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the average in the rural districts of the island. The smallest number of persons to a building was found in the cities of Santa Clara province, except Cienfuegos.
Of the 297,905 buildings in Cuba, 262,724, or about seven-eighths (88.2 per cent), were occupied, and 35,181, or one-eighth (11.8 per cent), were unoccupied. The number and ratio of unoccupied buildings to the total was as follows:
The positions of Habana and Pinar del Rio suggest that unoccupied buildings may be more common in the country. The following table gives the number and proportion of unoccupied buildings in the 14 cities separately reported:
To ascertain whether the number of unoccupied buildings was unusually large because of recent disturbances, the figures for Porto Rico may be used for comparison. On that island 11.3 per cent of the buildings were reported as unoccupied. It seems, therefore, that the proportion in Cuba was not exceptional.
Passing to the occupied buildings or dwellings, one may examine the average number of persons to each. In this respect the provinces rank as follows:
In the United States in 1890 there were 5.5 persons to a dwelling. The table does not show that the average dwelling was more crowded in Habana city than in Santa Clara, for in the one case the dwelling may be more roomy. The dwelling is an unsatisfactory unit of measure, just because it can not be defined. Hence thorough and accurate knowledge of local conditions is requisite to interpret such a table as the foregoing. Yet, if the dwellings of Cuba be divided into two classes, city dwellings and country dwellings, some progress may be made. This is done in the following table:
There were rather more persons to a dwelling in the cities of Cuba, but the difference is in no wise what the figures for Habana city in the earlier table would lead one to expect. In many of the other cities of Cuba, therefore, the number of persons to a dwelling must be low. Indeed, when the figures as a whole for the 13 cities outside Habana are compared with the rural districts, it appears that in those cities there were on the average 5.6 persons to a dwelling, or just the same number as in the country. In the following table the figures are given for the urban and rural population of each province:
In the three western provinces there were more persons to a dwelling in the cities, although outside of Habana province the difference was slight; but in the three eastern provinces the position is reversed. It may be inferred that the dwelling in Cuban cities outside Habana is not much more roomy than it is in the rural districts, for space in a city is usually more valuable than in the country, and if the average city dwelling were larger it would probably contain more inhabitants. In this respect there is a marked difference between the Cuban figures and those for the large cities of the United States. The fifty-eight American cities each having over 50,000 inhabitants had 7.3 persons to a dwelling in 1890, and the rest of the country only 5.2. Still only three American cities had more persons to a dwelling than Habana.
Dwellings and families.—By comparing the number of dwellings with the number of families in Table XL, one may ascertain the ratio between the census families and the dwellings. Every dwelling contains at least one family, for, as already explained, one person living alone is for census purposes a family, and an unoccupied place of habitation is not a dwelling. As certain dwellings contain two or more families, the number of census families must exceed the number of dwellings. The figures for Cuba, compared with those for the United States and Porto Rico, are given below:
From these figures it appears that there were more families to 100 dwellings in Cuba than in either Porto Rico or the United States. In the following table the figures are given separately for each province and for the city of Habana:
The families to 100 dwellings in Cuba, outside the city of Habana, were 114, or slightly less than in Porto Rico, but rather more than in the United States. Habana city had more than 2 families to each dwelling, a relation which held in the United States only for New York, Brooklyn, and Fall River among the fifty largest cities of the country.
SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY IN CUBA.
The original source of water supply in Cuba, as elsewhere, is rainfall. This rain may fall on a building and be guided into and stored in a cistern, or may fall on and percolate through the ground either under or upon the surface. Flowing water may be obtained for human use as it comes to the surface either in a natural spring or an artificial well. Or it may be obtained as it flows over the surface either in a natural water course or in an artificial water course or aqueduct. Accordingly the census recognizes four sources of water supply, as follows:
1. Cistern for rain water.
As many homes in Cuban cities take water from street vendors, the answers given to the enumerators at the houses regarding the source from which the vendors obtain it may be open to some slight question, but there seems little reason to deny the substantial correctness of the returns.
· These four sources are drawn upon for a water supply in the following proportions:
Nearly half the dwellings in Cuba got water from cisterns and more than one-fourth from streams, or three-fourths from these two sources. The proportion using each of these four sources in each province is shown in the following table:
Cisterns were used least in the capital, but with that exception were least common in the two provinces at the ends of the island, where one-sixth (Santiago) or one-third (Pinar del Rio) of the houses derived water from this source. The other four provinces fall into two groups, an eastern, Puerto Principe and Santa Clara, in which one-half of the houses used cisterns, and a western, Habana outside the city and Matanzas, in which nearly four-fifths of the houses relied on cisterns. Where cisterns were most used streams were least used for water. In the provinces at the ends of Cuba about three-fifths of the houses relied on streams; in the east central group one-fifth, and in the west central group less than one-tenth. About five-sixths of the houses in Habana city derived water from an aqueduct. In Matanzas and Santiago the proportion was about one-seventh, elsewhere less than one-tenth.
In the following tables the per cent of dwellings using these several sources of water supply is given for each of the fourteen cities separately reported and then for the districts outside those cities by provinces.
The most incomplete returns under this head were from the cities in Habana province. The seven cities which apparently had a municipal water supply stand out sharply in the first column, and in the order of the proportion of houses supplied with water through an aqueduct they rank as follows: Santiago, Habana, Sancti Spiritus, Matanzas, Sagua la Grande, Cienfuegos, and Cardenas.
The following notes regarding the water supply of these cities have been derived from various sources:
Since 1872, Cardenas has had an aqueduct which supplies water from a subterranean river one mile distant from the town, which furnishes an abundant supply at a cost of about $3 gold per month for each faucet. The well water and that from underground cisterns is brackish and not potable, so that, as a rule, the poor purchase water from the street carriers. (Military Notes on Cuba.)
CIENFUEGOS. The commencement of a waterworks system has been made, and the water tower, standing at an elevation of over 100 feet above the harbor level, is one of the striking features of the landscape; but at last accounts the company had not begun to furnish water, and the sole source of supply was from underground cisterns, the owners of which derive a handsome revenue from selling water to their less fortunate neighbors. (Clark.)
The supply of water is absolutely inadequate to the demands of the city. The hotels and a few residences have cement cisterns built in the ground and use rain water; but the chief supply comes from a small stream, the Jicotea River, a small branch of the Cannan. The water is pumped into two aqueducts. The principal one, which is called after the Jicotea River, holds 400,000 liters; a smaller one, the Bouffartique, holds 300,000 liters. Pipes from these two aqueducts run through a few of the streets above ground alongside the curbing. The gates are open only two hours daily. The hospitals use this water after boiling. As a remedy for this condition, I am told there was a project to bring water from a point 20 miles distant from