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about one-eighth (13.2 per cent) were married, but among the colored female breadwinners of that country over one-fourth (27.7 per cent) were married..
Breadwinners classified by race. In the following table the absolute and relative number of persons engaged in gainful occupations is given with distinction of race:
This shows that the proportion of breadwinners was somewhat higher among the colored than among the whites. In the following table the corresponding per cents for the United States (1890) and Porto Rico are introduced:
Per cent of breadwinners.
The difference between the two races appears in all three countries, but in Cuba is greater than in Porto Rico and less than in the United States. To understand these differences better the classification by sex may be added to that by race.
Breadwinners classified by race and sex.—The following table gives the absolute and relative numbers for all Cuba:
The difference between white and colored among males is too small to be weighty or significant. The difference between the two races is
due entirely to the fact that gainful occupations are followed by colored women to about five times the extent that they are by white women. To determine whether this is true also of other countries the percentage figures are given side by side in the following table:
Per cent of breadwinners.
In all three countries the proportion of breadwinners among white males was slightly higher than the proportion among colored males; but in all three this difference is outweighed by the fact that colored women are at work much more generally than white women. The difference between the women of the two races in this regard, however, was far more marked in Cuba than in either Porto Rico or the United States. Cuba had a proportion of males of each race at work much larger than in either other country. The proportion of white women at work was about one-half that in Porto Rico and one-third that in the United States. But the proportion of colored women at work, while below that in the United States, was higher than that in Porto Rico.
Breadwinners classified as native and foreign born.—This distinction is made in the occupation tables only for the whites. The colored foreign born, of whom Table X shows that there are about 30,000 (30,382) in Cuba--mainly Chinese and Africans—must be disregarded. The facts for the whites are given in the following table, by race and sex:
Hardly a moment's reflection is needed to detect the cause of the wide difference indicated in the preceding table between the native and the foreign-born of each sex and to reveal the insignificant character of such a table taken alone. The immigrant whites of both sexes are mainly adults, and the large proportion of workers among them is not because they are of foreign birth but is because they are adult. Hence if there is any real difference between these two classes of whites, to
discover it groups of the same age must be compared. This is done in the following table:
Per cent of breadwinners classified by race, nativity, sex, and age.
This table shows that among females the foreign-born whites uniformly were at work in larger proportions than the native white but in much smaller proportions than the colored. This may be connected with the concentration of the foreign-born of both sexes in the cities and the larger opportunities which cities afford for women to find work. Among males the proportion of foreign-born whites below 35 who were at work is greater than the proportion in either other class, but at later ages the proportion of colored breadwinners was higher, and after 55 the proportion of native whites was also higher. It is noteworthy, too, that the maximum proportion in gainful occupations for each sex was reached later for the colored than for either class of whites.
Breadwinners classified by kind of occupation.—The occupations in which persons are engaged are grouped by the census into five main classes. Arranged in the order of their prevalence, the groups are:
1. Agriculture, fisheries, and mining.
5. Professional service. The first class includes all persons engaged in the so-called extractive industries or those concerned with getting the wealth out of the earth or water, the third class includes those who transform the raw material furnished by the extractive industries into new forms or combinations, the fourth class includes all engaged in giving place or time values to wealth by moving it from a place where it is less needed to a place where it is more needed, or by saving it from a time when it is less needed till a time when it is more needed, while the second and fifth classes include all whose contribution to society is in the form of personal services rather than of goods or of services upon goods. The line of division between these groups or classes is often obscure, and in many individual cases serious difficulties arise regard
ing the best group to which a person or an occupation should be assigned under the imperfect description found on the schedule.
The population of Cuba engaged in gainful occupations was divided as follows among the five groups:
Nearly one-half of all workers were engaged in agriculture and over one-fifth in domestic and personal service. About one in seven was in manufacturing and mechanical industries, and one in eight in trade and transportation. In the following table the per cents for Cuba and the United States are put side by side.
Per cent of breadwinners in each group of occupations.
The main difference in occupations between the two countries is that Cuba is more confined to agriculture and gives less attention to manufacturing and mechanical pursuits than do the United States. The small proportion of the professional class in Cuba is also noteworthy.
Breadwinners by class of occupation and sex.—The sex of the workers has great influence upon the character of the work chosen or assigned. This appears in the following table:
Breadwinners by occupation, group, and sex.
Sex named in gainful occupations in class named.
Agriculture, fisheries, and mining.
OCCUPATIONS AND PERSONS TO A BUILDING.
One-half of the males at work in Cuba were engaged in agriculture, etc., but only one-tenth of the females. In the United States the proportion of males in agriculture was less, but of females was greater. In both countries the females were mainly in the class of domestic and personal service, but in Cuba this class includes about seven-tenths of all women at work, while in the United States it 'includes only a little over four-tenths. In both countries women who go to work at all go into manufacturing and mechanical industries in rather larger proportions than men do.
SANITARY CONDITION OF DWELLINGS AND UNOCCUPIED HOUSES.
In the present census all buildings, whether occupied October 16, 1899, or not, were reported by the enumerators, and the facts regarding the provisions in them for supplying water and for disposing of garbage and excreta were ascertained. Before proceeding to a discussion of these topics a brief analysis of this return of buildings may be made.
The total number of buildings in Cuba, whether occupied or not, was 297,905, or 5.3 persons to a building. The average number of persons to a building, occupied or unoccupied, may be computed from those tables. The provinces range as follows:
In Habana city there was one building of some sort to each 9 persons; elsewhere in Cuba one to each 5. In Porto Rico there were 5.3 persons to a building, or about the same as in Cuba outside Habana. The pre'ceding table suggests that in the cities of Cuba the ratio of buildings to population was probably less than in the rural districts. The facts upon this point are brought out more clearly in the following table:
The average number of persons to a building was much less in all cities together than it is in Habana. Hence the other cities must have had a relatively small number of persons to a building. All 14 cities except Pinar del Rio and Habana had a smaller number of persons to a building than the average for all cities, and 8 of the 14 had as small a number as