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ANNUAL QUANTITY OF RAIN.
ANNUAL FALL OF snow. Rain.—The quantity of water, which | speak with much confidence on this point. falls in rain and snow in any one year, The quantity of water, however, which does not probably differ very considerably falls at the same places in different years, in the different sections of the state, but varies very considerably, as will appear observations are too few to enable us to from the following table : RUTLAND. WINDSOR.
1828. 1832. 1833. 1838. 1839. 1840. 1841. Incher. Inchas. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. Inches. January, 3.50 2.90 1.30 3.56
1.26 2.52 0.85 1.26
3.49 February, 2.78 2.44 2.10 3.22 2.63 1.32 1.20 2.19 0.80 March, 3.10 0.48 1.35 2.31
1.48 1.10 1.43 3.05 3.23 April,
3.01 2.78 2.75 1.96 1.28 1.34 1.60 4.69 3.54 May,
4.72 2.06 2.45 5.71 9.85 4.51 2.43 2.46 2.28 June,
3.91 2.73 3.70 3.41 4.28 5.37 3.70 2.84 5.16
2.87 August, 2.11 0.95
4.30 4.76 7.34 2.41 1.91 3.51 1.40 September, 2.48 4.57 9.85 1.81 4.17 1.33 2.91 4.71 3.62 October, 5.66 1.40 1.65
4.05 6.01 2.98 0.45 3.76 0.83 November,
2.17 6.25 3.01 1.91 3.78 2.57 2.22 2.47 December, 3.49 2.36 1.65 2.27 1.59 0.92 2.68 2.41 3.02 Total,
41.17 29.18 43.30 39.59 1 49.24 30.83 27.99 37.28 32.71 The depth of water, which falls during Snow.For more than three months of a rain storm or thunder shower, is much the year the ground is usually covered less than people generally suppose. A with snow, but the depth of the snow, as fall of 4 or 5 inches during a severe thun- well as the time of its lying upon the der shower would not be thought at all ground, vary much in the different parts extravagant by persons who have paid no of the state. Upon the mountains and attention to the accurate measurement of high lands, snows fall earlier and deeper, the quantity which fell. But during the and lie later in the Spring than upon the seven years observations at Burlington low lands and valleys, and it is believed contained in the above table, the depth of that they fell much deeper in all parts of water which fell in one shower has nev- the state, before the country was much or exceeded two inches, and the whole cleared, than they have for many years amount in 24 hours has, in only one in- past. As little snow falls at Burlington, stance, exceeded three inches, and that probably, as at any place in the state. was on the 13th of May, 1833, when the The following table exhibits the amount fall of water was 3.54 inches.
at this place for the last five winters :
Mean quantity at B. for 7 years, 37.28 in's.
24 | 30.83
Fall of Snow at Burlington in the winters of 1837-'8. | Inc., 1838-'9. Inc. 1839-'40. Inc. | 1840-'1. | Inc.1841-2. Inc.
2: Oct. 8,
26, 31 Dec. 10,3
16, 9 Dec.
18, 15 Jan. 15, 1
29, 4 Jan. 2, 10 Jan. 5, 2 19, 2 23, 6 Jan. 5, 4 “ 6, 11, 5
81 27, 3 Feb. 11,5 Jan. 4, 1
30, 2 Feb. 17, 15 13, 3 5, 14 Feb. 26, 1 Feb. 2,
“ 6, 10,
5 March, 6, 6
26, 28,12 March 3, 1
APPEARANCES OF BIRDS AND BLOSSOMS.
