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" Now the last line, pronounced in that manner, calling the sea, the green one, Mr. Sheridan says, makes flat nonsense of it. But if we read it with proper Emphasis and stop, and say, making the green-one red, here is a moft fablime idea conveyed." Poor Shakespear! how has it been thy fate to have thy immortal labours mangled and misrepresented by ignorant Players and bungling Commentators!' Thofe very absurdities which either thou didft not commit, or wast certainly alhained of, are rendered ten times more abfurd, and admired for their fublimity. For our own parts, we must confess, that we have always looked upon this paffage to be fo hyperbolical, as to border a little upon the bombait: buty supposing, Mr. Sheridan to have cleared it from the charge of exceflive hyperbole, the impropriety of calling the sea a green one, or even the earth a round one, is not so great as to talk of turning green, in the abftract, into red. It is poffible to change the colour of an object, by taking away its present hue, and giving it another ; but to talk of changing one colour into another, is the height of absurdity, and is an instance rather of the profound than sublime.
Our Author's next pretended correction, of an improper manner of repeating that famous line of Othello,
Put out the light, and then, put out the light ; is extremely puerile, and had come with greater propriety from an illiterate member of the spouting club, than from a celebrated Profeflor of Eločution. To the best of our remembrance, we have heard Mr. Quin do justice to Shakespear in that passage, by reciting it thus ;.
Put out the light, and then-Put out the light! To suppofe, with Mr. Sheridan, that the allusion between the light of the candle and that of life, presented itself to the mind of Othello before he began the line, is to suppose his mind fufficiently calm and unembarrassed, to talk in metaphor and conceit; whereas it is not so unnatural for that allufion to strike him after he had mentioned putting out the candle; in which case nothing can be more natural than for him to pause, and, repeating his words by way of recollecting what he had said, to address the taper in the moralizing strain that follows..
If I quench thee, thou flaming minifter, &c. Again, in the following line Mr. Sheridan shews himself
to be but a very imperfe&t corrector of erroncous declamation.
Perdition catch my soul but I do love thee. · This, fays our Lecturer, is the usual way of pronouncing that line ; by which its peculiar beauty and force is loft, But when it is repeated thus,
Perdition catch my soul but I dò love cheethe Emphasis on dò, marks the vehemence of his affection much better than any Emphafis on the verb love could. Fot when the Emphasis is laid on the verb lour, do becomes a mere expletive, being an unneceffary fign of the present tense. But when an Emphasis is placed on do, it becomes an auxiliary verb, fignifying an act of the strongest affirmation.”
We agree with Mr. Sheridan, that an Emphasis should be Yaid on do; but not that it should therefore be quite taken away from love: the auxiliary verb has no meaning without the principal, unless the principal had been before mentioned, and were here only understood; which is not the case. Mr. Sheridan, as well as many other theatrical Declaimers, feems to be not sufficiently aware that the Einphasis is frequently required to be continued, with a little variation, on two, and sometimes three words together. We are, indecd, constantly offended, at our theatres, by the immoderate Em. phasis laid on epithets, to the prejudice of their succeeding substantives, on which their meaning in the sentence entirely depends.
Our Lecturer's want of judgment in this particular, appears farther in his throwing away his remarks on the manner of reading some passages which were never so written as to be Fend with propriety or grace. Nothing can be well read that is not well written ; and this consideration may serve to shew the necessity of studying Elocution, tho' with no other view than to be able to write what may be gracefully and emphatically read. No Writer, who was able to read, would have given Mr. Sheridan the trouble to stand up for the propriety of laying an Emphasis upon the particle and.
After all, we must own the force of Emphasis fo great, and the meaning of written language fo equivocal, that it is no wonder persons, who do not pronounce their own sentiments, fhould differ in their manner of repeating after other people. Our Lecturer, indeed, appears very sensible of the neceflity of making the sentiment and language our own, in order to
read or repeat properly. His farther remarks on the simple and complex Emphasis are, therefore, very pertinent. He has this defect, however, in common with most didactic Writers, that after having fet forth in general terms the utility of his art, his Pupils are left to themselves, to proceed secundum
In the fifth Lecture, Mr. Sheridan treats of Pauses or Stops ; and gives fome directions for the proper management of the voice: in the two remaining Lectures he attempts to lay open the principles that may serve as guides to the public Speaker, in regard to Tones and Gesture; upon which, he foys, all that is pleasurable or affecting in Elocution, chiefly de end. What he advances upon these subjects is ingenious, and deserves the attentive perusal of every one who either is, or intends to be, a public Speaker.
The sixth Lecture treats of Tones, and the seventh of Gesture.
The Lectures are followed by two Dissertations ; in the first of which Mr. Sheridan traces the rise and progress of Elocution, in the country
* where it first had its birth, and arrived at its maturity; that we may be enabled to judge whether, if we apply to the same methods used there, we may not . hope to attain cqua perfection.
