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gave wine

of a pally, and a catalepfis ; and if he ever directed a vomit, it was after supper. He bled in a pleurisy, only in consequence of the pain; but omitted it in a peripneumony, or, inflammation of the lungs, as seldom attended with any. He never bled in a fever, nor even in a phrenzy. He in the former, after the fever was a little abated; and ordered it in phrenfies, even to inebriation, to set the patients asleep. Nevertheless, he gave it' in lethargies to keep them awake, and rouse their senses. His practice might possibly have been the source of a sort of medical proverb about feeding a cold, since in that case he ordered his patients to drink twice or thrice as much as they ordinarily did ; and to add, at least, an equal quantity of wine to their water, which was a much greater proportion than the antients commonly used. With many other such particularities and contradictions, it has been allowed that he had confiderable talents; and Dr. Le Clerc judiciously observes, that if his writings had been preserved, tho’he would scarcely have been considered as a good model for practice, yet his works might be pleasing to read, as they must have been agreeably written ; and tho’little useful to Physicians, they might prove so to Philosophers, by reflecting fome light on the remains of Epicurus and Democritus, whole principles he espoused, but with some variation, about the nature of the atoms, which he supposed fragili, and not indivisible, as their name imports ; naming them rather ogxoi, i. e. little lumps or maffes.

The most advantageous point of view in which the prac. tice of Asclepiades appears to us, is his attention to the lidicina dietetica, and sparing his patients the load and nauseousness of much phyfic. This might have been candidly attributed to his vigilant observance of the conduct of Nature in the process and cure of diseases, if he had not professed a total contempt of her oeconomy, as a chimera; and invested the Physician folcly with the power of curing, by the controul and regulation of the corporeal motions : a tenet that might calily difpofe him so much to frictions, unguents, sweats, swinging beds, and even pensile baths for the lick.

It is confcfied that Le Clerc and others, from whom thefe testimonies concerning Asclepiades are chiefly taken, are cen fured by Sig. Cocchi, as prejudiced, in afcribing sentiments to him which he never entertained. But as Le Clerc, Boerhaave, Haller, and others, who have mentioned him, had


the same medical * Authorities relating to him with our Author, we think it is not the least detraction from his abilities to suppose that such Writers might, from the same materials, be equally capable with himself, of making a right estimation of Aiclepiades. Le Clerc particularly treats him with great ingenuouineis, in endeavouring to aflign a better motive for his behaviour, in the case of a phrenetic patient, to whom another Physician had previously been called, than that motive which Celius Aurelianus plainly insinuates. Indeed, it seems clear to us, that every intelligent medical Reader will collect from Le Clerc's seventeen pages (wherein he has presented the entire portrait of Asclepiades) a more natural and probable resemblance of his character, than from Sig. Cocchi's seventy-seven pages, which, however learned, are verbose and declamatory, and do not contain an equal quantity of clear, solid, and pertinent disquisition; but a great number of this Bithynian's topos or vuides (vacuums] as Le Clerc translates them.

As we have not seen the Italian original, of which this is a professed translation, we are of course to suppose, that nothing has been interpolated by the Translator, which is not warranted by the text.

Our ítrictures on it can only rega d what has appeared to us. We recollect with pleafuic, that the publication of the ancient Greek Surgeons, by + Signor Cocchi, in 1754, from the collection of Nicetas in the Imperial Library at Florence, was introduced with a proper and elegant Latin preface, god that the work was written in a spirit and manner wholly different from those of the prese it work. This circumstance suggested to us the possibility of this performance having been translated with fome latitude; especially when we observed a strong resemblance of style between it and the I Inftitutis of Health; of which it were eafy to give fome disagreeable specimens. ' Ano:her motive which suggested this to us, was our recollecting, that this fame Asclepiades, who rarely prohibited the use of wine, was also in the highest repute with that anonymous Inftitutor of Health; a circumstance which probably induced

Except Sig. Cocchi has met with some ancient MS. relating to Acclepiades, in the Laurentian Library at Florence; but he does not mention.

+ Review, vol. XVI. page 259, seq. | Ibid. vol. XXIV. p. 193, feq.

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him to give the Vintners pretty good quarter, after his dreadful mallacre of the Grocers, the Confectioners, and Oilmen.-- In the Review referred to, for a former article from Signior Cocchi, our Readers will find a short, but entire, fragment from this Asclepiades, who made much noise in his profession, as Innovators and Wranglers generally do: in the translation of which Fragment, page 264, we should have wrote tragic Poet (7px7wdon O1W) rather than Tragedian, which our language seems to restrain to an Actor in tragedy.

Emilius and Sophia: Or, a new System of Education. By

Mr. Rousseau. Translated for Becket, &c. Continued from Page 269.

N his second book, our ingenious Author proceeds to give

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dopting the common methods of Education, and neglecting those which are pointed out by Nature. . Mothers, he observes, are, in general, absurdly solicitous to prevent their children from hurting themselves, by those various accidents to which they are constantly liable; it being at this early age that we acquire our first principles of courage; and, by being inured to Night inconveniences, learn by degrees to support greater.

