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more common among native whites or foreign-born whites? The following table appears to give an answer:
These figures seem to show that marriage was far more common among the foreign-born than among the native. But no such inference is warranted, because the immigrant population of Cuba is composed mainly of adults of marriageable age. Of the native white population over two-fifths (42.1 per cent) were under 15 years of age, while of the foreign-born whites only one twenty-fifth (4 per cent) were in those age periods. When the children of both classes are excluded the figures tell a different story, as follows:
With this correction introduced it appears that the proportion of married in the two classes was almost the same, but with the foreigners slightly larger. As the difference is so slight, it may be affected by the sex composition of the two classes. Hence that further classification is introduced in the table below:
The table seems to show that foreign-born white men were married in slightly greater proportion than native white men, and foreign-born white women in far greater proportion than native white women; but although all persons under 15 have been excluded, yet the adult native whites must have had a far larger proportion than the foreign-born have in the ages 15–25, at which marriage is comparatively infrequent. Hence the question can not be decisively answered until the proportion of married for each age period is ascertained. This is done in the following table, and to economize attention only the per cents are given:
Per cent married of population in sex, class, and age specified.
With this table a final answer is reached to the question under examination. At every age period the native white men were married in greater proportions than the immigrant white men, but the immigrant white women were married in greater proportions than the native white women. This doubtless means that a large proportion of the women who have gone to Cuba from elsewhere have gone with their husbands.
PERSONS LIVING TOGETHER AS HUSBAND AND WIFE BY MUTUAL
On the schedules in the present census there are many cases in which a man and woman of about the same age were reported as occupying the same house but as bearing different names and standing in no admitted relations to each other. In most cases the census family included one or more children bearing the woman's name. All such census families were tabulated as cases of persons cohabiting as husband and wife without formal legal sanction upon the union, and the children were tabulated as technically illegitimate. Any one familiar with Cuban life knows that in certain classes and regions such unions are frequent and often as permanent and secure as good care and nurture for the children as if the law had sanctioned the relation. It was impossible to detect from the schedules every such case, and in some few instances persons may have been assigned to this class by an error, but probably whatever mistakes occurred have usually been of omission. This is the first time that such a return has ever been tabulated, and therefore no comparisons can be made with past Cuban censuses or with censuses of other countries except Porto Rico. The returns for these two countries under this head were as follows:
Living Total popu- together by lation.
In each country about 1 person in 12 was living in such relations, but the proportion was slightly less in Cuba than in Porto Rico. A fairer comparison may be made with the married couples. For every two lawful unions there is one union by mutual consent.
The several provinces of Cuba have the following proportions of persons living together by mutual consent:
Reference to a preceding table shows that the provinces arranged as above in the order of increasing proportion of persons living together agree closely with the provinces arranged in the order of decreasing proportion of married (p. 119). The two are brought together in the following table:
In Santiago there were three times as many of these unions as in the adjoining province of Puerto Principe, but as an offset there were in Santiago less than two-thirds as many married persons as in the neighboring province.
The figures for the 14 cities separately reported are as follows: