon enabled to raise a little 2 Glass Houses, $55,000 value flax and wool, which were spun and wove 8 Potteries,
23,000 and colored and made into clothing by the Potash, 7184 tons. females for home and Sunday wear; and Soap
50,300 we have no doubt that, at that period, the Candles,
28,687 swains in their tow, or checked woollen Carriages, 162,097 shirts and kersey frocks and trowsers, and 7 Flouring mills-barrels of flour 4,495. the girls in their tow and linen or flannel 312 Grist mills,
$1,083,124 value gowns and checked aprons, were as hap-1081 Saw mills, py, yea, and perhaps as proud too, as the
20 Oil mills,
manufactured. moderns in their broadcloths and silks and 29 Printing offices—Binderies, 14. muslins. The only trades which were 2 Rope Walks, $4,000 value man d. then deemed indispensable, were those of Music instruments $2,290 the blacksmith and the shoemaker, and Home made goods,
$674,548 these were for the most part carried on by Machinery made,
101,354 persons who labored a portion of their
16,650 time upon their farms.
1,156 As the condition of the people improved, Precious metals,
3,000 they, by degrees, extended their desires Granite and marble, 62,515 beyond the mere necessaries of life; first Bricks and lime,
402,218 to its conveniences and then to its ele. Value of vessels built, 72,000 gancies. This produced new wants, and Furniture manufactured, 83,275 to supply these, mechanics more numer- Houses, 72 brick,
cost ous and more skilful were required, till
344,896 at length, the cabinet maker, the tailor, Medicines, drugs and dyes, 38,475 the jeweller, the milliner and a host of Other manufactures, 488,796 others came to be regarded as indispensa
For the purpose of comparison, we in. ble.
troduce the following abstract of manu. In addition to the various articles and factures in Vermont, copied from the refabrics for domestic use, Vermont pos- turns in 1810: sesses facilities for extensive manufac- 8 Blast furnaces, 986 tons iron, a $100, $97,600 tures of several kinds, which are not sur
2 Air furnaces, 260 do pig, 90, 23.400 passed by those of any state in the union.
817 do ciude, 120, 98,040 The water power afforded by her streams 26 forges
204 do refined, 150, 15,600 is unlimited, and her hills and mountains 67 cut nail factories, 144 tons nails a 240, 34,560 afford an abundance of wood for fuel ; and 65 trip hammers--value of the work done, 78,574 for the manufacture of wool, iron, cop- 11 paper mills-23,350 reams, a $3 pr r'm, 70,050 peras and marble, no part of our country 26 oil mills-50,637 gallons, a $1 pr gal, 50.637 affords the raw material in greater abun- 125 distilleries, 173,285 do .75 cts. 129,964 dance, or of a better quality.
205 tanneries-773 tons leather, a $500, 586,500 Some account of the different manufac- 166 fulling-mills dressed 942,960 yds.225, 235,740 turing establishments in Vermont will be 139 carding machn's,798,500 lbs wool a .06 47,910 found in part third, under the names of Wollen cloth-1,207,976 yards, a 75 cls, 905,982 the towns in which they are situated, and Cotton cloth-131.326 yards, a 30 cts 39,397 the annual aggregate of manufactures Linen cloth-1,859,931 yards, a 35 cts 650,976 within the state according to the returns Mixed cloth—191,426 yards, at 38 cents, 72.471 of 1840, are exhibited below :
14,801 looms, weave 240 yards each, a 8 276 179
67,756 spin'g wheels, spin 70 sk's ca. a 4 189,716 26 Furnaces, making 6,743 tons cast iron. 23 jennies, equal 804 spindles, do
3 1.688 14 Forges,
655 wrought "
199.520 Other metals, valued at $70,500.
65.580 pair boots, at $3
196,740 Granite, marble, &c. $33,880.
138,700 pair shoes, at 75 cents,
179,025 17 Paper Mills, making $214,720 value.
Saddles and Harnesses, amount of value, 127,840 96 Woollen factories,
Cabinet work }$1,331,953 “
118.450 289 Fulling mills,
Maple sugar, 1,200,000 lbs. at 10 cts Ib. 120,000 Silk, 39 pounds, $99 value.
Potashes, 1500 tons, at $100 pr. ton,
COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.
STEAM BOATS ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN.
of the Champlain and Hudson canal, in Commerce and Navigation.
1823, Montreal and Quebec shared large
ly in the business of this section, but, On account of the inland situation of since that event, the business with CanaVermont, and the various modes of trans- da has been comparatively trifling. The portation, it is impossible to form any opening of that canal not only changed correct estimation of the amount of im- the direction of business, but gave to it a ports or exports. The commercial busi- fresh impulse throughout the whole valley ness of the state is, however, considerable, of lake Champlain. The amount of busiand is annually increasing. A large ness and of the shipping suddenly inamount of dry goods and groceries are creased, and has been going on increasbrought into the state and disposed of ing from that time to the present. The among the inhabitants; and for several whole number of vessels now in service years past Vermont has, to a very great upon lake Champlain, including steam extent, depended upon the state of New boats, sloops, schooners, and canal boats, York and the western states for her exceeds 100, with a tonnage of perhaps bread stuffs.
8000 tons, and more than two thirds of The exports from Vermont consist of these are owned in Vermont. According, live cattle, horses, hogs, sheep, wool, lum- to the returns made by the collector of ber, pot and pearl ashes, butter, cheese, the district of Vermont, on the 30th of iron, marble, paper, copperas, &c. Wheat September, 1838, there were at that time was formerly exported, but for some years belonging to Vermont, four steam boats, past a sufficient quantity has not been seventeen sloops, fifteen schooners, and raised for home consumption. When thirty one canal boats, being 67 in the the country was new and the first settlers whole and rated at 4250 tons. were clearing their lands, pot and pearl The first successful experiment in ashes were the staple articles for market. steam navigation, was made in 1807, upon Lumbering also engaged the attention of Hudson river, by Robert Fulton. The many in the vicinity of the navigable very next year, 1808, a steam boat was waters. Connecticut river furnished an launched at Burlington upon lake Chamoutlet for the lumber in the eastern part plain, which commenced running in 1809, of the state, while that in the western for the transportation of passengers and part found its way to Quebec through merchandise. Since that time 13 other lake Champlain, the Richelieu and Št. steamboats have been built, six of which Lawrence, previous to the construction of are now in service. The following table, the Champlain and Hudson canal, since for the materials of which I am chiefly inwhich it has gone through that canal to devted to Captains, J. and R. W. SherNew York. But this branch of business man and Robert White, exhibits a conhas been pursued too eagerly for the good densed history of all the steam boats, which of the state. Pine of a good quality is have been built upon lake Champlain ;* becoming scarce and at the present rate and it is a fact worthy of being recorded, of consumption the time will soon come, that, during 32 years of steam navigation when there will not be enough in the on lake Champlain, and the transportastate for domestic purposes. For about tion of more than a million of passengers, ten years past wool has constituted the no life has been lost or person injured by principal article for export; and is so at the explosion of steam. On the 5th of present, although a large amount of the September, 1819, six persons lost their other articles above named continue to lives by the burning of the steamboat be sent to market.
Phenix, while on her passage a little to Vermont being an inland state its navi- the northward of Burlington, and in 1826 gation is necessarily limited. Indeed it one person was killed by the collision of is nearly confined to lake Champlain. the Phænix and Congress near Port Kent. A portion of the merchandise and the productions of the eastern parts of the with lake Champlain, there have been built three
*On lake George, which is so closely connected state, it is true, are transported in boats steamboats, viz. The first, Caldwell, in 1817, at upon Connecticut river, but far the great- Ticonderoga, by John Winans ; length 80 feet, er portion of the business
of those parts horse ; speed 5 miles per hour. It was burnt at is over-land to Boston. The mercantile Caldwell'in 1820 or '21.' The Mountaineer, in 1824, connexions on the west side of the moun
at Caldwell by J. Sherman, length 100 feet, breadth tains are mostly with New York, and most 16, and depth 8; cost $12.000 ; power 20 horse, speed of the business of the north western sec. Ticonderoga in 1837. The second Caldwell, in tion of the state is transacted through 1838, at Ticonderoga, by J. Sherman, length '140, lake Champlain, the northern canal and speed 12 miles an hour, commanded by Capt. L. C. Hudson river. Previons to the opening I Larabee and now running.
TABLE OF STEAM BOATS.
Burnt at Whitehall 1817
16 “ Condemned 1835 Master Carpenters. Continuance in service &c. White 7" conv’id to sloop 1833
10 « Condemned 1838
8 R. W. Sherman
W. Sherman 2015 Geo. Brush
10 horse speed
powr pr h'r TABULAR VIEW OF STEAM BOATS ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN,
204 81226 15,000 60 10 Dan Lyon
190 25 9 405 75,000 200 15 R. W. Sherman L. S. White 1809 Burlington J. Winans & J. Lough 120 20 8 167 $20,000 20 4 John Winans John Winans
| 25,000) 100 215 23 9 460 70,000 200 15 Dan Lyon
75 22 8 115
1842 Shelburne Cham. Trans. Co.
92 204 T 13- 12,00) 308 Wm. Burton
Some attempts have been made to navi. gate Connecticut river, adjacent to Vermont, by steamboats, but they have not
hitherto been successful. The first was So in 1827. A strong boat, 75 feet long and
14; wide, called the Barnet, succeeded, with some help in passing the rapids, in ascending the Connecticut as far as Bellows Falls. This boat was taken back to Hartford, Connecticut, laid up and finally broken to pieces. In 1829 Mr. Blanchard built a boat called the Blanchard of the size of the preceding, and another 80 feet long, 14 wide and drawing only 12 or 15 inches of water, called the Vermont. The stroke of the piston was horizontal, and the pow. er of the engine 120 horse. A few experimental trips were made between Bellows Falls and Barnet, but the obstacles were such that the undertaking was relinquished and has not been resumed.
