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MOUNTAINS.

RIVERS AND STREAMS.

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the intervening portions are so high and Riders and Streams.–The rivers and steep as not to admit of roads being made streams lying within the state of Vermont over them, with the exception of that por- are very numerous, but small. They, in tion lying between the Lamoille and Mis most cases, originate among the Green siscp. This part of the Green Mountains Mountains, and their courses are short presents some of the most lofty summits and generally rapid. Connecticut river in the state ; particularly the Nose and washes the whole eastern border of the Chin in Mansfield, and Čamel's Humpin state, but belongs to New Hampshire, the Huntington. These, together with other western margin of that stream forming important mountains and summits in the the boundary line between New Hampstate, are exhibited in the foregoing table sbire and Vermont. The Connecticut reand cut, and will also be described in the ceives the waters from 3,700 square miles Gazetteer, under their respective names. of our territory. It receives from VerThe sides, and, in most cases, the sum- mont, besides numerous smaller streams, mits of the mountains in Vermont, are the waters of the eleven following rivers, covered with evergreens, such as spruce,

viz: Wantasticook, or West, Saxton's, hemlock and fir. On this account the Williams', Black, Ottaquechy, White, French, being the first civilized people Ompompanoosuc, Wait's, Wells', Paswho visited this part of the world, early sumpsic, and Nulhegan. Clyde, Barton gave to them the name of Verd Mont, or and Black river run northerly into Mem. Green Mountain; and when the inhabi. phremagog lake. Missisco, Lamoille, tants of the New Hampshire Grants as- Winooski and Poultney river and Otter sumed the powers of government, in 1777, creek flow westerly into lake Champlain, they adopted this name, contracted by the and the Battenkill and Hoosic westerly omission of the letter d, for the name of into Hudson river. Deerfield river runs the new state.

southerly from Vermont and falls into the

Connecticut in Massachusetts; and the * This name is said to have been adopted upon Coatacook and Pike river head in the the recommendation of Dr. Thomas Young-(see part

2d, page 106.) The following account of the north part of the state and run northeriy christening of the Green Mountains, is given by the into Canada, the former uniting with Rev. Samuel Peters in his life of the Rev. Hugh Massuippi river at Lenoxville and the latPeters, published at New York in 1807.

"Verd-Nont was a name given to the Green ter falling into the head of Missisco bay. Mountains in October, 1763, by the Rev. Dr. All these streams and many smaller ones Peters, the first clergyman who paid a visit to the will be described in the Gazetteer under 30,000 settlers in that country, in the preserce of their respective names. Col. Taplin, Col. Willes, Col. Peters, Judge Pe

No country in the world is better supters and many others, who were proprietors of a plied with pure and wholesome water large number of townships in that colony. The than Vermont. There are scarcely any ceremony was performed on the top of a rock farms in the state which are not well wastanding on a high mountain, then named Mount tered by springs, or brooks; and none, Pisgah because it provided to the company a clear with the exception of those upon the isl. sight of lake Champlain at the west, and of Con- ands in lake Champlain, which are not in necticut river at the east, and overlooked all the the vicinity of one, or more, considerable trees and hills in the vast wilderness at the north mill stream. But while Vermont is so and south. The baptism was performed in the abundantly supplied with water, there is, following manner: Priest Peters stood on the probably, no part of our country in which pinnacle of the rock, when he received a bottle of so little stagnant water is found. The spirits from Col. Taplin; then haranguing the waters of the lakes and ponds are usually company with a short history of the infant settle-clear and transparent, and nearly all the ment, and the prospect of its becoming an impreg, springs and streams are brisk and lively. nable barrier between the British colonies on the It is a common remark that the streams south and the late colonies of the French on the in this state have diminished very much north, which might be returned to their late own in size, since the country began to be ers for the sake of governing America by the dif- cleared and settled, and it is doubtless ferent powers of Europo, he continued, We have here met upon the rock Eram, standing on Mount

some extent. Many mills, which Pisgah, which makes a part of the everlasting hill the He then poured out the spirits and cast the bottle spine of Asia, Africa and America ,holding logeiher

the rock Etam." the terrestrial bail, and dividing the Atlantic from

There is no doubt that the name Verd Mont had the Pacific ocean-lo dedicate and consecrate this been applied to this range of mountains long preextensive wilderness to God manifested in the vious to the above transaction, (if, indeed, it ever flesh, and to give it a new name worthy of the took place;) but we do not find that the name Verd

Mont, or Vermont, was ever applied to the territory Athenians and ancient Spartans, - which new generally known as the New Hampshiro Grants, name is Verd Mont, in token that her mountains previous to the declaration of the independence of and hills shall be ever green and shall never div. ihe territory in January, 1777.

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LAKE CHAMPLAIN.

LAKES AND PONDS. formerly had an abundance, have ceased state of New York, and more than half of to receive the necessary supply of water it within the limits of Vermont. It exduring a considerable portion of the year; tends in a straight line from south to and many mill sites, which were once north, 102 miles along the western bounthought valuable, have, from the same dary, from Whitehall to the 45th degree cause, become entirely useless. One of of latitude, and thence about 24 miles to the principal causes of this diminution of St. Johns in Canada, affording an easy our streams is supposed to be the cutting communication with that province and down of the forests, which formerly threw with New York. This lake is connected off immense quantities of vapor into the with Hudson river, at Albany, by a canal atmosphere, which was again precipitated 64 miles in length; so that the towns lyupon the earth in rain and snow. "But it ing on the shores of Lake Champlain is believed that the quantity of water have direct communication by water with which annually passes off in our streams the cities of Troy, Albany, Hudson, and is not so much less than formerly as is New York, and, by means of the great generally imagined. Before the country western canal, with the great western was cleared, the whole surface of the lakes. The length of this lake from ground was deeply covered with leaves, south to north, measured in a straight line limbs, and logs, and the channels of all from one extremity to the other, and supthe smaller streams were much obstruct- posing it to terminate northerly at St. ed by the same. The consequence was, Johns, is 126 miles. Its width varies from that, when the snows dissolved in the one fourth of a mile to 13 miles, and the spring, or the rains fell in the summer, mean width is about 44 miles. This would the waters were retained among the give an area of 567 square miles, two leaves, or retarded by the other obstruc-thirds of which lie within the limits of tions, so as to pass off slowly, and the Vermont. The waters, which this lake streams were kept up, nearly uniform as receives from Vermont, are drained, by to size, during the whole year. But since rivers and other streams, from 4088 miles the country has become settled, and the of its territory. Its depth is generally obstructions, which retarded the water, sufficient for the navigation of the largest removed by freshets, when the snows vessels. It received its present name melt or the rains fall, the waters rur off from Samuel Champlain, a French noblefrom the surface of the ground quickly, man, who discovered it in the spring of the streams are raised suddenly, run rap- 1609, and who died at Quebec in 1635, idly, and soon subside. In consequence and was not drowned in its waters, as has of the water being thus carried off more been often said.* One of the names givrapidly, the streams would be smaller en to this lake by the aborigines is said to than formerly during a considerable part have been Caniaderi-Guarunte, signifying of the year, even though the quantity of the mouth or door of the country. If so, water be the same. It is a well known it was very appropriate, as it forms the fact that the freshets in Vermont are gate-way between the country on the St. more sudden and violent than when the Lawrence and that on the Hudson. The country was new.

name of this lake in the Abenâ qui tongue The waters of the lakes, ponds and was Petawa-bouque, signifying alternate streams are universally soft, miscible with land and water, in allusion to the numersoap, and in general free from foreign ous islands and projecting points of land substances. And the same may be said along the lake. Previous to the settleof most the springs, particularly on the ment of the country by Europeans, this Green Mountains, and in that portion of lake had long been the thorough-fare bethe state lying east of these mountains. tween hostile and powerful Indian tribes, The waters of most of the springs and and its shores the scene of many a mortal wells in the western part of the state conflict. And after the settlement, it are rendered hard and unsuitable for continued the same in reference to the washing by the lime they hold in solu- French and English colonies, and subsetion, and there are many springs which quently in reference to the English in are highly impregnated with Epsom salts, Canada and the United States. In conand others containing iron, sulphuretted sequence of this peculiarity of its locahydrogen, &c. These mineral springs tion, the name of Lake Champlain stands will be described in another place. connected with some of the most interest

Lakes and Ponds. Small lakes and ing events in the annals of our country; ponds are found in all parts of Vermont, and the transactions associated with the but there are no large bodies of water names of Ticonderoga, and Crown Point, which lie wholly within the state. Lake Champlain lies between this state and the * Soe Part II, p. 2. Spafford'sGaz.of N.Y., p. 98.

