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For a better arrangement of the work of the enumerators, and in order that the latter should not take more time than necessary, I ordered daily reports, which were to be forwarded to the office, giving the work done that day.
In explanation of instructions from Washington for the enumerators and to facilitate their work I ordered some additional instructions printed, a copy of which I had the pleasure of forwarding to you.
In making the appointments of the enumerators I acted in accordance with the instructions I had for the purpose, and, recollecting what had been said with regard to the work of women in the last census of that country, I appointed 19 in this proyince, who gave satisfactory results. * * *
Fearing that some of the enumerators had not thoroughly understood the instructions given them and at the end of their enumeration the work would be deficient, and wishing to avoid this, I issued orders for them to forward to my office for examination the work of the first two days, without interrupting the enumeration, so that I might retain in their positions those who had done the work well or had committed small errors only, easily corrected, and discharge without any remuneration whatsoever those who had shown complete ignorance of the instructions. Fortunately only a few were discharged for this reason.
The enumeration went on without drawbacks. The enumerators, animated by the best wishes for good results, surmounted the small difficulties they encountered in the discharge of their duties.
I was informed that in some islets south of the province of Habana, inhabited before the war, there were some inhabitants. For the enumeration of these individuals I appointed an enumerator and hired a schooner. Making use of the same boat, the islands of Jardines and Jardinillos, belonging to the province of Santa Clara, were enumerated.
For the enumeration of the foreign establishments in this province I was obliged to make use of six interpreters only for twenty-one days.
In the enumeration of the convente some slight difficulty was encountered by reason of the refusal of the superiors to permit the enumerators to enter and take the data from each of the inmates. Being desirous that the census should not leave anything but agreeable recollections, I obtained from the bishop of Habana an order authorizing my enumerator, a woman, to enter the convents and take the civil names of their inmates and other necessary data, which was done.
All the other elements of the population gladly assisted in the enumeration. Only the Chinese gave a little trouble by reason of their passive resistance in saying that “they did not know," but with some difficulty, there being no Chinese interpreter, all were enumerated. * * *
On November 27 the enumeration of the entire province was concluded, with the exception of district No. 324, to the south of the swamp of the Isle of Pines, which was concluded on the 29th.
In order that no one should remain in my province without being enumerated, I published in the newspapers of this city a request that all persons who may not have been enumerated on account of absence or for any other reason should advise me thereof in order that I could send and have them recorded, although I was convinced that all the enumerators had done their duty. For this purpose I created a district which I called “Additional,” indicating in red ink at the right margin of the schedules the district of enumeration to which each entry referred, in order that in tabulating in Washington they could be placed with the districts to which they belonged.
For this additional district I appointed an enumerator who had already served in the census.
I must here mention that knowing that education would be an important factor for the destiny of this country, in instructing the enumerators I informed them that they should submit to a practical proof all persons who said they knew how to read and write, calling their attention to the fact that if a man knew how to write his name it was not sufficient proof that he knew how to write, because there are many persons who can only write their names.
However, on receiving your telegram on this subject I again reminded the enumerators of what I had previously told them. *
As the Director of the Census, when in this city, desired to verify some cases of individuals who appeared in the census as knowing how to read and write, and in order to be able to contradict any statement that might be made to the contrary on this point, I selected 25 or 30 cases in the different districts of this city and intrusted the verification to an enumerator having my confidence, whom I afterwards employed in the additional district. The verification agreed in all points with the enumeration previously effected.
As the work arrived in my office it was examined, the small errors being corrected, and then forwarded to the assistant director.
Before beginning the enumeration in this province, and taking into consideration the number of persons enumerated daily in the United States during the last census, I fixed for the enumerators of the city of Habana as well as of other cities a task of one hundred entries, more or less, being required to state the reason for not making more than seventy, in order that they should not use more time than necessary, as on the other hand they would get credit for three days of enumeration for two of work.
This measure was not applied to the rural wards, by reason of the distances it is necessary to cover between each plantation and on account of the condition of the roads. But in any case they had to give the cause when the day's work was less than usual. * * *
In compliance with your instructions, I kept sending to the Assistant Director at Santa Clara the work of enumeration after it was corrected and examined, which I concluded doing on December 23.