Light House. Only one light house has been built in Vermont by the general government, and that is situated on Juniper island in lake Champlain. Congress having made an appropiation for the erection of a light house in the vicinity of Burlington, the legislature of Vermont, in November, 1825, passed an act ceding to the United States, at their option, either Juniper island or five acres on Appletree point, as a site for the same. The island being chosen, a light house was erected there in 1826. It stands on the highest part of the island, is built of
brick in the form of the frustrum of a 3a a cone, with a diameter of 18 feet at the
base and 12 at the top, and is 30 feet high. 23:33 A sufficient light is here kept constantly
burning in the night during the continuation of navigation, which is usually from the middle of April to the first of December. The first keeper of this light house was Lieut. F. A. Sawyer. He was succeeded in 1829 by Capt. M. Corning, and the latter in 1841 by Mr. E. Jones the pres. ent keeper. The salary is $375, with the use of the land on the island, about 11 acres, and a boat.
Two other light houses have since been built on the lake, one at Split Rock and the other on Cumberland head, both within the limits of New York.
Break Water.–For the protection of the shipping at Burlington, the principal landing place on the east side of lake Champlain, the Congress of the United States in 1836 resolved to enter upon the construction of a Break-water, and made an appropriation for that purpose. On the 4th of July, 1837, the work was commenced by Nathan B. Haswell, Esq. as agent for the government, who has kindly furnished the following particulars of its design and progress.
When , where built.
BREAK-WATER. PROJECTED RAIL-ROADS. « The Break-water is located 1000 feet
SECTION VII.* from the central wharf in Burlington, and a tolerable idea of its form and position
Benevolent Institutions. may be obtained from the diagram :
The voluntary associations for literary, scientific, benevolent and other purposes, which have, from time to time, been form
ed in Vermont, exhibit a pleasing view of North
the character and disposition of the peoWharf.
ple. Social libraries and lyceums, designed for mutual improvement, are sustained in many of our towns, and, where prudently managed, they have been found to exert a favorable influence upon the
peighborhoods in which they are situated. 1000 feet from end of Whar.
Besides these which are local and for the most part temporary institutions, we have several other associations, which are of a more general and permanent character.
We shall here briefly notice the followWharf.
The Vermont Bible Society. This socie
ty was organized on the 28th of October, The work presents a line of 900 feet in * It was our intention to insert in this place a length, resting upon a firm and even bot- section upon roads and turnpikes, embracing some tom, at a depth of from 30 to 32 feet below account of proposed canals and railroads within the surface of the water on the interior the state; but as other matters have already side. It consists of 9 cribs, each 100 feet swelled this part of our work much beyond our long, and 50 feet wide at the bottom, di- calculations, we shall pass them by with only a minishing to 35 at the surface of the water, pletion of the great Western, and the Champlain
few remarks. From about the time of the comabout 65 degrees with the horizon,) on the and Hudson canal in the state of New York, the interior side, the exterior being perpen- this state for a number of years, and some surveys
subject of canals excited considerable attention in dicular. The cribs are constructed of
were made at the expense of the general governhemlock timber as high as the surface of the water, above which they are of white cability, but nothing further was done, till canals
ment for the purpose of ascertaining their practipine, and rise perpendicularly on both come to be surpeceded, in the public estimation, sides to the additional height of 8 feet, by rail-roads. This took place about 1830, and making the whole height of the work 40 from that period rail-roads were the general topic feet. The timbers are firmly interlocked for some time, and several new surveys were and doweled with 24 inch white oak tree- made for the purpose of ascertaining the best planails, and the cribs filled in a solid manner ces for their location. The principal rail-roads, with stone and covered with gravel. Of which have been proposed, are the following, viz : the 900 feet put down, 800 are completed, from the south line of the state along the valley of and in its present unfinished state, it af- the Connecticut and Passumpsic to Canada line, fords important protection to the shipping near lake Memphremagog--from Burlington along of the lake during the prevalence of our the valley of the Winooski to Connecticut riverstrong northwest and southwest winds. from Bennington to Brattleboro---from Rutland to When completed to the extent contem- Whitehall-from Rutland to Connecticut riverplated, (2,000 feet in length, it will pro- and from Vergennes to Bristol. Separate comvide a safe and smooth anchorage around panies were incorporated as early as 1835, for and in front of the wharves, where the carrying all these into effect, but neither of them shipping of the lake may ride with safety has yet been commenced. With all our talk, and in the most tempestuous weather. The (with the exception of a few cuts by the falls of the
our canal and rail-road conventions, we have not, cost of the whole work is estimated at Connecticut,) a single rod of canal or rail-road $150,000, and there remains to be con- within the state. The connexion of Boston with structed 1,100 feet in length to complete the valley of lake Champlain by the continuation it. Congress has appropriated $70,000 of the Lowell and Concord rail-road, is an object for the work which has been laid out, and of vast importance to our state and is one, which the work is now suspended till further will, doubtless, in time, be accomplished ; and appropriations shall be made."
when completed, through the whole distance, we A similar work has been for several believe that, at reasonable rates for transportation, years in progress at Plattsburgh for the the stock invested would be suficiently producprotection of the harbor at that place. tive. Pr. 11.