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cording to the latter, the 45th parallel lies former being about 175 miles, and the lata little to the southward of the line pre. ter, following the course of the Connectiviously established, but it is not yet finally cut, 215 miles.* The state is divided into settled. The eastern boundary was es- two equal parts by the parallel of 44d. tablished by a decree of George III, July 9m. north latitude, and also by the meri20th, 1764, which declared the western dian in 4d. 19m. of east longitude. These bank of the Connecticut river to be the two lines intersect each other near the western boundary of New Hampshire. western line of Northfield, and about 10 The southern boundary is derived from miles south westerly from Montpelier, and a royal decree of March 4th, 1740, and the point of intersection is the geographiwas surveyed by Richard Hazen, in Feb- cal centre of the state. ruary and March, 1741. This line, which Divisions.—The Green Mountains exwas the divisional line between Massachu- tend quite through the state from south setts and New Hampshire, was to run due to north, and, following the western range, west from a point three miles to the north- divide it into two very nearly equal parts. ward of Patucket falls, till it reached the These form the only natural division, province of New York. It was run by with the exception of the waters of lake the compass, and ten degrees allowed for Champlain, which divide the county of westerly variation of the magnetic needle. Grand Isle from the counties of Franklin This being too great an allowance, the and Chittenden, and the several islands line crossed the Connecticut river 2 which compose that county, from each 57" to the northward of a due west line. other, and from the main land. For civil In consequence of this error, New Hamp- purposes the state is divided into 14 counshire lost 59,873 acres, and Vermont 133,- ties, which are sub-divided into 245 town897 acres, and the south line of the state ships, and several small gores of land, is not parallel with the north line. The which are not yet annexed to, or formed western boundary was settled by the gov. into, townships. The names of the counernments of Vermont and New York at ties, the date of their incorporation, the the close of their controversy, in 1790. shire towns, and the number of towns in This line passes along the western boun. each county at the present time (1842) daries of the townships of Pownal, Ben- are exhibited in the following table : nington, Shaftsbury, Arlington, Sandgate, Rupert, Pawlet, Wells and Poultney, to
Incorporated Shire Towns. No Poultney river; thence along the middle Addison, Feb.27, 1707 Middlebury, 22 of the deepest channel of said river, East Bennington Feb.11, 1779
17 bay and lake Champlain to the 45th de
Manchester, gree of north latitude, passing to the east- Caledonia, Nov. 5, 1792 Danville,
18 ward of the islands called the Four Broth- Chittenden, Oct.22, 1782 Burlington, 15 ers, and to the westward' of Grand Isle Essex, Nov.5, 1792 Guildhall, 117 and Isle la Motte. The portion of this line Franklin, Nov.5, 1792 St. Albans, 14 between the southwest corner of the state Grand Isle, Nov.9, 1802 North llero, 5 and Poultney river, was surveyed in 1813 Lamoille Oct.26, 1835 Hydepark, 12 and 1814, and the report and plan of the Orange,
Feb. 1781 Chelsea, 17 survey are in the office of the Secretary Orleans, Nov.5, 1792 Irasburgh, 19 of State at Montpelier.
Rutland, Feb. 1781 Rutland, 26 Extent and Area.-The length of Ver. Washington Nov. 1, 1810 Montpelier, (17 mont from north to south is 1574 miles, Windham, Feb.11, 1779 Newfane, 23 and the average width from east to west Windsor, Feb. 1781 (Woodstock, 23 571miles, which gives an area of 9,0561 square miles, or 5,795,960 acres. The
* Dr. Williams (vol. I, p. 24) seems to have, in
advertently, taken the mean of the two ends of the length of the north line of the state is 90 stale for its mean width and thus computed the miles, and of the south line 41 miles, but, area at 10,237 1-4 square miles, or 1181m. too much ; on account of the great bend of the Con- but this is the area which has usually been given
in our geographies and other works respecting Vernecticnt to the westward, the mean width mont. As the area of countries forms the basis of of the state is considerable less than statistical tables, it is a matter of some consequence the mean between these two lines, as ample, we wish to know how Vermont compares
that it should be correctly stated. Suppose for exabove stated. The width of the state with the other states in density of population, we from Barnet to Charlotte through Mont- divide the population of each state by its area and pelier, which is 50 miles nearer to the the quotient is the average number of persons to northern than to the southern boundary if we take the last census and the area at 10,237,
each square mile in the states respectively. Now is only about 60 miles. On account of the population is only about 28 to a square mile, buc the irregularities in the western and east. if we take the true area, 9,056, it is 32 to the square ern boundaries, both these lines are lon- to the other states. According to the census of 1820, ger than the mean length of the state, the Vermont was set down as the 10th state in density and Missisco, is divided into several secused in the computation, she would have ranked as the eighth.
of the roads,, more particularly in their Face of the country.