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MEMPHREMAGOG LAKE.

BAYS, SWAMPS, ISLANDS, soil.

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and Plattsburgh, and many other places, hall. Besides these there are several
united with the variety and beauty of the sinaller bays lying along the east shore of
scenery, the neatness and accommodation Lake Champlain, and a considerable bay
of the steamboats, and the unrivalled ex. at the south end of Lake Memphremagog,
cellency of their commanders, render a called South bay. Most of these bays
tour through this lake one of the most in will be more particularly described under
teresting and agreeable to the enlightened their names in part third, and also some
traveller. A historical account of the of the most important bays lying along
most important transactions upon Lake the west shore of Lake Champlain, and
Champlain, together with some account belonging to New York.
of the navigation of the lake, and partic- Swamps.—These are hardly of suffi-
ularly of the steamboats which have been cient importance to deserve a separate no-
built upon it, will be found in part second, tice. Though considerably numerous,
and a much more minute description of they are, in general, of small extent, and,
the lake under its name in part third. in many cases, have been, or may be

Memphremagog lake is situated on the drained and converted into excellent
north line of the state, and about midway lands. They are most common in the
between lake Champlain and Connecticut northern and northeastern parts of the
river. It extends from south to north, state. In the county of Essex are several
and is nearly parallel with lake Cham- unsettled townships, which are said to be
plain. It is 30 miles long, and the aver. made up of hills and mountains with
age width about two miles. One third swamps lying between them, which ren-
part of this lake lies in Vermont; the oth- der them to a great extent incapable of
er two thirds in Canada. The name of settlement. There is a considerable tract
this lake in the Abenâ qui tongue was of swampy land at the south end of Mem-
Mem-plow-bouque, signifying a large ex. phremagog lake, and another in Highgate
panse of water. This, together with nu- about the mouth of Missisco river. When
merous small lakes and ponds, which lie the country was new, there were many
wholly within the state, will be described stagnant coves along the margin and
in part third, either under their names, or among the islands of Lake Champlain,
in the account of the towns in which they which, during the hotter parts of the sum-
are situated. There is abundant evidence mer, generated intermittent and bilious
that most of our lakes and ponds were fevers. But, since the clearing of the
formerly much more extensive than they country, these have been, to a considera-
are at present, and that they have been ble extent, filled up, and, with the causes
diminished, both by the deposit of earthy which produced them, those disorders
matter brought in by the streams, and by have nearly disappeared.
the deepening of the channels at their Islands.--The principal islands be-
outlets ; and there is also sufficient proof longing to Vermont, are South Hero,
of the former existence of many ponds in North Hero, and La Motte. South Hero,
this state, which have long since become called also Grand Island, is 13 miles long,
dry land by the operation of the same and is divided into two townships, by the

Several of these will be pointed name of South Hero and Grand Isle. out in the descriptions of the rivers in North Hero is about 11 miles long, but part third, particularly in the description very narrow, and constitutes a township of Winooski river, Barton river, &c. bearing the same name as the island.

Bays.—The shores of Lake Cham- Isle la Motte lies westward of North plain are indented by numerous bays, Hero, and constitutes a township by the most of which are small and of little con

A more particular account sequence. Missisco bay is the largest of of these islands, and also a description of these, and belongs principally to Vermont, Juniper island and several others lying lying between the townships of Alburgh in Lake Champlain, will be found under and Highgate, and extending some dis- their names in part third. tance into Canada. The other bays of Soil and Productions. The soil of most consequence, lying along the east Vermont is generally a rich loam, but vashore of the lake and belonging to Ver- ries considerably according to the nature mont, are M'Quam bay in Swanton, Be- and compositions of the rocks in the diflamaqueen bay lying between St. Albans ferent parts of the state. Bordering our and Georgia, Mallets bay in Colchester, lakes, ponds, and rivers, are considerable Burlington bay between Appletree point tracts of rich and beautiful intervale* and Red Rocks point, Shelburne bay between Red Rocks point and Pottier's

Intervale. This word has not yet found a place point, Button bay in Ferrisburgh, and in our dictionaries, and there has been much carping

about it by Dr. Dwight, Mr. Kendall, and other East bay between Westhaven and White-travellers and critics. But we use it, not withstand

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SOIL AND PRODUCTIONS.

MEDICINAL SPRINGS.