The second Differtation, which treats of the State of Language in other countries, but more particularly our own, is intended as an Introduction to a course of Lectures on the English language, not yet delivered.--In both thefe Differtations the ingenious Reader, tho' he will probably differ from Mr. Sheridan on several points, will yet find much entertainment, and many uncommon obfervations, which shew that the Author has thought much upon his subject, and is, in many refpeéts, well qualified for the task he has undertaken.
The Reader is likewise presented with the heads of a Plan for the Improvement of Elocution; and for promoting the Study of the English Language; in order to the refining, ascertaining, and reducing it to a Standard; together with fomo arguments to enforce the necessity of carrying such a plan into exccution.
We shall conclude this article with our sincere wishes that Mr. Sherid ın may mect with all due encouragement in the prosecution of the useful design in which he is engaged. * Greece.
An Esay on the Causes and Cure of the usual Diseases in Voyages,
to the IVest-Indies, together with the Preservatives against them. In Answer to the questions proposed by the Society of Sciences in Holland-IV hat are the Caules of the usual Diseases among, Seamen in Voyages to the Wes-Indies? and What are the Means of preventing, and of curing them. By Solomon de Monéhy, City Physician at Rotterdam. Translated from the Dutch Philosophical Transactions. 8vo. 35. fewed. Becket and De Hondt.
HIS sensible and ingenuous Physician informs us, in
his preface, that he was induced to hazard his sentiments on these interesting Queries, from the confideration, “ that very few of his medical brethren in Holland, were qualified for it, from their not being acquainted with the changes and effects which living at sea, and failing into different climates, produce in the human constitution: and from his farther reflecting, that very few of the Dutch Sea-Surgeons have applied themselves to acquire any fundamental and lolid knowlege of medicine." These same confiderations also occafioned his own delaying to answer these questions the first year, for want of experiments of his own making on the subject; and he acknowleges he was determined to hazard it at last, from his supposing, there was a considerable resemblance between the distempers of the Torrid Zone and the autumnal diseases in Holland; as well as from his perusing the writings of such English Physicians and Surgeons as have made the lea distempers a coníiderable object of their study, and have written on them from their own experience. These, he informs us, were chiefly Mead, Pringle, Huxham, Lind, Watson, Billet, and Hillary. Besides which, he fays, a Lord of the English Admiralty had condescendingly procured him, from the Sick and Wounded Office here, an answer to some questions he had been encouraged to lay before him. These certainly being the best substitutes to his personal inexperience of the Torrid Zone, Dr. Monchy, who had been Physician to the Dutch forces in Germany during four years, when Dr. Pringle was Physician to the British forces in the Confederate army, has, from such resources, produced this useful and well-digested treatise.
We judge it wholly needless to give any citation from his first and second chapters, Of the Situation of the West-Indies, and of the Temperature of the Torrid Zone. From
the third, Of the Diet of Seamen, we shall only observe that instead of Irish beef (which the Dutch Admiralty have rejected as hard, dry, and falt) Bacon is served in a smaller quantity, and that they use hogs-lard, two days in the week, to their dinners of peas and bacon.
In his fourth chapter, entitled, Definitions of the usual Diseases, alluding
to the term in the Society's first question, he restricts them to the putrid fever, the malignant fever, and the scurvy,
In his fifth chapter--Of the proximate Cause-- he fupposes these distempers to have one common cause, Putrefaction ; his brief definition of which is as follows.
" I shall content myself to say, in general, that by putrefaction, with regard to the human body, I understand a certain degeneracy or corruption of our juices, whence they contract a peculiar acridity or Sharpness, more or less injurious to the solids; and thus impeding their functions, and al. tering their natural tone and qualities, they produce fymptoms more or lefs violent and malignant, and occasion a great relaxation both of the consistence of the Auids, and the vibration of the folids. The first perceiveable alterations which putrefaction causes in our habit, are a colliquation or attenuation of the juices; and, in the folids, such a diffolution of their firninets and connection, as correspond with our notion of atony, or relaxation.'
In bis sixth chapter-Of the preceding or remote Causes he supposes a hot, moist, and light air, the fetid vapours which the great heat exhales from that confined in the hold, and from the marshy coasts of the Welt-Indies, to be some of the preceding causes, The verminous and putrescent state of the Jailor's food, and a natural propensity toch diseases as refult from a soft, lax fibre, and a weak incompact blood, are also conhdered as predisposing causes.
In his feventh chapter-Of the Cure, having proposed the following indications to be strictly observed by the surgeon
1. That the peccant acrimony and putrid substances, are to be feparated and discharged. 2. Or else that they be corrected, or mitigated and 3.' That the vital powers be corroborated or restored.” And having 'mentioned all the evaçuations supposed to anfwer the firft indication, he obferves, as to bleeding particularly,