more judicious location near the streams,
the difficulty of crossing the mountain has Mountains — The surface of Vermont is nearly vanished. In the southern part of generally uneven. A few townships along Washington county, the Green Mountains the margin of lake Champlain may be separate into two ranges. The highest of called level ; but with these exceptions, there ranges, bearing a little east of north, the whole state consists of hills and val. continues along the eastern boundaries of leys, alluvial flats and gentle acclivities, the counties of Chittenden and Franklin, elevated plains and lofty mountains. The and through the county of Lamoille to celebrated range of Green Mountains, Canada line; while the other range strikes which give name to the state, extends off much more to the east through the quite through it from south to north, keep-southern and eastern parts of Washinging nearly a middle course between Con- ton county, the western part of Caledonia necticut river on the east and lake Cham- county and the north western part of Esplain on the west. From the line of Mas- sex county to Canada. This last is called sachusetts to the southern part of Wash the height of lands, and it divides the ington county, this range continues lofty, waters, which fall into Connecticut river, and unbroken through by any considera- in the north part of the state, from those ble streams; dividing the counties of which fall into lake Champlain and lake Windham, Windsor and Orange from the Memphremagog. This branch of the Green counties of Bennington, Rutland and Ad. Mountains, though it no where rises so dison. In this part of the state, the com- high as many points of the western branch, munication between the eastern and west- is much more uniformly elevated; yet ern sides of the mountain was formerly the acclivity is so gentle as to admit of difficult, and the phrase, going over the easy roads over it in various places. mountain, denoted an arduous business. The western range, having been broken But on account of the great improvement through by the rivers Winooski, Lamoille of population, whereas, if the true area had been tions, these rivers having opened passa
ges for good roads along their banks, while
RIVERS AND STREAMS.
the intervening portions are so high and Riders and Streams.-The rivers and steep as not to admit of roads being made streams lying within the state of Vermont over them, with the exception of that por- are very numerous, but small. They, in tion lying between the Lamoille and Mis- most cases, originate among the Green siscp. This part of the Green Mountains Mountains, and their courses are short presents some of the most lofty summits and generally rapid. Connecticut river in the state ; particularly the Nose and washes the whole eastern border of the Chin in Mansfield, and Camel's Humpin state, but belongs to New Hampshire, the Huntington. These, together with other western margin of that stream forming important mountains and summits in the the boundary line between New Hampstate, are exhibited in the foregoing table shire and Vermont. The Connecticut reand cut, and will also be described in the ceives the waters from 3,700 square miles Gazetteer, under their respective names. of our territory. It receives from VerThe sides, and, in most cases, the sum- mont, besides numerous smaller streams, mits of the mountains in Vermont, are the waters of the eleven following rivers, covered with evergreens, such as spruce, viz: Wantasticook, or West, Saxton's, hemlock and fir. On this account the Williams', Black, Ottaquechy, White, French, being the first civilized people Ompompanoosuc, Wait's, Wells', Paswho visited this part of the world, early sumpsic, and Nulhegan. Clyde, Barton gave to them the name of Verd Mont, or and Black river run northerly into Mem. Green Mountain; and when the inhabi- phremagog lake. Missisco, Lamoille, tants of the New Hampshire Grants as- Winooski and Poultney river and Otter sumed the powers of government, in 1777, creek flow westerly into lake Champlain, they adopted this name, contracted by the and the Battenkill and Hoosic westerly omission of the letter d, for the name of into Hudson river. Deerfield river runs the new state. *
southerly from Vermont and falls into the
Connecticut in Massachusetts; and the * This name is said to have been adopted upon Coatacook and Pike river head in the the recommendation of Dr. Thomas Young-(see part 2d, page 106.). The following
account of the north part of the state and run northeriy christening of the Green Mountains, is given by the into Canada, the former uniting, with Rev. Samuel Peters in his life of the Rev. Hugh Massuippi river at Lenoxville and the latPeters, published at New York in 1807.
"Verd-Mont was a name given to the Green ter falling into the head of Missisco bay. Mountains in October, 1763, by the Rev. Dr. All these streams and many smaller ones Peters, the first clergyman who paid a visit to the will be described in the Gazetteer under 30,000 settlers in that country, in the preserce of
their respective names. Col. Taplin, Col. Willes, Col. Peters, Judge Pe
No country in the world is better supters and many others, who were proprietors of a plied with pure and wholesome water large number of townships in that colony. The than Vermont. There are scarcely any ceremony was performed on the top of a rock farms in the state which are not well wastanding on a high mountain, then named Mount tered by springs, or brooks; and none, Pisgah because it provided to the company a clear with the exception of those upon the islsight of lake Champlain at the west, and of Con- ands in lake Champlain, which are not in necticut river at the east, and overlooked all the the vicinity of one, or more, considerable trees and hills in the vast wilderness at the north mill stream. But while Vermont is so and south. The baptism was performed in the abundantly supplied with water, there is, following manner: Priest Peters stood on the probably, no part of our country in which pinnacle of the rock, when he received a bottle of so little stagnant water is found. The spirits from Col. Taplin; then haranguing the waters of the lakes and ponds are usually company with a short history of the infant settle clear and transparent, and nearly all the ment, and the prospect of its becoming an impreg, springs and streams are brisk and lively. nable barrier between the British colonies on the It is a common remark that the streams south and the late colonies of the French on the in this state have diminished very much north, which might be returned to their late owo: in size, since the country began to be ers for the sake of governing America by the dif- cleared and settled, and it is doubtless ferent powers of Europe, he continued, . We have here met upon the rock Etamn, standing on Mount true to some extent. Many mills, which Pisgah,which makes a part of the everlasting hill the He then poured out the spirits and cast the bottle spine of Asia, Africa and America ,holding together the terrestrial ball, and dividing the Atlantic from
upon the rock Etam."
There is no doubt that the name Verd Mont had the Pacific ocean-10 dedicate and consecrate this been applied to this range of mountains long preextensive wilderness to God manifested in the vious to the above transaction, (if, indeed, it ever flesh, and to give it a new name worthy of the took place;) but we do not find that the name Verd Athenians and ancient Spartans,
- which new generally known as the New Hampshire Grants,
Mont, or Vermont, was ever applied to the territory name is Verd Mont, in token that her mountains previous to the declaration of the independence of and hills shall be ever green and shall never die ihe territory in January, 1777.
LAKES AND PONDS,
LAKE CHAMPLAIN. formerly had an abundance, have ceased state of New York, and more than half of to receive the necessary supply of water it within the limits of Vermont. It exduring a considerable portion of the year; tends in a straight line from south to and many mill sites, which were once north, 102 miles along the western bounthought valuable, have, from the same dary, from Whitehall to the 45th degree cause, become entirely useless. One of of latitude, and thence about 24 miles to the principal causes of this diminution of St. Johns in Canada, affording an easy our streams is supposed to be the cutting communication with that province and down of the forests, which formerly threw with New York. This lake is connected off immense quantities of vapor into the with Hudson river, at Albany, by a canal atmosphere, which was again precipitated 64 miles in length; so that the towns lyupon the earth in rain and snow. But it ing on the shores of Lake Champlain is believed that the quantity of water have direct communication by water with which annually passes off in our streams the cities of Troy, Albany, Hudson, and is not so much less than formerly as is New York, and, by means of the great generally imagined. Before the country western canal, with the great western was cleared, the whole surface of the lakes. The length of this lake from ground was deeply covered with leaves, south to north, measured in a straight line limbs, and logs, and the channels of all from one extremity to the other, and supthe smaller streams were much obstruct posing it to terminate northerly at St. ed by the same. The consequence was, Johns, is 126 miles. Its width varies from that, when the snows dissolved in the one fourth of a mile to 13 miles, and the spring, or the rains fell in the summer, mean width is about 45 miles. This would the waters were retained among the give an area of 567 square miles, two leaves, or retarded by the other obstruc-thirds of which lie within the limits of tions, so as to pass off slowly, and the Vermont. The waters, which this lake streams were kept up, nearly uniform as receives from Vermont, are drained, by to size, during the whole year. But since rivers and other streams, from 4088 miles the country has become settled, and the of its territory. Its depth is generally obstructions, which retarded the water, sufficient for the navigation of the largest removed by freshets, when the snows vessels. It received its present name melt or the rains fall, the waters rur off from Samuel Champlain, a French noblefrom the surface of the ground quickly, man, who discovered it in the spring of the streams are raised suddenly, run rap- 1609, and who died at Quebec in 1635, idly, and soon subside. In consequence and was not drowned in its waters, as has of the water being thus carried off more been often said.* One of the names givrapidly, the streams would be smaller en to this lake by the aborigines is said to than formerly during a considerable part have been Caniaderi-Guarunte, signifying of the year, even though the quantity of the mouth or door of the country.t If so, water be the same. It is a well known it was very appropriate, as it forms the fact that the freshets in Vermont are gate-way between the country on the St. more sudden and violent than when the Lawrence and that on the Hudson. The country was new.