The first thing we ought to learn, and that which is of the greatest consequence for us to know, he remarks, is to fuffer; children being formed little and feeble, apparently for no other reason than to learn this important leffon, without danger. I never knew an instance, says Mr. Rousseau, of a child's having killed, maimed, or done itself any considerable mischief, when left alone, and at liberty, except in cases where it has been imprudently expofed to tumble from some high place, fall into the fire, or left within the reach of some dangerous weapon. How useless and pernicious, therefore, says he, is that magazine of implements from which a child is armed at all points against pain; and is by fuch means exposed to it when he grows up, without experience, and without courage!

This remark is well worth the confideration of such fond parents as are fo extremely tender of their children; and is very agreeably illustrated by the examples cited by our Author, At the same time, however, it is to be observed, that Mr. Roullcau is, by no means, an advocate for subjecting the



harmless innocents to the evils of wilful neglect, and much less to the cruel bondage of unnecessary restraint. He would have them indulged in the full enjoyment of all the happiness of which they are susceptible; and this especialiy froin the consideration of the precarious duration of their lives. What can we think, says he, of that barbarous method of Education, by which the present is facrificed to an uncertain future ; by which a child is laid under every kind of restraint, and is made miserable, by way of preparing him for, we know not what, pretended happiness, which there is reason to believe he will never live to enjoy? But fuppofing it not unreasonable in its design, how can we fee, without indignation, the unhappy little creatures subjected to a yoke of insupportable rigour, and condemned, like galley-Naves, to continual labour, without our being assured that their mortification and restrictions will ever be of service to them!

Hence the age of chearfulness and gaiety is spent in the midst of tears, punishment, rebuke, and savery. We torment the poor innocents for their future good; and perceive not that death is at hand, and ready to seize them amidst all this forrowful preparation for life! Who can tell how many children have thus fallen victims to the extravagant fagacity of their Parents and Guardians ?

As to the happiness of which children, as well as grown persons, may be capable, our Author throws out some observaticns, no leis remarkable for their novelty than ingenuity. They are not, however, altogether fo precise and satisfactory as we could wish. He oblerves, that our misery consists in the disproportion, between our desires and our abilities; and maintains, that a fenfible Being, whole abilities frould be equal to its defires, would be positively happy. In what then, he asks, consists human wisdom, or the means of acquiring happiness? To diminish our desires is certainly not the method; for if these were less than our abilities, part of our faculties would remain useless and inactive. Nor is it, on the other hand, to extend our natural capacity for enjoyment: for, if our desires should, at the same time, be extended in a greater proportion, we should only become the more miferable. He concludes, therefore, it must confist in lesiening the disproportion between our abilities and our desires, and in reducing our inclinations and faculties to an eqailibrium : as it is in such a situation, and in such only, that the whole man is employed. It is thus, we are told, that Nature, which formed every thing in the best manner, originally constituted us; man, in his infancy, being poflessed only of fuch defires as tend to his preservation, and the faculties necessary to their gratification; so that it is in this primitive state only, that our defires and faculties are counterpoised by each other, and that man is not unhappy.

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Supposing this to be a true state of the case, and that our Author is not mistaken in his philosophy, it is certainly with as much justice as humanity that he advises parents to indulge children in those harmless pleasures which their nature prompts them to pursue. Who is there, says he among us, that has not, at times, looked back with regret on that period of our lives, when it was natural for the countenance to be always smiling, and the heart to be as constantly at eafe? Why then will you deprive your children of the enjoyment of a season so thort and transient of time so precious which they cannot abuse? Why will you clog, with bitterness and forrow, those rapid moments which will no more return? Do you know, ye fathers ! when the stroke of death shall fall on your offspring? Lay not up in store then for your own forrow, by depriving them of the enjoyment of the few moments Nature hath allotted them. As soon as they become sensible of the pleasures of existence, let them enjoy it, so that whenever it may plcafe God to take them hence, they may not die without having tafted of life.

Our humane and distinguishing Author goes on to expatiate pretty largely on this head ; taking great pains to ettablish a due medium between the two extremes of indulgence and severity ; and to thew the diffi rence between a child that is spoiled by an ill-judged licentiousness, and one that is made happy in the reasonable enjoyment of its liberty.

Mr. Roufleau proceeds next to confider the influence of moral precepts and maxims on the minds of children ; advising them to be utterly rejected in the carlier part of Education. Mr. Locke's method, layshe, “ was to educate children by rcafoning witn them; and it is that which is now most in voguc. The success of it, however, doth not appear to recommend it; for my own part; I meet with no children fo filly and ridiculous as those with whom so much argument hath been held. Of all the faculties of man, that of reason, which is in fact only a compound of all the rest, unfolds itself the • latest, and with the greatest difficulty: and yet this is what we would make use of to develope the first and easiest of them. The great end of a good Education is, to form a reasonable


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