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lands, which consist of a dark, deep and the farmer who is saving and industrious fertile alluvial deposit. These intervales seldom fails of having his barn filled with are level tracts lying but little higher than fodder for his horses, cattle and sheep, the ordinary height of the water in the his granary with corn, wheat, rye, oats, streams, and are in most cases subject to peas and beans, and his cellar with potabeing flooded, when the water is very toes, apples, and other esculent vegetahigh. They were, while in a state of na- bles. A sufficient quantity of grain for ture, covered with a heavy growth of for the supply of the inhabitants might easily est trees, such as oak, butternut, elm, be raised in all parts of the state, yet the buttonwood, walnut, ash, and some other greater part of the lands are better adaptkinds. Back of these flats were frequent. ed for grazing than for tillage. The hills ly others, elevated a few feet higher, and and mountains, which are not arable on covered with white pine. Still further account of their steepness, or rocks, afford back, the land rises, in most cases very the best of pasturage for cattle and sheep. gradually, into hills and upland plains, of the fruits, nuts, berries, &c., which and the soil becomes harder and more grow in Vermont, both wild and cultivagravelly, but very little diminished in ted, a more particular account will be richness and fertility. The timber upon given in a subsequent chapter on the botathese lands, which constitute the greater ny of the state. part of the state, was principally sugar Medicinal Springs.—There are in Vermaple, beech and birch, interspersed with mont springs which are more or less imbass, ash, elm, butternut, cherry, horn- pregnated with mineral, or gaseous subbeam, spruce and hemlock. And still fur- stances, but none which have yet acther back the lands rise into mountains, quired a very general or permanent celebwhich are in general timbered with ever- rity for their curative properties. Along greens, such as spruce, henilock and fir. the shore of Lake Champlain, in the The loftiest mountains are generally rocky counties of Addison and Rutland, the waand the summits of some few of them ters generally are impregnated with Epconsist of naked rock, with no other traces som salts, (sulphate of magnesia). Some of vegetation than few stinted shrubs of the springs are so highly charged with and mosses; but they are, in general, these salts, in the dryer parts of the year, thickly covered with timber to their very that a pail full of the water will produce tops.' Along the western part of the a pound of the salts. They have been state, and bordering upon Lake Cham- manufactured, for medicinal purposes, in plain, are extensive tracts of light sandy some quantities, and, did the price of the soil, which were originally covered with article make it an object, they might be white, pitch and Norway pine, and in the made here to almost any extent. northern part of the state, swamps are The medicinal properties of most of the numerous, which were well stored with waters in this state, which have acquired tamarack and white cedar. A more full any notoriety, are derived from gaseous account of the native vegetables found in and not from mineral substances. In difthis state will be given in a subsequent ferent towns in the northeastern part of chapter. Since the country has been the state, are springs of cold, soft and cleared, the soil has, in general, been clear water, which are strongly impreg. found sufficiently free from stone to ad- nated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas,and mit of easy cultivation, and to be very said to resemble the Harrow. Gate waters productive in corn, grain and grass. With. in England, and those of Ballcastle and out manuring the intervales usually pro- Castlemain in Ireland. These waters are duce large crops, and are easily cultiva- found to be efficacious in scrofulous and ted, but these crops are liable, occasion. many other cutaneous complaints, and the ally, to be destroyed by floods--the same springs at Newbury, Tunbridge, Hardagency which produces the fertility of the wick, &c., have been much resorted to by soil on which they grow. All parts are, valetudinarians in their vicinity. however, sufficiently fertile amply to re- Of medicinal springs on the west side ward the labors of the husbandman, and of the Green Mountains, those of Claren

don and Alburgh have acquired the greating, because it will express our meaning more briefly est notoriety. It is now about 16 years and intelligibly to the greater part of our readers, than any other we could employ! It may be derived since the springs at Clarendon began to from inter-within, and vallis-a vale, or valley ; be known beyond their immediate neighand in its specific signification, it denotes those allu: borhood. Since that time their reputavial flats, lying along the margins of streams, which have been, or occasionally are over flowed in conse- tion has been annually extending, and the quence of ihe rising of the water. For the use of the number of visiters increasing, till they word in this sense, we have the authority of pr. have at length become a place of considerBelknap and Di. Williams, the historians of New Hampshire and Vermont, and other good writers.

able resort for the afflicted from various

CLARENDON SPRINGS.

CLARENDON AND PLYMOUTH CAVES.

2.74 grs.

parts of the country. They are situated in a of the year, and water stands in the low-
picturesque and beautiful region, 7 miles est parts of it at all seasons.*
southwest from Rutland, and have, in The Plymouth caves are situated at the
their immediate vicinity, good accommo- base of a considerable mountain, on the
dations for 500 visiters. The waters are southwest side of Black river, and about
found to be highly efficacious in affections 50 rods from that stream. They are ex.
of the liver, dispepsia, urinary and all cu- cavations among the lime rock, which
taneous complaints, rheumatism, invete have evidently been made by running
rate sore eyes, and many others, and they water. The principal cave was discov.
promise fair to go on increasing in noto-ered about the first of July, 1818, and on
riety and usefulness. These waters differ the 10th of that month was thoroughly
in their composition from any heretofore explored by the Author, who furnished
known, but resemble most nearly the the first description of it, which was
German Spa water. For their curative published shortly after in the Vermont
properties they are believed to be indebted Journal at Windsor. The passage into
wholly to the gases they contain. They this cavern is nearly perpendicular,
have been analyzed by Mr. Augustus A about the size of a common well, and
Hayes, of Roxbury, Mass., with the fol. 10 feet in depth. This leads into the first
lowing results. One gallon, or 235 cubic room which is of an oval form, 30 feet
inches of the water contained,

long, 20 wide, and its greatest height Carbonic acid gas 46.16 cubic inch. about 15 feet. It appears as if partly filled Nitrogen gas

9.63

up with loose stones, which had been Carbonate of Lime

3.02 grains.

thrown in at the mouth of the caye. Murate of Lime

From this to the second room is a broad Sulphate of Soda

sloping passage. This room is a little Sulphate of Magnesia

more than half as large as the first. The One hundred cubic inches of the gas bottom of it is the lowest part of the cave, which was evolved from the water, con- being about 25 feet below the surface of sisted of

the ground, and is composed principally

of loose sand, while the bottoms of all the Carbonic acid gas 0.05 cubic inches. Oxygen gas 1.50

other rooms are chiefly rocks and stones. Nitrogen gas 98.45 «

The passage into the third room is 4 feet

wide and 5 high, and the room is 14 feet The Alburgh springs do not differ ma- long, 8 wide, and 7 high. The fourth terially from the springs at Newbury, room is 30 feet long, 12 wide, and 18 high, Tunbridge, and other places in the north- and the rocks, which form the sides, ineastern part of the state, owing their med- cline towards each other and meet at the icinal properties principally to the sul- top like the ridge of a house. The fifth phuretted hydrogen gas, which they con- room, very much resembling an oven in tain.

shape, is 10 feet long, 7 wide, and 4 high, Cades. There are no caves in Vermont and the passage into it from the third which will bear comparison with some of room is barely sufficient to admit a person the caverns found in other parts of the to crawl in. At the top of this room is a world, and yet we have several, which conical hole, 10 inches across at the base are deserving the attention of the curi. and extending 2 feet into the rock. From ous. Those at Clarendon, Plymouth and the north side of the second room are two Danby are the most interesting. The openings leading to the sixth and seventh, Clarendon cave is situated on the south- which are connected together, and each easterly side of a nountain in the wester- about 15 feet long, 7 wide, and 5 high. ly part of that town. The descent into it From the seventh room is a narrow pasis through a passage 24 feet in diameter sage which extends northerly 15 or 16 and 31 feet in length, and which makes feet into the rocks, and there appears to an angle of 35 or 40° with the horizon. terminate. When discovered, the roof It then opens into a room 20 feet long, and sides of this cavern were beautifully 124 wide, and 18 or 20 feet high. The ornamented with stalactites, and the botfloor, sides and roof of this room are all of tom with corresponding stalagmites, but solid rock, but very rough and uneven. most of these have been rudely broken off From the north part of this room is a pas- and carried away by the numerous visitsage about 3 feet in diameter and 24 feet ers. The temperature, both in winter in length, but very rough and irregular, and summer, varies little from 444°, which which leads to another room 20 feet wide, is about the mean temperature of the cli30 feet long and 18 feet high. This room, mate of Vermont in that latitude. A few being situated much lower than the first, is usually filled with water in the spring • Williams' History of Vermont, vol. I, p. 29.

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