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URBAN POPULATION. In connection with the population of cities, it in: that the cities of Cuba have no corporate limitthe urban element from the surrounding rural . like the rural districts, are divided into Will wards extend from the borders of the cities a much as do New England towns, and thuir population. On this account it is impun of cities with exactness, although it is by possible has been made.

The population of cities by the ' with that given by the census of ! embrace the entire municipal in most cases adds to it a large p.

Table IV shows the popul... more which can be given of which 16 have a popular and 1 (Habana) a popul:

The urban populati inhabitants, numbers tion. Including in of 8,000 or more of the urban elen tion is 32.3 per in 1890 were us

The numbe the two defi of the total

A. - the few

islan

are 1 mor the inte

. : 76 shows the distribution of the cities of ..It'e colored circles surrounding each city repre

- poppielation. In the case of Habana the circle is -1.4p its to include numerous other cities, and it is, .. .pated in shading instead of in solid color, in order to

:-:luar.

at preponderance of Habana over all the other cities of the i in forribly illustrated; also the location of the larger cities at . time to the seacoast, the only large cities in the interior being

to Principe, Sancti Spiritus, and Santa Clara. In the interior are H erous small cities, which are abundant in the provinces of Habana,

Jutunzas, and the central part of Santa Clara. Pinar del Rio and Puerto Principe are almost without cities of magnitude, and in Santiago they are few in number and are widely scattered.

CENTER OF POPULATION.

The center of population is the center of gravity of the people, assuming each individual to have the same weight and to press downward with a force proportional to his distance from this center.

Suppose Cuba to be a plane surface, without weight, and to be loaded with its population, distributed as at the time of the census, then the island would be equally balanced about this center.

The method of computing the center of population is as follows: The position of the center of population of each municipal district was first estimated. Where the district was a small one and uniformly populated it was at its center of area. In case the district was large, or the population was distributed unequally over it, the location of its population center was estimated after an examination of the distribution of population over the district, as shown by the figures for the wards. Thus, in the case of Habana and Matanzas, and of the large municipal districts composing the province of Puerto Principe, the center of population was not at its center of area, and such an examination was made, as also in most of the districts of Santiago and certain of those of Santa Clara.

The positions of the centers of the districts having been thus estimated, a point was assumed as a tentative center of population of each province, lines were drawn through it east and west, north and south, and the distances of each of these centers from this assumed point, expressed in terms of latitude and departure, were measured, using the large War Department map of the island. The population of each district was then multiplied by its distance in latitude, whether north or south, and in departure, whether east or west, from the assumed center, and the sum of the products in each of the four directions obtained. The difference between the sum of the products north and south of the assumed position divided by the population of the prov

The map opposite page 76 shows the distribution of the cities of the island, the size of the colored circles surrounding each city representing, rudely, its population. In the case of Habana the circle is necessarily so large as to include numerous other cities, and it is, therefore, represented in shading instead of in solid color, in order to let the others appear.

The great preponderance of Habana over all the other cities of the island is forcibly illustrated; also the location of the larger cities at or close to the seacoast, the only large cities in the interior being Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, and Santa Clara. In the interior are numerous small cities, which are abundant in the provinces of Habana, Matanzas, and the central part of Santa Clara. Pinar del Rio and Puerto Principe are almost without cities of magnitude, and in Santiago they are few in number and are widely scattered.

CENTER OF POPULATION.

The center of population is the center of gravity of the people, assuming each individual to have the same weight and to press downward with a force proportional to his distance from this center.

Suppose Cuba to be a plane surface, without weight, and to be loaded with its population, distributed as at the time of the census, then the island would be equally balanced about this center.

The method of computing the center of population is as follows: The position of the center of population of each municipal district was first estimated. Where the district was a small one and uniformly populated it was at its center of area. In case the district was large, or the population was distributed unequally over it, the location of its population center was estimated after an examination of the distribution of population over the district, as shown by the figures for the wards. Thus, in the case of Habana and Matanzas, and of the large municipal districts composing the province of Puerto Principe, the center of population was not at its center of area, and such an examination was made, as also in most of the districts of Santiago and certain of those of Santa Clara.

The positions of the centers of the districts having been thus estimated, a point was assumed as a tentative center of population of each province, lines were drawn through it east and west, north and south, and the distances of each of these centers from this assumed point, expressed in terms of latitude and departure, were measured, using the large War Department map of the island. The population of each district was then multiplied by its distance in latitude, whether north or south, and in departure, whether east or west, from the assumed center, and the sum of the products in each of the four directions obtained. The difference between the sum of the products north and south of the assumed position divided by the population of the prov

ince gave a correction in latitude to the assumed position. Similarly, the products of the population of the districts by the departures were summed up east and west of the assumed center, and the difference between them divided by the total population of the province gave a correction in departure to the assumed center.

In this manner the centers of population in 1899 and in 1887 were obtained for each of the 6 provinces.

The centers of area of each of the 6 provinces were obtained by a similar process, using, however, square miles of area instead of numbers of inhabitants. .

The center of population of the island was determined by a similar use of the centers of population of the provinces. For this purpose the position of the city of Santa Clara was assumed as a tentative center of population of the island, and the differences of latitude and of departure of the computed center of population of each of the provinces from this assumed point, Santa Clara, were measured, were multiplied by the population of the provinces, the products added, and the differences between the sum of the north and of the south products obtained and divided by the total population of the island, giving a correction in latitude to the assumed position. The correction in departure was obtained in a similar manner.

Thus the center of population was obtained for the census of 1899 and of 1887, together with the center of area of the island.

The following are the results:

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The center of population in 1899 was 15 miles northeast of the city of Pinar del Rio. It had moved from its position in 1887 1 mile south and 6 miles west, owing to the partial depopulation of the eastern part of the province by the civil war. The center of area is located about 7 miles northeast of the city of Pinar del Rio, and therefore about 8 miles southwest of the center of population in 1899.

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