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time; I mean within a very few generations. That this is the effect of a difference of climate and aliment, is easy to conccive: and, in length of time, the influcnce of thcf. iwo causes must render such animals excmpt from, or susceptible of certain affections and distempers. Their temperament must gradually alter; the formation, which partly depends on the aliment, and partly on the quality of the juices, must also undergo a change in the succcfsion of a few generations. This change in the first generation is almost in perceptible, as the two animals, the male and female, which we {uppose to be the progenitors of the species, had obtained their full shape and conftitution before they were brought from their native country: and that however a new climate and food may change their temperament, they cannot act on the folid and organical parts, so as to alter their shape ; eipecially if they had attained their full growth : consequently, in the first generation, there will be no ditadvantay cous change; nodegeneracy in the first production of the animals; the impresion of the model will be exact. At the infant of their birth, there will be no radical defect; but the

ani. mal, during its weak and tender state, will feel the influences of the climate. They will make other cifferent impreffions, on him, than they did on his full-grown fire and dam. Those of the aliment will be much greater, and act on the organical parts during their growth, so as to vitiate a little the original form, and produce germs of imperfections, which will very sensibly appear in a second generation, when the parent, besides its own defects, I incan those it derives from its growth, has also the defects of the second generation, which will be then more strongly marked: and at the third generation, the defects of the second and third stock, caused by the influence of the climate and aliment, being again combined with those of the present influence in the growth, will become so palpable, as to obliterate the marks of the original stock; fo that these animals of foreign extraction will have nothing foreign in them, but be exacily similar to the natives. Spanish or Barb-Horses, whose biced are thus managed in France, very often at the fecond, and always at the third, become so entirely French horses, that, infcad of preserving the breed, there is a necerity of crofing and renewing it at every generation, by importing Barb and Spanish hories for the use of native mares. And it is very remarkable, that this manner of renewing the breed, which is only in part, or as it were by halves, has a much better cffct than if the renovation was total. A horse and mare of Spain will not, in France, produce such fine horses as a Spanish stallion with a mare of the country. This, however, will be easily comprehended, if we consider, that when a stallion and mare of different countries are put together, the defects of both are compensated. Every climate, by its own infuences, and those of the food, impares a certain conformation, which is faulty through some excess or defe&t. But in a hot climate there will be an excess of fire, in a cold climate there will be a defect, and vice versa. So that, by joining animals of these opposite climates, the excess of the one supplies the defects of the other. And as that reaches nearest to perfection in nature, which has the fewett faults, and the most perfect forms being only such as have the fewest deformities, the produce of two animals, whose defects are exactly balanced, will be the most perfet production of that kind. And this equality is the most accurately adjusted, the more distant the countries are, or rather the more opposite the climates natural to the two animals are ta each other. The compound result is the more perfect, as the excelles or defects of the stallion's constitution are more opposite to the excesses and defeets of the mare.”

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horses

These observations of our author fuficiently shew, that the long pedigrees of horses, displayed with so much oftentation, prove the very reverse of what they are intended to prove; for it is evident, that the farther any horfe is removed from the first production between a foreign stallion and a native mare, so much greater its defects will be; and consequently, a horse will be better in proportion to the shortness of his pedigree. A great variety of other remarks, equally useful and entertaining, are interspersed in the natural history of the horse, and which are therefore recommended to the perufal of every lover of that generous animal.

In the natural history of the Afs, M. de Buffon has discussed one of the most curious questions in natural history, namely, the degeneration of animals. He asks, whether the horse and the ass are originated from the fame stock, or whether they are not and have not ever been different animals ? This curious question he has answered, by considering nature in a new point of view. He very justly observes, that those animals which produce together individuals capable of producing others, are of the same species, while those that produce together only such individuals as are defective and barren, are of different species. And as the mule, produced between the horse and the ass, is not capable of propagation, these two animals are of different species.

In the natural history of the Ox, M. de Buffon has advanced a philosophical 'hypothesis, which seems to deserve attention, as it tends to elucidate the course of nature with regard to the food of different animals; and as the thought is new, we shall infert it for the satisfaction of the reader.

« The surface of the earth,” says this ingenious naturalist, « decked in its verdure, is the inexhaustible and common fource from whence man and beaft derive their subfiit:nce : whatever lives in nature, lives on, what vegetates; and vegetables, in their turn, live on whatever has lived and

vegetated. It is imposible to live without destroying ; and indeed it is only by the destruction of beings that animals can subsist themselves, and propagate their species. God, in creating the first individual of each species of animal and vegetable, has not only given a form to the dust of the earth, but has rendered it living and animated, by inclosing in each individual

a greater or leiler quantity of active principles, of organical moleculæ, living, indiftru&ible, and common to all organised beings. These moleculæ pass from body to body, and equally contribute to present life, and the continuation of life, to the nutrition and growth of each individual; and after the diffolution of the body, after it is reduced to ashes, these organical moleculæ, on which death has no power, survive, circulate in the universe, and pass into other beings, bringing with them nourishment and life. Thus every produciion, every renovation, every increment by generation, by nutrition, by development, fuppo'es a preceding destruction, a converfion of fubitance, an accefiion of those organical moleculæ, which do not multiply, but ever subfisting in an equal number, render nature always equally full of life, the earth equally peopled, and equally shining in the original glory conferred on it by its Creator.

“ Considering therefore beings in general, the total of the quantity of life is perpetually the same; and however death may appear to dettroy every thing, it deftroys no part of that primitive life which is common to all organized beings : death, like all other subordinare and subaltern powers, attacks only individuals, strikes only the surface, destroys only the form ; he makes no impreslión on the subítance, and, instead of injuring nature, caules it to thine with greater lustre by his dcpredations. If nature permits dcach to cut down indivisuals, and, in process of time, to destroy thein, in order to fhew her 'uperiority to death and time, to exercise her everactive pawer, manített hir fulness by her fecundity, and to

make

make of the universe, by the reproduction and renewal o beings, a theatre ever crowded, a spectacle ever new : yet the never permits death to annihilate the species.

“ That beings may succeed each other, it is necessary that there be a destruction among them; in order to the nourishment and subsistence of animals, they destroy vegetables or other animals, and the quantity of life continuing ever the same, after as well as before the destruction, it seems to be indifferent to nature, how much such or such a species is destroyed; yet, like a provident mother, in the midst of her inexhaustible abundance, she has limited the expence, and prevented any waste, by implanting the carnivorous instinct in very few animals; and even these voracious species she has reduced to a small number of individuals, multiplying, at the same time, both the fpecies and individuals of those which feed on herbage ; and, in vegetables, fhe seems to have been profuse, both with regard to the number and fertility of the species. Perhaps man has not a little contributed to second her views, with regard to maintaining, and even establishing, this order upon earth; for in the sea that indifference, we supposed above, is conspicuous; al} species there being more or less voracious, living on themfelves or others. They are perpetually preying on, without ever destroying, each other; because the fecundity is equal to the depredation, and the whole consumption increases the reproduction.

" Man is known to exercise his power over the creatures in a lord-like manner; those, whole Aesh pleases his taste, he bas selected, made them domestic Naves, multiplied them beyond what nature would herself have done, formed of them numerous herds and flocks, and, by his care to bring them into being, he seems to be entitled to the power of slaying them for his use; but this power, this right, he extends far beyond his wants : for, exclusive of those species which he has tamed, and disposis of at pleasure, he also makes war on the wild creatures, birds, and fishes. Instead of confining hiarell to those of the climate in which he lives, he travels far from home, he even visits the feas for new dainties, and all nature seems hardly fufficient to satisfy his intemperance, and the inconstant variety of his appetites. Man consumes, he alone swallows, more flesh than all the beasts together deyour; thus is he the greatest destroyer, and even more from wantonness than necessity. Instead of enjoying, with moderation, the good things within his power; instead of liberally diftributing them, inftead of repairing when he destroys,

and

and renewing when he annihilates, the man of substance places his whole glory in consuming; he prides himself in destroying more in one day, at his table, than would afford a comfortable substance to leveral families. Thus he exercises his tyrannical power equally over animals and men; others pining with hunger and toil, only to satisfy the immoderate appetite, and the ftill more infatiable vanity of this man ; who, while he is deltroying others by want, is destroying himfelf by his excefics.

“ Yet man, like the beasts, might live on vegetables ; for Aesh, however an.lagous it may be to Aesh, does not afford better nourishment than grain, pulse, or bread. True nourifament, that which contributes to the nutrition, the growth, and the subsistance, is not that inanimate matter which feems to constitute the texture of the fleíh or the herb, but the organical moleculæ contained in the one or the other; as the ox, which fecds on grass, acquires as much Acsh as man, or any other carnivorous animal. The only real difference between aliments is this, that an equal quantity of flesh, corn, and grain, contains many more organical molecule than grafs, the leaves, roots, and other parts of vegetables, as we have ascertained from infusions made with these different substances : so that man, and those beasts whose ftomachs and intestines are not of a capacity to receive a very large quantity of aliments, could not hold a fufficiency of grais to furnish the quantity of organical moleculæ neceilary to their nutrition. And it is on this account, that man and the oiher animals, which have but one ftomach, can only fubsist on Acih or corn, which contain, in a small volume, a very large quantity of the nutritious organical moleculæ ; but the ox, and other ruminating animals, which have feveral stomachs, particularly one very large, and which will consequently contain a large volume of grass, find it sufficient to furnish the neccitary quantity of organical moleculæ for their nourishment, growth, and multiplication. Here the quantity compensates for the quality of the nourishment, wh in effect, is the fame; it is the same substance, the fame organical moleculæ, by which the ox, man, and all animals are nourished.”

It would extend this article far beyond the bounds allotted it, to enumerate the many curious remarks contained in this treatise; we are therefore persuaded that the rcader, if he has any taste for natural history, or any regard for, or interest in, the animals described in this work, will thank us for recommending it to his perufal.

Conclusion

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