As I said before, it would not have been possible for me, with only my secretary and messenger, properly to attend to all the work which the labor required should it not have been, I repeat, for the spontaneous cooperation of many enumerators who worked in my office without any remuneration whatsoever, and to the fact that my secretary and myself dedicated to the census many days taken from our rest.
I am perfectly satisfied with my enumerators and their work; all of them worked with real zeal and enthusiasm to have the work a success and to enjoy the satisfaction of having contributed with their grain of sand to raising the monument which is to serve as a basis for the future destiny of our country.
The enumerators in the country, besides having to encounter, as all those of the towns, the small natural difficulties in this kind of work, were inconvenienced with the scarcity of horses in the country, some of them being obliged to hire them at $2 to $2.50 per day. Fortunately, the rainy season this year was not so abundant as it generally was, thus making the journeys of the enumerators less difficult.
I say the same with regard to the female enumerators, who relatively did the work better than the men, because it is to be taken into consideration that the Spanish Government never having wished to give to the Cuban woman any participation whatsoever in public positions, although they were sufficiently intelligent and instructed therefor, as they have proven in this case, they found themselves, as was natural, in fear of not being able to perform their duty well, because this work was completely different from the duties which up to this time they had been engaged in.
In the census they have proven that they are capable of any office proper for their sex. I hope, as the Director of the Census told them, that this will serve as an encouragement for making use of their services in other offices.
In the formation of the census of this province I also carefully studied the administrative part in order to make it as economical as possible. My attempts have been
crowned with success, because, according to the information furnished by the paymaster of this province, which agrees with my accounts, only about $36,000 have been spent altogether, which I understand is one-third of what was estimated.
My relations with said paymaster, Maj. James E. Wilson, have been very agreeable, as he did all that he could to prevent delay in the payments and trouble for the enumerators in the collection of their accounts.
Special mention must be made of the fact that the newspapers of this city, principally La Lucha, La Discusion, and El Diario gladly, without charge, published all the instructions to the enumerators which it was necessary to publish before and during the time of the enumeration, and that they also dispelled any doubts that the people might have with regard to the census, thus contributing to a better success of the work.
Before concluding I wish to state, although it may injure the modesty of the Assistant Director of the Census, that the success of taking the census is due in great part to the great knowledge possessed by him, to his activity in the discharge of his duties as Assistant Director, and to the precision and clearness with which he always answered the doubts and consultations submitted to him during the course of the work. Yours, etc.,
Supervisor of the ('ensus in the Province of Habana. The DIRECTOR OF THE CENSUS OF CUBA,
lashington, D. C. (Through the Assistant Director.)
CENSUS OF CUBA, OFFICE OF THE SUPERVISOR,
Matanzas, Cuba, December 20, 1899. Sir: It is a difficult task for me to comply with superior orders in the midst of the complicated and varied works of the census and faithfully remember the many details of the work which was so kindly placed in my hands and which I have so unworthily concluded; difficult also by reason of the absence of intellectual gifts, which I have always been obliged to supply with the intention and especially with the activity and the wish to succeed.
From the time we were given our orders in Washington I understood that I had the good fortune of receiving the easiest of the provinces; that having the most ample means of communication, the success depended on the personnel that I should select. Thus it was that I went over names and names in my mind for the selection of a secretary ad hoc, who should be diligent, acquainted with office work, very prudent, and who should, together with a clear intelligence, combine the honesty and the enthusiasm necessary properly to direct the work of the office. I analyzed and rejected man after man until, upon the recommendation of an illustrious Cuban residing in Washington, whose name alone is a “gem of glory," caused me to decide in favor of Mr. Tomas Cordona, with whom I was not acquainted, and whose merits were so opportunely expounded to me.
The results obtained, with the cooperation of so methodical, intelligent, and honest an employee, have surpassed all expectations.
Later came the study of maps and plans, the calculation of the population, the examination of the last census, the examination of the rural wealth, and finally the election of the personnel of the enumerators and the division of the province into enumeration districts upon the basis of the last deficient census and the few and