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Cuba there were 1,111 females to every 1,000 males 15–19, while in the United States there were only 1,019 females to 1,000 males in the same age period. Probably the most effectual cause is the transfer of women really belonging to other age periods into this. As the five-year period in the tables is divided into two parts, one may probe the question a little more closely. In the two years 18-19 there were 1,056 females to 1,000 males, while in the three years 15–17 there were 1,150 females to 1,000 males. Hence it is the earlier period in which the difference is especially manifest, although it clearly appears in both. The actual concentration is much greater than the apparent, since there belong to this period about 5,000 more foreign white males than foreign white females. It may be noticed that in the English figures a similar concentration of women has been pointed out, although the ages there favored fall into the next quinquennial period, 20–24. The concentration of colored in these ages was far greater than of the native white and the concentration in all Cuba far greater than in the city of Habana.

NATIVITY AND RACE.

The native whites constituted 57.8 per cent, or considerably more than one-half of the population of Cuba. The foreign whites constituted but 9 per cent; the colored, including the negro and mixed elements, amounted only to 32 per cent, or less than one-third, while the proportion of Chinese was trifling, being less than 1 per cent.

In every province the native whites formed a majority of the population, but in the city of Habana, owing to the large element of foreign birth, they formed a trifle less than one-half, or 49 per cent. The proportion of native whites was greatest in the province of Puerto Principe, the sparsely settled, pastoral province, where it reached 75.2 per sent, or more than three-fourths of all the inhabitants. It was next largest in Pinar del Rio, which is mainly a farming province, where it reached 66.5 per cent, or nearly two-thirds. Santa Clara had 60 per cent, Habana, 57.3 per cent, and Matanzas had 50.7 per cent, or but a trifle more than one-half.

The proportion of the foreign born ranged from 4 per cent in Santiago to 16.2 in Habana province, and even to 22.4 per cent in Habana city. Between a fourth and a fifth of the population of Habana city was of foreign birth. Puerto Principe had a very small foreign element, and in Matanzas and Pinar del Rio it was by no means large. The colored element, including the negro and mixed races, ranged from 20 per cent in Puerto Principe up to 45 per cent in Santiago. It was large in Matanzas, reaching 40 per cent, was 30 per cent in Santa Clara, 27 per cent in Pinar del Rio, and 26 per cent in Habana Province, while the proportion in Habana city was 27.3 per cent.

The Chinese did not form an element of importance in any of the

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provinces, but were most numerous in Matanzas, where they formed 2.1 per cent of the population.

In all of the censuses of Cuba since and including that of 1774, the distinction of white and colored has been made, and the latter have been distinguished as free and slave up to the time of the abolition of

slavery.

The following table shows the numbers and proportions of white and colored in Cuba, as shown by each census. As the Chinese have been by the Spanish censuses classed with whites, they are so classed here in the census of 1899, for purposes of comparison:

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The table shows that the number of whites has steadily increased up to the last census, which shows a diminution of 35,535 from that of 1887. The colored increased up to 1861. In 1877 there was a decided decrease of 117,149. In 1887 there was an increase of 42,901, followed by a decrease of 23,355 in 1899.

In proportion of total population it will suffice to trace the history of one element only—the colored-starting a century and a quarter ago with 43.8 per cent of the population. The proportion diminished slightly in the succeeding eighteen years. But between 1792 and 1817 it increased greatly, the colored becoming largely in the majority, with the proportion of 55.0 colored to 45.0 white. A trifling diminution followed in 1827, succeeded by an increase in 1841, when the proportion of colored reached its maximum, with 58.5 per cent. Since then it diminished rapidly and in 1861 was but 43.2 per cent, leaving the whites largely in the majority again. In 1877 it again diminished, this time to 32.2, or less than one-third of the population, since which time it has not changed materially.

The reason for the great increase in number and proportion of the colored up to 1841 is doubtless the continued importation of blacks from Africa, which persisted, in the form of smuggling, long after its official prohibition. · Their diminution relative to the whites, during the last half century, is doubtless but another illustration of the inability of an inferior race to hold its own in competition with a superior one, a truth which is being demonstrated on a much larger scale in the United States.

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