In 1838-'9, sleighs run from December ( or hail. The crops oftener suffer from an 23, to January 8, but there was no good excese, than from a deficiency,of moisture, sleighing during the winter. In 1839–40 though seldom from either. sleighing was excellent from December Seasons.-During the winter the ground 16, to February 5, fifty one days. In 1840- is usually covered with snow, seldom ex'41, sleighs run from November 22, to ceeding one or two feet deep on the low November 29, and from December 7, to lands, but often attaining the depth of December 12, but the sleighing was not three or four feet on the high lands and good. From December 27, the sleighing mountains. The weather is cold, and, in was good till the 8th of January, after general, pretty uniformly so, with occawhich there was no good sleighing, al- sional snows and driving winds, till the though sleighs continued to run till the beginning of March, when with much 20th of March. In 1841-'2, sleighing tol- boisterous weather there begin to appear erable from December 18, to January 20, some slight indications of spring. About after that no good sleighing though sleighs the 20th of that month the snows begin run at several periods for a few days at a to disappear, and early in April the ground time.
is usually bare. But the snows fall some The deepest snows, which fall in Ver- weeks earlier and lie much later upon the mont, are usually accompanied by a north mountains than upon the low lands. The or northeasterly wind, but there is some weather and state of the ground is usually times a considerable fall of snow with a such as to admit of sowing wheat, rye, northwesterly, or southeasterly wind. A oats, barley and peas, the latter part of long continuance of south wind usually April. Indian corn is commonly planted brings rain, both in winter and summer. about the 20th of May, flowers about the Although snows are frequent in winter 20th of July, and is ripe in October. Poand rains in summer, storms are not of tatoes are planted any time between the long continuance, seldom exceeding 24 1st of May and the 10th of June. Frosts hours. Storms from the east, which are usually cease about the 10th of May and common on the sea board, do not often commence again the latter part of Sept., reach the eastetn part of this state, and on but in some years slight frosts have been the west side of the Green Mountains observed, at particular places, in all the they are wholly unknown, or rather, they summer months, while in others, the tencome to that portion of the country from derest vegetation has continued green and a northeastern, or southeastern direction. flourishing till November. The observaThunder showers are common in the tions contained in the following table will months of June, July and August, but afford the means of comparing the springs seldom at other seasons. They usually of a few years past. They are gathered come from the west, or southwest, but are from the Meteorological journal kept by not often violent or destructive, and very the author at Burlington: little damage is ever done by hurricanes
Song Barn Currants Red Plum Plums and Crab
Common Sparrows Swallows Blossom. Blossom. Cherries Apple Apple seen, seen.
Blossom. | Blossom. Blossom.
6 14 20 May 24 June 3 1833 231 " 28 « 21
7 12 15 May 18
28 30 June 2
25 April 26 4 12 14 May 22 May 26
3 12 17 " 20 23
Vegetation, upon the low lands and sture, and bring fruits and vegetables to along the margin of the lakes and large maturity which do not succeed well upon streams, is, in the spring, usually, a week the high lands. To the above remark, or ten days in advance of that upon the with regard to early frosts, there are sevhigh lands and mountains; but frosts usu- eral exceptions. On the low islands and ally occur, in the fall, earliest upon the shores of lake Champlain, vegetation is low lands, allowing to each nearly the frequently green and flourishing long after same time of active vegetation. The low the frosts have seared it in other parts of lands, however, enjoy a higher tempera- (the state, and, along several of the rivers,
OPENING AND CLOSING OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN.
DISAPPEARANCE OF THE ICE.
vegetation is protected by the morning It frequently happens that the ice confogs for some time after its growth has tinues upon the lake for some time after been stopped upon the uplands. The the snows are gone in its neighborhood early part of the autumn is usually pleas- and the spring considerably advanced. ant and agreeable and the cold advances In such seasons the ice often disappears gradually, but as it proceeds the changes very suddenly, instances having been become more considerable and frequent, observed of the lake being entirely covand the great contrast between the tem- ered with ice on one day and the next day perature of the day and night at this sea- no ice was to be seen, it all having disson render much precaution necessary in appeared in a single night. People in the order to guard against its injurious effects neighborhood, being unable to account for upon health. The ground does not usu its vanishing thus suddenly in any other ally become much frozen till some time way, have very generally supposed it to in November, and about the 25th of that sink. This opinion is advanced in the month the ponds and streams begin to be account of this lake contained in Spafcovered with ice, and the narrow parts of ford's Gazetteer of New York, and the lake Champlain become so much frozen anomaly is very gravely attempted to be as to prevent the navigation from White- accounted for on philosophical principles. hall to St. Johns, and the line boats go in. But the true explanation of this phenomto winter quarters, but the broad portions enon does not require the absurdity of the of the lake continue open till near the first sinking of a lighter body in a heavier. It of February, and the ferry boats from Bur- is a simple result of the law by which lington usually cross till the first of Jan- heat is propagated in fluids. That bodies uary. The following table contains the are expanded, or contracted, according to times of the closing and the opening of the increase or diminution of the heat they the broad lake opposite to Burlington, contain, is a very general law of nature. and when the steamboats commenced and Fresh water observes this law, when its stopped their regular trips through the temperature is above 40°, but below 40° lake from Whitehall to St. Johns, for sev- the law is reversed, and it expands with eral years past :
the reduction of temperature.
When winter sets in, the waters of the
lake are much warmer than the incumLake
bent atmosphere. The surface, therefore, Champlin Champl'n comencd Year. opened." running stopped. of the water communicates its heat to the
atmosphere, and, becoming heavier in 1816 Feb, 9
consequence, sinks, admitting the warmer 1817 Jan. 29 Apr. 16
water from below to the surface. Now 1818 Feb. 2. Apr. 15
since heat is propagated in fluids almosten1819 Mar. 4 Apr. 17 Apr. 25
tirely by the motion of the fluids, this cir
culation will go on, if the cold continues, till Mr. 8 Mar. 12
all the water from the surface downward 1821 Jan. 15 Apr. 21
to the bottom is cooled down to the tem. 1822 Jan. 24 Mar. 30
perature of 40°. It will then cease. The 1823 Feb. 7 Apr. 5 Apr. 15
colder water now being lighter than that 1824 Jan. 22 Feb. 11
below, will remain at the surface and soon 1825 Feb. 9
be brought down to the freezing point and 1826 Feb. 1 Mar. 24
congealed into ice. This accounts for the 1827 Jan. 21 Mar. 31
ice taking soonest where the water is most 1828 not clos'd
shallow, and also for the closing of the 1829 Jan. 31 Apr.
broad parts of the lake earliest in those 1830
winters in which there is most high wind, 1831
the process of cooling being facilitated 1832 Feb. 6 Apr. 17 Apr. 23
thereby. 1833 Feb. 2 Apr. 6 Apr. 8
After the ice is formed over the lake, 1834 Feb. 13 Feb. 20 Apr. 4 Deo. 5 and during the coldest weather, the great Jan10 Jan. 23
mass of water, after getting a few inches 1835
Feb 7, Apr. 12 Apr. 21 Nov. 29 below the ice, is of a temperature 8° above 1836 Jan, 27 Apr. 21 Apr. 25 Nov. 29 lhe freezing point. While the cold is se1837 Jan. 15 Apr. 26 Apr. 29 Dec. 10 vere, the ice will continue to increase in 1838 Feb. 2 Apr. 13 Apr. 19 Nov. 26 thickness, but the mass of water below 1839 Jan. 25 Apr. 6 Apr. 11 Nov. 28 the ice will be unaffected by the tempera1840 Jan, 25 Feb. 20 Apr. 11
ture of the atmosphere above. Now the 1841 Feb. 18 Apr. 19 Apr. 28 Deo. 1 mean annual temperature of the climate 1842 l not clos'd
in the neighborhood of lake Champlain
1820 Feb.3 Feb.
FORMATION OF ANCHOR-ICE.
does not vary much from 45°, and this is scent, are successively brought in contact about the uniform temperature of the with the stones at the bottom, which, earth at some distance below the surface. themselves, soon become ice-cold, after While then the mass of the waters of the which they serve as nuclei upon which lake is at 40°, and ice is forining at the the waters are crystilized and retained by top, the earth, beneath the water, is at the attraction, forming anchor ice. temperature of 45°, or 50 warmer than the Smoky Atmosphere.— From the earliest water. Heat will, therefore, be constantly settlement of this country there have been imparted to the water from beneath, when observed a number of days, both in spring the temperature of the water is less than and autumn, on which the atmosphere 45°. The only effect of this communica- was heavily loaded with smoke. "The tion of heat to the water from beneath, smoke has generally been supposed to reduring the earlier and colder parts of the sult wholly from extensive burnings in winter, is to retard the cooling of the lake some unknown part of the country. There and the formation of ice upon its surface. is no doubt but that much of the smoke But after the cold abates in the end of often is produced in this way, but it has winter and beginning of spring, so that appeared to us, that, since smoke is not a the lower parts of the ice are not affected product, but a defect, of combustion, it by the frosts from above, the heat, which may be possible for it to be produced even is communicated from below, acts upon where there is no fire. We have been the ander surface of the ice, and, in con- led to this conclusion by observing that junction with the sun's rays, which pass the amount of smoke has not always been through the transparent surface and are greatest in those years in which burnings intercepted by the more opaque parts were known to be most extensive ; and below,* dissolves the softer portions, by observing, moreover, that the atmosrendering it porous and loose like wet phere was usually most loaded with smoke snow, while the upper surface of the ice, in those autumns and springs which suchardened by occasional frosts, continues ceeded warm and productive summers. comparatively more compact and firm. In These circumstances have led us to the this state of things, it often happens that, opinion that the atmosphere may, by ito by a strong wind, a rent is made in the solvent power, raise and support the miice. The waters of the lake are immedi. nute particles of decaying leaves and ately put in motion, the rotten ice falls in plants, with no greater heat than is ne. to small fragments, and, being violently cessary to produce rapid decomposition. agitated, in conjunction with the warmer When, by the united action of the heat water beneath, it all dissolves and van- and moisture of autumn and spring, the ishes in the course of a few hours. leaves are separated into minute particles,
There is one phenomenon, which is of we suppose these particles may be taken common occurrennce in many of our up by the atmosphere, before they are enstreams, during the coldest part of win- tirely separated into their original eleter, and which may not at first appear ments, or permitted to form new comreconcilable with what has been said pounds. This process goes on insensibly, above, and that is, the formation of ice until, by some atmospheric change, a conupon the stones at the bottom of the densation takes place, which renders the streams, usually called anchor ice. An- effluvia visible, with all the appearance chor ice is formed at falls and places and properties of smoke. where the current is so rapid that ice is Dark Days.-It sometimes happens not formed upon the surface. In the case that the atmosphere is so completely fillof running water, and particularly where ed with smoke as to occasion, especially the water is not deep and the current when accompanied by clouds, a darkness, rapid, over a rough bottom, the tempera- in the day-time, approaching to that of ture of the whole mass is probably reduced night. The most remarkable occurrennearly or quite to the freezing point be- ces of this kind, within our own recollecfore any ice is formed ; and then, where tion, were in the fall of 1819, and in the the current is so rapid that the ice cannot spring of 1820. At both of these seasons, form at the surface, the ice-cold waters the darkness was so great, for a while of the surface, in their tumultuous de- near the middle of the day, that a book of
ordinary print could not be read by the * A remarkable phenomenon attending this dis sun's light. The darkness in both cases rays, and one which we think worthy of investiga- was occasioned principally by smoke, and tion, in its separation into parallel icicles, or can- without any known extensive burnings; dles, as they are sometimes called, extending per: but the summer of 1819, is known to have pendicularly from the upper to the lower surface of been remarkable for the abundant growth the ice, giving the mass, particularly the lower portioas, somewhat the appearance of a honey comb. of vegetation. But the most remarkable
darkness of this nature, which has occur- preceding articles, this is precisely what red since the settlement of this country, we should expect. When our ancestors was on the memorable 19th of May, arrived in this country, the whole conti1780, emphatically denominated the darknent was covered with one uninterrupted, day. The darkness at that time is known luxuriant mantle of vegetation, and the to have covered all the northern parts of amount of leaves and other vegetable prothe United States and Canada, and to ductions, which were then exposed to have reached from lake Huron eastward spontaneous dissolution upon the surface over a considerable portion of the Atlan- of the ground, would be much greater tic ocean. It was occasioned chiefly by a than after the forests were cut down and dense smoke, which evidently had a pro- the lands cultivated. Every portion of gressive motion from southwest to noth- the country being equally shielded by the east. In some places it was attended with forest, the heat, though less intense, on clouds and in some few with rain. The account of the immense evaporation and darkness was not of the same intensity in other concurring causes, would be more all places, but was so great through near- uniformly distributed, and the changes ly the whole of this extensive region as to of wind and weather would less frecause an entire suspension of business quent thạn after portions of the forests during the greater part of the day, where had been removed, and the atmosphere, the country was settled, and in many pla- over those portions, subjected to sudden ces it was such as to render candles as expansions from the influence of the sun necessary as at midnight. Several hypoth- upon the exposed surface of the ground. eses have been advanced to account for It is very generally believed, that our this remarkable darkness, such as an erup. winds are more variable, our weather tion of a volcano in the interior of the more subject to sudden changes, our an. continent, the burning of prairies, &c., nual amount of snow less and our mean but by the one advanced in the preceding annual temperature higher than when article, it receives an easy explication. the settlement of the country was comThe regions at the southwest are known menced. And causes, which would proto be extremely productive, and to have duce these changes, would, we believe, been, at that period, deeply covered with be sufficient to destroy, in a great measforest sand plants, whose leaves and perish- ure, the peculiar features of our Indian able parts would be sufficient, during their Summers. The variableness of the winds, decay, to fill the atmosphere to almost any occasioned by cutting down large porextent; and nothing more would be neces- tions of the forests, would of itself be sary for the production of the phenome- sufficient to scatter and precipitate those non, than a change of atmospheric press- brooding oceans of smoke, and prevent ure, which should produce a sudden con- the long continuance of those seasons of densation, and a southwesterly wind. dark and solemn stillness, which were, in
Indian Summer.-It has been said, ages that are past, the unerring harbinthough we do not vouch for its truth, that gers of long and dreary winters and delu. it was a maxim with the aborigines of tbis ges of snow. country, which had been handed down Meteors and Earthquakes.-Upon these from time immemorial, that there wouid subjectsVermont affords nothing peculiar. be 30 smoky days both in the spring and The common phenomenon of shooting autumn of each year; and their reliance stars is witnessed here as in other parts of upon the occurrence of that number in the country, and those uncommon disautumn was such that they had no fears plays which have several times occurred of winter setting in till the number was about the 13th of November, have been completed. This phenomenon occurred observed from various parts of the state. between the middle of October and the In addition to these, several of those rare middle of December, but principally in meteors, from which meteorolites or me. November ; and it being usually attended teoric stones are thrown, have been noby an almost perfect calm, and a high ticed, but the records of them are few and temperature during the day, our ances- meagre. These meteors make their aptors, perhaps in allusion to the above pearance so unexpectedly and suddenly, maxim, gave it the name of Indian Sum- and continue visible for so short a period mer. But it appears that from the com- of time, that it is hardly possible to make mencement of the settlement of the coun- observations sufficiently accurate to furtry, the Indian Summers have gradually nish data for calculating their velocity, become more and more irregular and less distance or magnitude. That most restrikingly marked in their character, un- markable meteor which passed over New til they have almost ceased to be noticed. England in a southerly direction in the Now upon the hypothesis advanced in the morning of the 14th of December, 1807,