Gambar halaman

entrance, which is doubtless the best one, had 8 leagues of water, from the plantation of Nicolas to that of San Blas.

In order to cross the swamp from the north coast to the south coast there is another entrance called Nicolas and Cocodrilo, which is 1 league under water and 4 leagues of stones, declivities, and coral.

In order to go through these entrances on horseback it is necessary to wrap the horses from their heads to their knees with pieces of hard leather, in order to prevent them injuring themselves against the points of the coral, called “dog's teeth,” and so that they may endure the journey, which, by reason of the nature of the ground, is necessarily slow and arduous, as well as very unpleasant on account of the numerous mosquitoes in the swamp.

The distances to be covered in order to visit the gwamp are from the plantation of Nicolas to that of Maniadero, 30 leagues from the north; but from the south coast there are 40 leagues, the trip being rendered more difficult on account of the numerous lakes, ponds, and pits which it is necessary to cross.


For the men it is necessary to carry the provisions along, because the natives (who are the only ones who can live there) live exclusively on crocodile tails (?), mud turtles, agouti (Indian rats), and honey.

To feed the horses, it is necessary to cut leaves from the trees until the plantation of Jegui is reached, where there is some vegetation; but from there to the Maquina, near the entrance of Santa Teresa, by the plantation of Santo Tomas, in a space of 7 leagues to San Lazaro, nothing is found but hills and seashore, and it is necessary to cut leaves from the trees to feed animals.

The principal rivers which cross the province of Santa Clara are, in the northern portion, the Sagua la Grande, navigable for a distance of 27 kilometers; the Sagua la Chica, and the Jatibonico del Norte, and, in the southern portion, the Jatibonico del Sur, the Zaza, Hagabama, Arimao, Caunao, Salado, and Damiji, the latter navigable for a distance of 27 kilometers (the last four rivers emptying into the beautiful port of Cienfuegos), and the Hanabana, which rises in the lakes of Mordazo and empties in the lake of Tesoro, and, finally, the river Hatiguanico, which, rising in the lake of Tesoro, crosses the Zapata swamp and empties in the bay of La Broa.

The principal ports of the province are, on the north coast, Isabela de Sagua and Caibarien, and, on the south coast, Tunas de Zaza, Casilda, and the famous port of Jagua, or Cienfuegos, one of the largest in the world.


On the 16th of October, without any portfolios in which to keep their schedules, the enumerators of the town districts set out upon their work.

The 19th, 20th, 21st, 22d, 23rd, 24th of the same month, as they received their portfolios, the enumerators of the rural districts began their work.


By reason of the opposition of a small portion of the press, the enumeration began with the suspicion and mistrust of many inhabitants, some of whom saw in the cengus a certain political end and others a determined basis on which to base new taxation.

But we are happy to say here that this mistrust and passive resistance disappeared very soon, by virtue of the persuasive propaganda of the enumerators themselves, who informed the public of the regulations and the penalties which would be incurred by the enumerators who consented to concealments, and especially con

vincing them of the importance for the future good organization of the country of a' correct census of population and exact statistics as to the state of the public wealth and public instruction of the country. And the enthusiasın or the fear was so great that more than 200 individuals appeared to be recorded of their own will who had been absent from their homes for some reason or other on the day of the enumeration.

Soon after the beginning of the census there occurred a rain and wind storm, which lasted thirteen days in some localities, embarrassing the journey of the rural enumerators, the rivers swelling and the ground being soaked to such an extent that several enumerators, for this reason, which they duly entered in their daily reports of their work, recorded a small number of persons and agricultural schedules; and as a general rule it may be said that if the enumerators of the rural districts fulfilled their duty to the satisfaction of the supervisor, it is surely due to the knowledge each one had of the ground to which he was assigned; because the war which depopulated the country of men and animals, the fires which ruined all crops, fences, and roads, and the abundant vegetation of the Torrid Zone, obliterated the limits which separated the wards from each other; and, nevertheless, there were only two cases where an enumerator of the district of Quemado de Güines made a mistake in the district, having entered an abandoned estate as belonging to said district, when the fact was that a part thereof-18 caballerias-belongs to the municipal district of Rancho Veloz. The other case was that of an enumerator of Vueltas who entered two estates of the municipal district of Remedios.


Up to the 9th of November, by reason of the heavy rains of the latter part of October, it was impossible to find a man who for $10 per day would enumerate the few in habitants who live in the swamp of Zapata. Finally Mr. Pedro Nunez promised to go over the swamp and turn in his work on the 30th of November, which he religiously fulfilled.


Fifty-eight women were employed as enumerators of the census, and all have fulfilled their duty very conscientiously and with great cleanliness and exactness, the following deserving special mention: Misses Manuela Chavez y Clotilde Silva, of Santa Clara; Flora Ramos y Juana Monzon y Aguirre, of Cienfuegos; Teresa Mestre and Elvira Cabana, of Trinidad; Luisa Herrada, of Remedios; Maria Weis and Francisca del Valle Gonzalez, of Sancti Spiritus.

We also had Mrs. Agueda Valdes Aday, widow of Leza, as an enumerator of the second rural district of San Juan de los Yeras, who presented 14 schedules of popu. lation and 130 of agriculture, rendering a perfectly exact, minute, and clean work. This lady went out to enumerate her district on horseback, accompanied by her 10-year-old son.

ENUMERATORS EMPLOYED. The enumerators employed in the census of the province of Santa Clara are distributed by judicial districts in the following manner: Judicial district of Santa Clara .... Judicial district of Cienfuegos .. Judicial district of Sagua la Grande........ Judicial district of San Juan de los Remedios. Judicial district of Trinidad.... Judicial district of Sancti Spiritus............








Il 9 of 2

Total .........

The western part was enumerated by Sixto Agramonte.


The rains during the last fifteen days of October unfortunately destroyed the seeds of the early tobacco and wet the grounds prepared for the sowing of tobacco excessively; the sowing had not taken place when the work of the census was begun; had they been, the agriculture schedules would make a better showing than they do, for we know that during the last days of November and the first twenty-five of this month, an enormous amount of settings of tobacco have been laid out in this province, the production of which, if the weather continues favorable, will not be less than 220,000 quintals.

And it may be said that one-third of the future tobacco crops will be the result of the individual efforts of the Cuban farmer; because, if the agriculture schedules are carefully examined, it will be seen that only a very small number of estates own a yoke of oxen to prepare the ground, the farmer having been obliged to till the ground with his hands, a ground which is hard and knotty, as is that of Cuba.

And it may also be said that it is noticed in a majority of cases that these animals mentioned in schedule No. 3 have been furnished by capitalists of the cities, who charge as hire for the same one-third of the gross product of tobacco and corn they grow.

Consequently, if things go on as they are going, the evils of the last régime will continue in Cuba, when the case was that the owner was nothing but the manager, without salary, of his estate. And if it is desired to permit agriculture in Cuba to enter upon an era of reconstruction, it will be indispensable to give small landownerg means of securing the capital necessary to purchase oxen and implements.


By reason of the judicial districts of Sancti Spiritus and Trinidad being located at a great distance from this city, the case often occurred that certificates going and coming from there took seven days. It was necessary therefore, in order to fulfill the demands which were being made for schedule No. 3, to send men on horseback who could deliver the schedules and notices to the enumerators within twenty-four hours. Three trips were thus made to Sancti Spiritus, one to Trinidad, one to Fomento, and another to Placetas. I must here state that Gen. José Miguel Gomez, civil governor of the province, cheerfully and speedily gave me all the assistance I requested.


In all the districts, I have been told, the enumerators received from the chiefs of the rural guard the most spontaneous and excellent assistance.

In the Aguada de Pasajeros, a ward of the municipal district of Cienfuegos, the captain of the rural guard, Mr. Bernardo Mirabal, furnished the eight assistants which it was necessary to send there in order to conclude the enumeration of that ward as soon as possible and the horses required so that they could fulfill their duty.


Twice I was out of notices and schedule No. 3, but I must state that the Assistant Director sent me from Habana or other points those that I required. I must also state here that the undersigned supervisor always found the Assistant Director well disposed to explain doubtful questions, and that the advice given me was always useful for the success of the works of the census.


With the exception of a few dollars which were invested during the first days in some repairs, this office has not cost one cent to the census of Cuba, because the undersigned has made use of the office and furniture he had in the palace of the Civil Governor as secretary of the provincial board of agriculture, industry, and commerce of Santa Clara.

I am glad to state that we have worked in this office from 7 in the morning to 12 at night, the time when the electric light was put out, without excepting Sundays and holidays. Only thus could we keep up a constant correspondence with 382 enumerators, distributed over a province which has given more than 356,000 inhabitants, as well as keep up the accounting to date, and have paid all the enumerators, interpreters, agents, etc., without those delays which would be inevitable with so small a number of employees--a secretary and a messenger-and that office knows a special agent was added to this office on November 2 and another on the 23d of the same month.


I attach to this report, besides the statements of the assessments of the rural estates which compose the wards of this province, of which I have already spoken, a general report of the census of the province of Santa Clara, giving the names of the enumerators, houses, and families, and two other statements giving the cattle existing in each municipal district of this province during the vears 1895 and 1899, in order that they may be used for purposes of comparison.


Supervisor of the Census. The DIRECTOR OF THE CENSUS,

Washington, D. C. (Through the Assistant Director.)



Province of Santiago de Cuba, November 30, 1899. Sir: Complying with your request of the 9th instant, in which you asked me to make a detailed report of the work of the census in this province, I have the pleasure to inform you that on the 22d of July I received the appointment of supervisor and was directed to report to the Director of the Census, Washington, D. C.

In view of this appointment I had to embark the 26th of July for Habana, where the communications with the United States are much better than from this port, in order to arrive punctually at Washington by the 10th of August, as I was ordered. On Monday, the 31st of the same month, I embarked from Habana for New York by the steamer Vigilancia, going from that city to Washington by rail, and arriving on time. I remained fourteen days in that capital and arrived at Habana on the 23d of August, via Tampa. I remained in Habana thirteen days, helping to prepare the subdivision of my province into enumeration districts, at the provisional office of the census in Habana, leaving that city Thursday, September 7, for Santiago de Cuba, where I arrived on the 11th, but was unable to disembark until the 12th, owing to quarantine regulations. The office had been already opened at No. 32 San Basilio street, with the secretary and messenger in charge since the 1st of September

The undersigned supervisor had, consequently, scarcely a month in which to appoint the enumerators, and, due to the topography of this province and the lack of communications, he could not, as the other supervisors probably have done, go to

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]
« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »