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the falls of the Havabanilla River, 1,200 feet above the sea. Absolute freedom from pollution was claimed. It was abandoned on account of the war. The estimated cost of this work was $1,000,000. The Jicotea aqueduct is simply a large open cistern built of rocks and cement. There are about 200 wells in the city, but infected. (United States Sanitary Inspector D. E. Dudley, quoted by R. P. Porter.)
The present water supply of Habana is excellent, being derived from the pure and extensive springs of Vento, about 9 miles distant from the city. The present aqueduct, completed in 1893 or 1894, was begun in 1861, and is known as El Canal de Albear. At the source of supply there is a large stone basin into which the springs or, more properly, subterranean streams bubble. At one side is a magnificent gatehouse. From this runs the aqueduct, which is an egg-shaped brick tunnel, generally under ground, but marked at frequent intervals along its route by turrets of brick and stone. The present water supply enters the city through the suburb of Cerro, which formerly had few, if any, connections with it, the population of this suburb purchasing their water from the street carriers. There is an old aqueduct also running into the city, built as early as 1597, known as the Zanja. The source of this water supply was, or is, the Almendares River, only about 2 miles away, the water of which was unquestionably impure. There are but few wells and cisterns in the city, and to-day nearly all of the water used is pure. It should perhaps be said that the waterworks enterprise is a municipal affair. (Clark.)
The present water supply of Habana is excellent, although it is used by only a portion of the population. It comes from the enormous springs on the banks of the Almendares River, about 8 miles due south of the city. These springs are inclosed in a masonry structure about 150 feet in diameter at its base and 250 feet at the top and 60 feet deep. Masonry drains are laid around the upper surface to prevent any surface water from washing into the spring. At the base of this spring the water is constantly bubbling up and appears to be of remarkable purity. The supply is so large that it more than fills all the present requirements, and a large portion of it runs to waste. From the spring the water is conveyed under the Almendares River by pipes situated in a tunnel, and from the north side of the river the water is conveyed in a masonry tunnel or aqueduct for a distance of about 6 miles, where it discharges into a receiving reservoir, the altitude of which is 35 meters, or about 108 feet, above the sea level. From the distributing reservoir the water is carried into the city by gravity in pipes, the highest point in the thickly populated portion of the city being 68 feet. The pipes in the streets are said to be small, and there is not sufficient pressure to carry the water to the upper stories of the small number of buildings which exceed one story in height. In these buildings pumping is necessary. There are said to be about 18,000 houses in the city, and from a report made by the municipality in 1897 it appears that the number of houses directly connected with the water pipes is 9,233. The poorer houses, which are not thus connected, obtain water either by purchase from the street vendors or by getting it from public taps, of which there are a certain number scattered throughout the city. (General Greene, quoted by R. P. Porter.)
Since 1872 it has had a fine water supply, though only about half the houses are connected with the water system, and many of the people still buy water of street vendors without knowledge as to the source of supply or purity of the water. (Porter.)
SANTIAGO. The city has a good water supply furnished through an aqueduct named El Paso de la Virgen. (Clark.)
There is no city in which one-third of the houses obtain water directly from a natural stream, and in more than half of the cities this source of supply is not recognized. The only cities in which it is important are Manzanillo, Sancti Spiritus, and Trinidad.
MANZANILLO. Manzanillo lies on the coast of Santiago, about three-quarters of a mile from the mouth of the Yara. “The water supply formerly came from the river Yara, but proved to be so unhealthy that now the inhabitants rely entirely upon cisterns.” (Clark.) In the light of the preceding figures this is evidently a statement of what should be rather than what is.
“Sancti Spiritus is situated on both banks of the Yayabo, which flows 5} miles to empty into the Zaza at a point about 20 miles from the sea.” (Military Notes on Cuba.)
TRINIDAD. “The course of the river Guaurabo lies within half a mile of Trinidad.” (Clark.)
Regarding the water supply of the other five cities, Guanabacoa, Pinar del Rio, Puerto Principe, Regla, and Santa Clara, the following notes are submitted:
GUANABACOA. “Guanabacoa is noted for its numerous springs and wells and for the excellence and abundance of its drinking water.” (Military Notes on Cuba.)
