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CITIZENSHIP.

Of the population of Cuba 89 per cent were born in the island, 8 per cent in Spain, and only 3 per cent in other countries. Those born in Cuba, of course, included not only native whites, but negroes and mixed bloods. The proportion was greatest in the province of Santiago, where it reached 95 per cent, and was least in the city of Habana, where only a little over three-fourths of the inhabitants were native born. Three-fourths of the foreign born were of Spanish birth. The proportion of those born in Spain was naturally greatest in the city of Habana, where it reached nearly 20 per cent of all the inhabitants, and was least in the province of Santiago.

In the matter of citizenship, 83 per cent of the population claimed Cuban citizenship, only 1 per cent the protection of Spain, while 11 per cent were, at the time of the census, in suspense, not having declared their intentions. Five per cent of the population claimed citizenship other than Cuban or Spanish. The purest Cuban citizenship was found in the province of Santiago, where 91.7 per cent of the inhabitants claimed to be citizens of Cuba. On the other hand, in the city of Habana only 64.2 per cent were Cuban citizens. It is interesting to note that in the city of Habana only 5.3 per cent of the inhabitants claimed citizenship other than Cuban or Spanish, while in the province of Habana 11.6 per cent were found in this class.

Table XIII presents the male population of Cuba 21 years of age and over, classified according to race, nationality, citizenship, literacy, and superior education. The immediate object in preparing these tables was to ascertain the effect of certain provisions of the election laws proposed and recently promulgated by the military governor of Cuba on the male population of voting age. These provisions limit the suffrage to such of the citizens of Cuba as are able to read and write.

The males over 21 years of age are classified primarily as whites born in Cuba, in Spain, or in other countries, or as colored, the last class including blacks, mixed, and Chinese. Each of these classes is then grouped according to citizenship—as Cuban citizenship; Spanish citizenship; citizenship in suspense, i. e., of Spanish subjects who at the date of the census had not decided whether to remain Spanish subjects or to become Cuban citizens; or as other foreign or unknown citizenship. Again, each of these classes is further divided, as to literacy, under the following heads:

Can neither read nor write.
Can read but can not write.
Can read and write.
Have superior education.

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The population of the island, as a whole, is classified as above outlined in the first table, and in succeeding tables the population of each province and of the city of Habana are similarly classified.

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The total number of males of voting age in Cuba was 417,993, or 26 per cent of the total population. This is a little less than the proportion, in 1890, in the United States, where it was 27 per cent. The excess of males of all ages in Cuba is somewhat greater than in the United States.

Classifying the potential voters of Cuba by birthplace and race, it is seen that 44.9 per cent were whites, born in Cuba; that 30.5 per cent were colored, and as nearly all the colored were born in the island it is seen that fully seven-tenths of the potential voters of Cuba were native born, 23 per cent were born in Spain, and 1.6 per cent in other countries.

Classifying the whole number of potential voters by citizenship, it is seen from the following table that 70 per cent were Cuban citizens, 2 per cent were Spanish citizens, 18 per cent were holding their citizenship in suspense, and 10 per cent were citizens of other countries, or their citizenship was unknown.

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The degree of illiteracy of these classes was as follows:

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The Cuban citizens, numbering 290,905, were composed almost entirely of persons born in Cuba, there being among them but 220 white persons, and probably not more colored, of alien birth. The white Cuban citizens, who were natives of the island, numbered 184,471, and of these 94,301, or 51 per cent, were unable to read. The colored Cuban citizens numbered 106,214, of which not less than 78,279, or 74 per cent, were unable to read.

The people of Cuba who claimed Spanish citizenship numbered 9,500, and of these nearly all were born in Spain, there being but 159 born elsewhere.

Those whose citizenship was in suspense numbered 76,669. These also were nearly all of Spanish birth, the number born elsewhere being but 1,420.

The number of persons of other or unknown citizenship was 40,919. Of these, fully one-half were colored, most of them being Chinese, and much the larger proportion of the remaining half were of Spanish birth.

Summing up the situation, it appears that the total number of males of voting age who could read was 200,631, a little less than half the total number of males of voting age. Of these 22,629 were of Spanish or other foreign citizenship or unknown citizenship. The number whose citizenship was in suspense was 59,724, and the number of Cuban citizens able to read was 118,278, or 59 per cent of all Cuban citizens of voting age.

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