name of this lake in the Abenâ qui tongue The waters of the lakes, ponds and was Petawa-bouque, signifying alternate streams are universally soft, miscible with land and water, in allusion to the numersoap, and in general free from foreign ous islands and projecting points of land substances. And the same may be said along the lake. Previous to the settleof most the springs, particularly on the ment of the country by Europeans, this Green Mountains, and in that portion of lake had long been the thorough-fare bethe state lying east of these mountains. tween hostile and powerful Indian tribes, The waters of most of the springs and and its shores the scene of many a mortal wells in the western part of the state conflict. And after the settlement, it are rendered hard and unsuitable for continued the same in reference to the washing by the lime they hold in solu- French and English colonies, and subsetion, and there are many springs which quently in reference to the English in are highly impregnated with Epsom salts, Canada and the United States. In conand others containing iron, sulphuretted sequence of this peculiarity of its locahydrogen, &c. These mineral springs tion, the name of Lake Champlain stands will be described in another place. connected with some of the most interest
Lakes and Ponds. Small lakes and ing events in the annals of our country; ponds are found in all parts of Vermont, and the transactions associated with the but there are no large bodies of water names of Ticonderoga, and Crown Point, which lie wholly within the state. Lake Champlain lies between this state and the * See Part II, p. 2. Spafford'sGaz.of N.Y., p. 98.
BAYS, SWAMPS, ISLANDS, SOIL.
and Plattsburgh, and many other places, hall. Besides these there are several united with the variety and beauty of the smaller bays lying along the east shore of scenery, the neatness and accommodation Lake Champlain, and a considerable bay of the steamboats, and the unrivalled ex- at the south end of Lake Memphremagog, cellency of their commanders, render a called South bay. Most of these bays tour through this lake one of the most in will be more particularly described under teresting and agreeable to the enlightened their names in part third, and also some traveller. A historical account of the of the most important bays lying along most important transactions upon Lake the west shore of Lake Champlain, and Champlain, together with some account belonging to New York. of the navigation of the lake, and partic- Swamps.—These are hardly of suffiularly of the steamboats which have been cient importance to deserve a separate nobuilt upon it, will be found in part second, tice. Though considerably numerous, and a much more minute description of they are, in general, of small extent, and, the lake under its name in part third. in many cases, have been, or may be
Memphremagog lake is situated on the drained and converted into excellent north line of the state, and about midway lands. They are most common in the between lake Champlain and Connecticut northern and northeastern parts of the river. It extends from south to north, state. In the county of Essex are several and is nearly parallel with lake Cham- unsettled townships, which are said to be plain. It is 30 miles long, and the aver: made up of hills and mountains with age width about two miles. One third swamps lying between them, which renpart of this lake lies in Vermont; the oth der them to a great extent incapable of er two thirds in Canada. The name of settlement. There is a considerable tract this lake in the Abenaqui tongue was of swampy land at the south end of MemMem-plow-bouque, signifying a large ex-phremagog lake, and another in Highgate panse of water. This, together with nu- about the mouth of Missisco river. When merous small lakes and ponds, which lie the country was new, there were many wholly within the state, will be described stagnant coves along the margin and in part third, either under their names, or among the islands of Lake Champlain, in the account of the towns in which they which, during the hotter parts of the sumare situated. There is abundant evidence mer, generated intermittent and bilions that most of our lakes and ponds were fevers. But, since the clearing of the formerly much more extensive than they country, these have been, to a consideraare at present, and that they have been ble extent, filled up, and, with the causes diminished, both by the deposit of earthy which produced them, those disorders matter brought in by the streams, and by have nearly disappeared. the deepening of the channels at their Islands.-- The principal islands beoutlets; and there is also sufficient proof longing to Vermont, are South Hero, of the former existence of many ponds in North Hero, and La Motte. South Hero, this state, which have long since become called also Grand Island, is 13 miles long, dry land by the operation of the same and is divided into two townships, by the
Several of these will be pointed name of South Hero and Grand Isle. out in the descriptions of the rivers in North Hero is about 11 miles long, but part third, particularly in the description very narrow, and constitutes a township of Winooski river, Barton river, &c. bearing the same name as the island.
Bays.—The shores of Lake Cham- Isle la Motte lies westward of North plain are indented by numerous bays, Hero, and constitutes a township by the most of which are small and of little con- same name. A more particular account sequence. Missisco bay is the largest of of these islands, and also a description of these, and belongs principally to Vermont, Juniper island and several others lying lying between the townships of Alburgh in Lake Champlain, will be found under and Highgate, and extending some dis- their names in part third. tance into Canada. The other bays of Soil and Productions. The soil of most consequence, lying along the east Vermont is generally a rich loam, but vashore of the lake and belonging to Ver- ries considerably according to the nature mont, are M'Quam bay in Swanton, Be- and compositions of the rocks in the diflamaqueen bay lying between St. Albans ferent parts of the state. Bordering our and Georgia, Mallets bay in Colchester, lakes, ponds, and rivers, are considerable Burlington bay between Appletree point tracts of rich and beautiful intervale* and Red Rocks point, Shelburne bay between Red Rocks point and Pottier's
* Intervale. This word has not yet found a place point, Button bay in Ferrisburgh, and in our dictionaries, and there has been much carping East bay between Westhaven and White-travellers and critics. But we use it, notwithstand