PINAR DEL RIO. “The river on the outskirts has good water.” (Military Notes.) “The river which skirts the town could be utilized as a source for a pure water supply.” (Clark.)
PUERTO PRINCIPE. “A small river runs through the town." (Military Notes.)
The following table shows by provinces the per cent of all dwellings in the districts outside the fourteen cities supplied with water in the manner specified:
A small number of dwellings in rural Cuba are reported to derive water from an aqueduct. The municipal districts containing as many
WATER SUPPLY AND GARBAGE DISPOSAL.
as 100 such dwellings are as follows: In Habana province, Marianao (196), San Antonio de los Baños (369), Batabano (505), Guines (500); in Matanzas province, Jovellanos (108) and Bolondron (188); in Pinar del Rio province, Mariel (192); in Santa Clara, Abreus (139), Rodas (188), and Sagua la Grande outside the urban part (127); in Santiago, El Caney (427) and Baracoa (687).
The general reliance upon water from streams in the two provinces at the ends of Cuba—Pinar del Rio and Santiago—and upon cisterns in the four central provinces is clearly shown in the preceding tables. There seems some reason for doubt whether the line of division between cisterns for rain water (aljibe) and well or spring for ground water (pozo) was clearly understood by the enumerators and those who answered their questions.
DISPOSITION OF GARBAGE. The enumerators were instructed to write in the column for answers to this question “Municipal” (municipal), “Particular” (private), or “Se quema” (by burning), according to the method of disposition used at the dwelling where the question was put. In addition to these three classes it was necessary to introduce a fourth for unspecified or insufficiently specified, but only 2 per cent of the houses fell into this last class. The facts for Cuba as a whole are shown in the following table:
In this respect, as in that of water supply, the main difference is between the city and the country districts. In the following table, therefore, the methods of disposing of garbage in the several cities are given:
Per cent of urban dwellings using specified method of garbage disposal.
From this table it is clear that, taking the dwellings as a whole, in the 14 cities, 7 in every 8 of them had some municipal system of disposing of garbage. The cities of Santa Clara, except Cienfuegos, were apparently least well provided in this respect. In the cities of that province, more commonly than elsewhere in Cuba, garbage was disposed of by burning.
In the following table the same facts are given by provinces for the rural districts of Cuba:
Per cent of rural dwellings using specified method of garbage disposal.
Outside of the 14 cities about 1 dwelling in 7 enjoyed some public means of garbage disposal, and the prevalence of this varies in rough agreement with the density of rural population as given on page 74. The only private means specified is that of burning, and this is increasingly prevalent from west to east. To show this, the provinces have been arranged in the following list in their order from west to east and the per cent of rural dwellings burning their garbage indicated.
The houses having other means of garbage disposal obviously vary in the reverse way; that is, when burning is common, other private means are uncommon, and vice versa.
DISPOSITION OF EXCRETA.
The entries which the enumerators were allowed to make in the column containing the answers to this question were pozo, inodoro, or ninguna (none). In addition to the three thus allowed there will be found in the tables a fourth class of “not specified” to cover cases where the question was not answered. The only recognized methods of disposal, therefore, were pozo and inodoro. As it is difficult to find
any exact English equivalent for these words, they will be retained in the following discussion of the tables.'
The following table shows the frequency of these various modes of disposal:
About half the dwellings in Cuba had no provision of any kind for this purpose. It is said that in rural Spain the inhabitants commonly have no closets or outhouses, but resort to the fields, and the same is apparently true of Cuba. Of the houses having conveniences of this sort nine-tenths (8.9 per cent) reported a pozo and one-tenth an inodoro. In this respect the provinces stand as follows:
Per cent of total dwellings supplied with specified mode of disposal of excreta.
It is clear that outside of Habana City and Matanzas province the inodoro is hardly known. In the following table the facts are given for the thirteen other cities separately reported:
Per cent of urban dwellings using specified method of disposing of excretu.
Note on meaning of pozo and inodoro. The “inodoro" includes every receptacle for excreta in which an effort is made to destroy or decrease the foul odors arising